Related provisions for BIPRU 7.9.50

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BIPRU 7.10.63RRP
A firm'sgoverning body and senior management must be actively involved in the risk control process, and the daily reports produced by the risk control unit must be reviewed by a level of management with sufficient authority to enforce both reductions of positions taken by individual traders as well as in the firm's overall risk exposure.
BIPRU 7.10.72RRP
(1) A firm must frequently conduct a rigorous programme of stress testing. The results of these tests must be reviewed by senior management and reflected in the policies and limits the firm sets.(2) The programme must particularly address:(a) concentration risk;(b) illiquidity of markets in stressed market conditions;(c) one way markets;(d) event and jump to default risks;(e) non linearity of products;(f) deep out of the money positions;(g) positions subject to the gapping of
BIPRU 7.10.75RRP
At least once a year, a firm must conduct, as part of its regular internal audit process, a review of its risk management process. This review must include both the activities of the business trading units and of the independent risk control unit, and must be undertaken by suitably qualified staff independent of the areas being reviewed. This review must consider, at a minimum:(1) the adequacy of the documentation of the risk management system and process;(2) the organisation
BIPRU 7.2.43RRP
(1) A firm must calculate the specific risk portion of the interest rate PRR for each debt security by multiplying the market value of the individual net position (ignoring the sign) by the appropriate position risk adjustment from the table in BIPRU 7.2.44R or as specified by BIPRU 7.2.45R - BIPRU 7.2.48L R or by BIPRU 7.11.13 R - BIPRU 7.11.17 R.33(2) Notional positions in zero-specific-risk securities do not attract specific risk.(3) For the purpose of (1), a firm may cap the
BIPRU 7.2.46AGRP
3BIPRU 7.2.43 R includes both actual and notional positions. However, notional positions in a zero-specific-risk security do not attract specific risk. For example:(1) interest-rate swaps, foreign-currency swaps, FRAs, interest-rate futures, foreign-currencyforwards, foreign-currencyfutures, and the cash leg of repurchase agreements and reverse repurchase agreements create notional positions which will not attract specific risk; while(2) futures, forwards and swaps which are based
BIPRU 7.2.48ARRP
(1) 3Subject to (3), a firm must calculate the specific risk portion of the interest rate PRR for each securitisation and resecuritisationposition by multiplying the market value of the individual net position (ignoring the sign) by the appropriate position risk adjustment from the table in BIPRU 7.2.48D R or BIPRU 7.2.48E R, or in accordance with BIPRU 7.2.48F R, as applicable.(2) In calculating the specific risk capital charge of an individual net securitisation or resecuritisation
BIPRU 7.2.48GRRP
3Where a securitisation position in the trading book is subject to an increased risk weight in accordance with BIPRU 9.15, the appropriate position risk adjustment must be calculated as 8% of the risk weight that would apply to the position in accordance with BIPRU 9.15.
BIPRU 7.2.48LRRP
(1) 3Where a firm holds a position in the correlation trading portfolio, it must calculate:(a) The total specific risk capital charges that would apply just to the net long positions of the correlation trading portfolio; and(b) The total specific risk capital charges that would apply just to the net short positions of the correlation trading portfolio.(2) The higher of (1)(a) and (1)(b) will be the specific risk capital charge for the correlation trading portfolio.(3) In calculating
BIPRU 7.3.11GRP
(1) An example of BIPRU 7.3.10R is as follows. The current market value of a particular equity is £2.50. If a firm contracts to sell this equity in five year's time for £3 it would treat the notional short equityposition as having a value of £2.50 when calculating the equity PRR.(2) In effect, the forward position has been treated as being equivalent to a spot position for the purposes of calculating equity PRR. To capture the risk that the forward price changes relative to the
BIPRU 7.3.29RRP
Under the simplified equity method, the PRR for each equity, equity index, or equity basket equals the market value of the net position (ignoring the sign) multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment from the table in BIPRU 7.3.30R. The result must be converted into the firm'sbase currency at current spot foreign currency rates.
BIPRU 7.3.30RRP

Table: simplified equity method position risk adjustments

This table belongs to BIPRU 7.3.29R

Instrument

Position risk adjustment

Single equities

16%2

2

Qualifying equity indices2 (see BIPRU 7.3.38R)

2

8%

All other equity indices or baskets

16%2

2

If it is necessary to distinguish between the specific risk position risk adjustment and the general market risk position risk adjustment, the specific risk position risk adjustment for the first and third rows is 8%2 and that for the second row is 0%. The rest of the position risk adjustment in the second column is the general market risk position risk adjustment

2
BIPRU 7.3.32RRP
Under the standard equity method, a firm must:(1) group equitypositions into country portfolios as follows:(a) a position in an individual equity belongs to:(i) the country it is listed in;(ii) any of the countries it is listed in, if more than one; or(iii) the country it was issued from, if unlisted;(b) a position in an equity basket or index that is treated under BIPRU 7.3.15R(2), is allocated to one or more country portfolios based on the countries to which the underlying equities
BIPRU 7.3.33RRP
Under the standard equity method, a firm must calculate a PRR for specific risk based on the net position in each equity, equity index or equity basket by multiplying its market value (ignoring the sign) by the appropriate position risk adjustment from the table in BIPRU 7.3.34R.
BIPRU 7.3.34RRP

Table: position risk adjustment for specific risk under the standard equity method

This table belongs to BIPRU 7.3.33R1

Instrument

Position risk adjustment

Qualifying equity indices2 (see BIPRU 7.3.38R)

2

0%

All equities, and other2equity indices or equity2 baskets

22

8%2

2
BIPRU 7.3.48RRP
If a firm nets off positions in one or more of the equities constituting an equity index future, forward or CFD against one or more positions in the equity index future, forward or CFD itself, the firm must apply an additional equity PRR to the netted position to cover the risk of loss caused by the value of the future, forward or CFD not moving fully in line with that of its constituent equities. The same applies if a firm holds opposite positions in a future, forward or CFD
BIPRU 7.11.5RRP
A credit default swap does not create a position for general market risk. For the purposes of specific risk, a firm must record a synthetic long position in an obligation of the reference entity, unless the derivative is rated externally and meets the conditions for a qualifying debt security, in which case a long position in the derivative is recorded. If premium or interest payments are due under the product, these cash flows must be represented as notional positions in zero-specific-risk
BIPRU 7.11.6RRP
A single name credit linked note creates a long position in the general market risk of the note itself, as an interest rate product. For the purpose of specific risk, a synthetic long position is created in an obligation of the reference entity. An additional long position is created in the issuer of the note. Where the credit linked note has an external rating and meets the conditions for a qualifying debt security, a single long position with the specific risk of the note need
BIPRU 7.11.7RRP
In addition to a long position in the specific risk of the issuer of the note, a multiple name credit linked note providing proportional protection creates a position in each reference entity, with the total notional amount of the contract assigned across the positions according to the proportion of the total notional amount that each exposure to a reference entity represents. Where more than one obligation of a reference entity can be selected, the obligation with the highest
BIPRU 7.11.8RRP
Where a multiple name credit linked note has an external rating and meets the conditions for a qualifying debt security, a single long position with the specific risk of the note need only be recorded.
BIPRU 7.11.9RRP
A first-asset-to-default credit derivative creates a position for the notional amount in an obligation of each reference entity. If the size of the maximum credit event payment is lower than the PRR requirement under the method in the first sentence of this rule, the maximum payment amount may be taken as the PRR requirement for specific risk.
BIPRU 7.11.10RRP
A second-asset-to-default credit derivative creates a position for the notional amount in an obligation of each reference entity less one (that with the lowest specific riskPRR requirement). If the size of the maximum credit event payment is lower than the PRR requirement under the method in the first sentence of this rule, this amount may be taken as the PRR requirement for specific risk.
BIPRU 7.11.14RRP
(1) A firm may take full allowance when the value of two legs always move in the opposite direction and broadly to the same extent.(2) This will be the case in the following situations:(a) the two legs consist of completely identical instruments; or(b) a long cash position is hedged by a total rate of return swap (or vice versa) and there is an exact match between the reference obligation and the underlying exposure (i.e., the cash position).(3) The maturity of the swap itself
BIPRU 7.11.17RRP
In all situations not falling under BIPRU 7.11.14 R - BIPRU 7.11.16 R, a firm must assess a specific riskPRR charge against both sides of the positions.
BIPRU 7.11.63GRP
If a firm recognises profits on a non-accrual basis it should consider whether the capital requirements for its credit derivatives business adequately cover the risk that any recognised profit may not be achieved due to a credit event occurring. This includes positions for which the firm may have a perfect hedge in place.
BIPRU 7.6.7RRP
(1) The appropriate position risk adjustment for a position is that listed in the table in BIPRU 7.6.8R against the relevant underlying position.(2) If the firm uses the commodity extended maturity ladder approach or the commodity maturity ladder approach for a particular commodity under BIPRU 7.4 (Commodity PRR) the appropriate position risk adjustment for an option on that commodity is the outright rate applicable to the underlying position (see BIPRU 7.4.26R (Calculating the
BIPRU 7.6.8RRP

Table: Appropriate position risk adjustment

This table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.7R

Underlying position

Appropriate position risk adjustment

Equity

The position risk adjustment applicable to the underlying equity or equity index in the table in BIPRU 7.3.30R (Simplified equity method)

Interest rate

The sum of the specific risk position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.2.43R to BIPRU 7.2.51G (Specific risk calculation)) and the general market risk position risk adjustment (as set out in BIPRU 7.2.57R (General market riskposition risk adjustments)) applicable to the underlying position

Debt securities

The sum of the specific risk position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.2.43R to BIPRU 7.2.51G (Specific risk calculation)) and the general market risk position risk adjustment (as set out in the table in BIPRU 7.2.57R (General market riskposition risk adjustments)) applicable to the underlying position

Commodity

18% (unless BIPRU 7.6.7R requires otherwise)

Currency

8%

Gold

8%

CIU

32% (subject to BIPRU 7.6.6R and BIPRU 7.6.7R)

BIPRU 7.6.13RRP

Table: Derived positions

This table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.9R

Underlying

Option (or warrant)

Derived position

Equity

Option (warrant) on a single equity or option on a future/forward on a single equity

A notional position in the actual equity underlying the contract valued at the current market price of the equity.

Option (warrant) on a basket of equities or option on a future/forward on a basket of equities

A notional position in the actual equities underlying the contract valued at the current market price of the equities.

Option (warrant) on an equity index or option on a future/forward on an equity index

A notional position in the index underlying the contract valued at the current market price of the index.

Interest rate

Option on an interest rate or an interest rate future/FRA

A zero coupon zero-specific-risk security in the currency concerned with a maturity equal to the sum of the time to expiry of the contract and the length of the period on which the settlement amount of the contract is calculated valued at the notional amount of the contract.

Option on an interest rate swap

A zero coupon zero-specific-risk security in the currency concerned with a maturity equal to the length of the swap valued at the notional principal amount.

Interest rate cap or floor

A zero coupon zero-specific-risk security in the currency concerned with a maturity equal to the remaining period of the cap or floor valued at the notional amount of the contract.

Debt securities

Option (warrant) on a debt security or option on a future/forward on a debt security

The underlying debt security with a maturity equal to the time to expiry of the option valued as the nominal amount underlying the contract at the current market price of the debt security.

Option (warrant) on a basket of debt securities or option on a future/forward on a basket of debt securities

A notional position in the actual debt securities underlying the contract valued at the current market price of the debt securities.

Option (warrant) on an index of debt securities or option on a future/forward on an index of debt securities

A notional position in the index underlying the contract valued at the current market price of the index.

Commodity

Option on a commodity or option on a future/forward on a commodity

An amount equal to the tonnage, barrels or kilos underlying the option with (in the case of a future/forward on a commodity) a maturity equal to the expiry date of the forward or Futures contract underlying the option. In the case of an option on a commodity the maturity of the position falls into Band 1 in the table in BIPRU 7.4.28R (Table: Maturity bands for the maturity ladder approach).

Option on a commodityswap

An amount equal to the tonnage, barrels or kilos underlying the option with a maturity equal to the length of the swap valued at the notional principal amount.

CIU

(These provisions about CIUs are subject to BIPRU 7.6.35R)

Option (warrant) on a single CIU or option on a future/forward on a single CIU

A notional position in the actual CIU underlying the contract valued at the current market price of the CIU.

Option (warrant) on a basket of CIUs or option on a future/forward on a basket of CIUs

A notional position in the actual CIUs underlying the contract valued at the current market price of the CIUs.

Gold

Option on gold or option on a future/forward on gold

An amount equal to the troy ounces underlying the option with (in the case of a future/forward on gold) a maturity equal to the expiry date of the forward or futures contract underlying the option.

Currency

Currency option

The amount of the underlying currency that the firm will receive if the option is exercised converted at the spot rate into the currency that the firm will sell if the option is exercised.

BIPRU 7.6.20RRP
Under the option standard method, the PRR for a purchased option or warrant is the lesser of:(1) the market value of the derived position (see BIPRU 7.6.9R) multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.6.8R); and(2) the market value of the option or warrant.
BIPRU 7.6.27RRP

Table: The hedging method of calculating the PRR (equities, debt securities and gold)

This table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.24R(1) - (3)

PRR

Option or warrantposition

In the money by more than the position risk adjustment

In the money by less than the position risk adjustment

Out of the money or at the money

Long in security or gold

Long put

Zero

Wp

X

Short call

Y

Y

Z

Short in security or gold

Long call

Zero

Wc

X

Short put

Y

Y

Z

Where:

Wp means

{(position risk adjustment-100%) x The underlying position valued at strike price}

+

The market value of the underlying position

Wc means

{(100% +position risk adjustment x The underlying position valued at strike price}

-

The market value of the underlying position

X means

The market value of the underlying position multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment

Y means

The market value of the underlying position multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment. This result may be reduced by the market value of the option or warrant, subject to a maximum reduction to zero.

Z means

The option hedging method is not permitted; the option standard method must be used.

BIPRU 7.6.31RRP
If the pay-out to the holder of a quanto option is fixed at the inception of the transaction a firm must add 8% to the position risk adjustment when applying the option standard method.
BIPRU 7.6.35RRP
For the purpose of identifying the appropriate treatment for the purpose of BIPRU 7.6.5R, the underlying position for the purpose of BIPRU 7.6.8R and the derived position under BIPRU 7.6.13R a firm may choose between treating an option on a CIU as being:(1) a position in the CIU itself; or(2) (if the conditions in BIPRU 7.7 (Position risk requirements for collective investment undertakings) for the use of the method in question are satisfied) positions in the underlying investments
BIPRU 7.6.36GRP
(1) This paragraph gives an example of how the appropriate position risk adjustment should be calculated for the purpose of deciding whether or not an option on a CIU is sufficiently in the money for the firm to have a choice whether or not to apply an option PRR. This example assumes that there is no leveraging (see BIPRU 7.7.11R (CIU modified look through method)).(2) Say that the CIU contains underlying equityposition and the firm is using one of the CIU look through methods.
BIPRU 7.8.1GRP
BIPRU 7.8 sets out the method for calculating a net underwriting position or reduced net underwriting position, which is then included in the PRR calculation in other parts of BIPRU 7. It also deals with concentration risk. BIPRU 7.8 only relates to new securities, which is defined in BIPRU 7.8.12R.
BIPRU 7.8.2RRP
A firm which underwrites or sub-underwrites an issue of securities must, for the purposes of calculating its market risk capital component1:(1) identify commitments to underwrite or sub-underwrite which give rise to an underwritingposition (see BIPRU 7.8.8R);(2) identify the time of initial commitment (see BIPRU 7.8.13R); and(3) calculate the net underwriting position (set out in BIPRU 7.8.17R), reduced net underwriting position or the net underwriting exposure.
BIPRU 7.7.4RRP
A firm may rely on a third party to calculate and report PRR capital requirements for position risk (general market risk and specific risk) for positions in CIUs falling within BIPRU 7.7.9R and BIPRU 7.7.11R, in accordance with the methods set out in BIPRU 7.7, provided that the correctness of the calculation and the report is adequately ensured.
BIPRU 7.7.5RRP
Without prejudice to other provisions in BIPRU 7.7, a position in a CIU is subject to a collective investment undertaking PRR (general market risk and specific risk) of 32%. Without prejudice to provisions in BIPRU 7.5.18R (Foreign currency PRR for CIUs) or, if the firm has a VaR model permission, BIPRU 7.10.44R (Commodity risks and VaR models) taken together with BIPRU 7.5.18R, where the modified gold treatment set out in those rules is used, a position in a CIU is subject to
BIPRU 7.7.9RRP
(1) Where a firm is aware of the underlying investments of the CIU on a daily basis the firm may look through to those underlying investments in order to calculate the securities PRR for position risk (general market risk and specific risk) for those positions in accordance with the methods set out in the securities PRR requirements or, if the firm has a VaR model permission, in accordance with the methods set out in BIPRU 7.10 (Use of a Value at Risk Model).(2) Under this approach,
BIPRU 7.7.11RRP
Where a firm is not aware of the underlying investments of the CIU on a daily basis, the firm may calculate the securities PRR for position risk (general market risk and specific risk) in accordance with the methods set out in the securities PRR requirements, subject to the following conditions:(1) it must be assumed that the CIU first invests to the maximum extent allowed under its mandate in the asset classes attracting the highest securities PRR for position risk (general market
IFPRU 6.2.8GRP
Other futures, forwards, and swaps where a treatment is not specified in article 328 of the UK CRR1 ((Interest rate futures and forwards) should be treated as positions in zero specific risk securities, each of which:(1) has a zero coupon;(2) has a maturity equal to that of the relevant contract; and(3) is long or short according to the table in IFPRU 6.2.9 G.
IFPRU 6.2.10GRP
Interest-rate swaps or foreign currency swaps with a deferred start should be treated as the two notional positions (one long, one short). The paying leg should be treated as a short position in a zero specific risk security with a coupon equal to the fixed rate of the swap. The receiving leg should be treated as a long position in a zero specific risk security, which also has a coupon equal to the fixed rate of the swap.
IFPRU 6.2.13GRP
For interest-rate risk, a firm should treat a swap (such as an equity swap) with only one interest rate leg as a notional position in a zero specific risk security:(1) with a coupon equal to that on the interest rate leg;(2) with a maturity equal to the date that the interest rate will be reset; and(3) which is a long position if the firm is receiving interest payments and short if making interest payments.
IFPRU 6.2.18GRP
The forward cash leg of a repurchase agreement or reverse repurchase agreement should be treated as a notional position in a zero specific risk security which:(1) is a short notional position in the case of a repurchase agreement and a long notional position in the case of a reverse repurchase agreement;(2) has a value equal to the market value of the borrowing or deposit;(3) has a maturity equal to that of the borrowing or deposit, or the next date the interest rate is reset
BIPRU 7.9.21GRP
(1) A firm should have a conceptually sound risk management system which is implemented with integrity and should meet the minimum standards set out in this paragraph.(2) A firm should have a risk control unit that is independent of business trading units and reports directly to senior management. The unit should be responsible for designing and implementing the firm's risk management system. It should produce and analyse daily reports on the risks run by the business and on the
IFPRU 2.2.73GRP
(1) In identifying an appropriate range of adverse circumstances and events in accordance with IFPRU 2.2.37 R (2):(a) a firm will need to consider the cycles it is most exposed to and whether these are general economic cycles or specific to particular markets, sectors or industries;(b) for the purposes of IFPRU 2.2.37 R (2)(a), the amplitude and duration of the relevant cycle should include a severe downturn scenario based on forward-looking hypothetical events, calibrated against
BIPRU 1.2.26RRP
A firm must have clearly defined policies and procedures for determining which positions to include in the trading book for the purposes of calculating its capital requirements, consistent with the criteria set out in BIPRU 1.2.3 R to BIPRU 1.2.4 R, BIPRU 1.2.10 R to BIPRU 1.2.11 R, BIPRU 1.1.13 R and BIPRU 1.2.22 R and taking into account the firm's risk management capabilities and practices. Compliance with these policies and procedures must be fully documented and subject to
BIPRU 1.2.27RRP
A firm must have clearly defined policies and procedures for overall management of the trading book. At a minimum these policies and procedures must address:(1) the activities the firm considers to be trading and as constituting part of the trading book for capital requirement purposes;(2) the extent to which a position can be marked-to-market daily by reference to an active, liquid two-way market;(3) for positions that are marked-to-model, the extent to which the firm can:(a)
BIPRU 9.12.2RRP
For a rated position or a position in respect of which an inferred rating may be used, the ratings based method must be used to calculate the risk weighted exposure amount.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 38]
BIPRU 9.12.20RRP
(1) If:(a) a firm'sIRB permission allows it to use this treatment; and(b) the conditions in (2)(16) are satisfied,a firm may attribute to an unrated position in an asset backed commercial paper programme a derived rating as laid down in (3).(2) Positions in the commercial paper issued from the programme must be rated positions.(3) Under the ABCP internal assessment approach, the unrated position must be assigned by the firm to one of the rating grades described in (5). The position
BIPRU 13.5.8RRP
For the determination of risk positions, a firm must treat collateral received from a counterparty like a claim on the counterparty under a derivative contract (long position) that is due today, while collateral posted must be treated as an obligation to the counterparty (short position) that is due today.[Note: BCD Annex III Part 5 point 10]
BIPRU 11.5.17RRP
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9 or capital resource requirements according to BIPRU 7.2.48A R to BIPRU 7.2.48K R4 must disclose the following information, where relevant separately for its trading book and non-trading book:4(1) a description of the firm's objectives in relation to securitisation activity;(1A) the nature of other risks, including liquidity risk inherent in securitised assets;4(1B) the type of risks in terms of seniority
BIPRU 9.9.4RRP
Subject to BIPRU 9.9.5 R,(1) where a firm calculates risk weighted exposure amounts under the standardised approach to securitisations outlined in BIPRU 9.11, the exposure value of an on-balance sheet securitisation position must be its balance sheet value;(2) where a firm calculates risk weighted exposure amounts under the IRB approach to securitisations outlined in BIPRU 9.12, the exposure value of an on-balance sheet securitisation position must be measured gross of value adjustments;(3)
BIPRU 2.2.66GRP
(1) A securities firm may consider the impact of the situations listed in (a) to (c) on its capital levels when assessing its exposure to concentration risk:(a) the potential loss that could arise from large exposures to a single counterparty;(b) the potential loss that could arise from exposures to large transactions or to a product type; and(c) the potential loss resulting from a combination of events such as a sudden increase in volatility leaving a hitherto fully-margined