BIPRU 7.9 Use of a CAD 1 model

Introduction

BIPRU 7.9.1G

A firm is required under GENPRU 2.1.52 R (Calculation of the market risk capital requirement) to calculate its market risk capital requirement using the rules in BIPRU 7. However, the appropriate regulator may at the firm's request modify GENPRU 2.1.52 R to allow the firm to calculate all or part of the PRR for the positions covered by that model by using a CAD 1 model (for options risk aggregation and/or interest rate pre-processing) or a VaR model (value at risk model) instead. BIPRU 7.10 (Use of a Value at Risk Model) deals with VaR model permissions.

BIPRU 7.9.2G

The purpose of BIPRU 7.9 is to provide guidance on the appropriate regulator's policy for granting CAD 1 model waivers under section 138A of the Act (Modification or waiver of rules). The policy recognises that CAD 1 models may vary across firms but, as a minimum, the appropriate regulator will need to be satisfied:

  1. (1)

    about the quality of the internal controls and risk management relating to the model (see BIPRU 7.9.19G - BIPRU 7.9.23G for further details);

  2. (2)

    about the quality of the model standards; and

  3. (3)

    that the CAD 1 model captures and produces an accurate measure of the risks inherent in the portfolio covered by the CAD 1 model (see BIPRU 7.9.25G - BIPRU 7.9.53G for further details).

BIPRU 7.9.3G

BIPRU 7.9 also explains how the output from the CAD 1 model is fed into the market risk capital requirement calculation.

BIPRU 7.9.4G

If a CAD 1 model waiver is granted by the appropriate regulator, the waiver will contain certain requirements. In order adequately to address individual circumstances, these may differ from what is set out in BIPRU 7.9. The waiver will also identify the rules to which the waiver applies and the scope of model recognition granted to the firm.

BIPRU 7.9.5G

Waivers permitting the use of models in the calculation of PRR will not be granted if that would be contrary to the CAD. Any waiver which is granted will only be granted on terms that are compatible with the CAD. Accordingly, the only waivers permitting the use of models in calculating PRR that the appropriate regulator is likely to grant are CAD 1 model waivers and VaR model permissions.

Scope of CAD 1 models

BIPRU 7.9.6G

The appropriate regulator recognises two types of CAD 1 model. The table in BIPRU 7.9.7G describes them.

BIPRU 7.9.7G

Table: Types of CAD 1 model

This table belongs to BIPRU 7.9.6G

Options risk aggregation models

Interest rate pre-processing models

Brief description and eligible instruments

Analyse and aggregate options risks for:

May be used to calculate duration weighted positions for:

The output and how it is used in the PRR calculation

Depending on the type of model and the requirements in the CAD 1 model waiver granted, the outputs from an options risk aggregation model are used as an input to the market risk capital requirement calculation.

Depending on the type of model and the requirements in the CAD 1 model waiver granted, the individual sensitivity figures produced by this type of CAD 1 model are either input into the calculation of interest rate PRR under the interest rate duration method (see BIPRU 7.2.63R) or are converted into notional position and input into the calculation of interest rate PRR under the interest rate maturity method (see BIPRU 7.2.59R).

BIPRU 7.9.8G

Currently the appropriate regulator only envisages allowing recognition for options on CIUs if the CIU satisfies one of the following conditions:

  1. (1)

    it is a regulated collective investment scheme; or

  2. (2)

    the firm can demonstrate that it has characteristics that are similar to or better than an undertaking in (1) from the point of view of transparency and liquidity.

The CAD 1 model waiver application and review process

BIPRU 7.9.9G

Details of the general waiver process are set out in SUP 8 (Waiver and modification of rules). Further details of the waiver process applicable to certain waivers relating to BIPRU (including CAD 1 model waivers) can be found in BIPRU 1.3 (Applications for advanced approaches). Because of the complexity of a CAD 1 model waiver, it is recommended that, as set out in SUP 8.3.4 G and BIPRU 1.3.21 G, a firm contact its usual contact at the appropriate regulator to discuss its proposed application. It should also be noted that the waiver recognition process in the case of a CAD 1 model may take longer than the timescales indicated in SUP 8.3.5 G.

BIPRU 7.9.10G

In order to consider a CAD 1 model waiver request, the appropriate regulator may undertake a review to ensure that it is adequate and appropriate for the PRR calculation.

BIPRU 7.9.11G

The model review process may be conducted through a series of visits covering various aspects of the firm's control and IT environment. Before these visits the appropriate regulator may ask the firm to provide some information relating to its waiver request accompanied by some specified background material. The model review visits are organised on a timetable that allows a firm being visited sufficient time to arrange the visit and provide the appropriate pre-visit information.

BIPRU 7.9.12G

As part of the model review process, the following may be reviewed: organisational structure and personnel; details of the firm's market position in the relevant products; profit and risk information; valuation and reserving policies; operational controls; IT systems; model release and control procedures; risk management and control framework; risk appetite and limit structure and future developments relevant to model recognition.

BIPRU 7.9.13G

The appropriate regulator will normally require meetings with senior management and staff from the front office, financial control, risk management, operations, systems development, information technology and audit areas.

BIPRU 7.9.14G

A review by a skilled person may be used before a CAD 1 model waiver is granted to supplement the waiver process or after the waiver has been granted to review the CAD 1 model.

BIPRU 7.9.15G

If the appropriate regulator grants a CAD 1 model waiver, the waiver direction will specify the particular rule which has been modified, and set out the requirements subject to which the waiver has been granted. These requirements may include:

  1. (1)

    the details of the calculation of PRR;

  2. (2)

    the CAD 1 model waiver methodology to be employed;

  3. (3)

    the products covered by the model (e.g. option type, maturity, currency); and

  4. (4)

    any notification requirements relating to the CAD 1 model waiver.

BIPRU 7.9.16G

Where a firm operates any part of its CAD 1 model outside the United Kingdom, the appropriate regulator may take into account the results of any review of that model carried out by any overseas regulator concerned. The appropriate regulator may wish to receive information directly from that regulator.

Maintenance of model recognition

BIPRU 7.9.17G

No changes should be made to a CAD 1 model unless the change is not material. Material changes to a CAD 1 model will require a renewed waiver to be issued. Materiality is measured from the time that the waiver is granted or, if the waiver has been varied in accordance with section 138A of the Act, any later time that may be specified in the waiver for these purposes. If a firm is considering making material changes to its CAD 1 model, then it should notify the appropriate regulator at once. If a firm wishes to change the products covered by the model it should apply for a variation of its CAD 1 model waiver.

BIPRU 7.9.18G

If the CAD 1 model ceases to meet the requirements of the waiver, the firm should notify the appropriate regulator at once. The appropriate regulator may then revoke the waiver unless it is varied in accordance with section 138A of the Act. If the CAD 1 model waiver contains conditions it is a condition of using the CAD 1 model approach that the firm should continue to comply with those conditions.

Risk management standards

BIPRU 7.9.19G

A firm with a complex portfolio is expected to demonstrate more sophistication in its modelling and risk management than a firm with a simple portfolio.

BIPRU 7.9.20G

A firm should be able to demonstrate that the risk management standards set out in BIPRU 7.9 are satisfied by each legal entity with respect to which the CAD 1 model approach is being used (even though they are expressed to refer only to a firm). This is particularly important for subsidiary undertakings in groups subject to matrix management where the business lines cut across legal entity boundaries.

BIPRU 7.9.21G

  1. (1)

    A firm should have a conceptually sound risk management system which is implemented with integrity and should meet the minimum standards set out in this paragraph.

  2. (2)

    A firm should have a risk control unit that is independent of business trading units and reports directly to senior management. The unit should be responsible for designing and implementing the firm's risk management system. It should produce and analyse daily reports on the risks run by the business and on the appropriate measures to be taken in terms of the trading limits.

  3. (3)

    A firm's senior management should be actively involved in the risk control process and the daily reports produced by the risk control unit should be reviewed by a level of management with sufficient authority to enforce reductions of positions taken by individual traders as well as in the firm's overall risk exposure.

  4. (4)

    The risk control group should have a sufficient number of staff with appropriate skills in the use of models.

  5. (5)

    A firm should have established procedures for monitoring and ensuring compliance with a documented set of appropriate internal policies and controls concerning the overall operation of the risk measurement and control framework. This should take into account the front, middle and back office functions.

  6. (6)

    A firm should conduct, as part of its regular internal audit process, a review of the systems and controls relating to its CAD 1 model. This review should include the valuation process, compliance with the CAD 1 model waiver's scope and the activities of the business trading units and the risk control units. This review should be undertaken by staff independent of the areas being reviewed.

BIPRU 7.9.22G

In assessing whether the risk management and control framework is implemented with integrity, the appropriate regulator will consider the IT systems used to run the CAD 1 model and associated calculations. The assessment will include, where appropriate:

  1. (1)

    feeder systems; risk aggregation systems; the integrity of the data (i.e. whether it is complete, coherent and correct); reconciliations and checks on completeness of capture; and

  2. (2)

    system development, change control and documentation; security and audit trails; system availability and contingency procedures; network adequacy.

BIPRU 7.9.23G

A firm should take appropriate steps to ensure that it has adequate controls relating to:

  1. (1)

    the derivation of the PRR from the CAD 1 model output;

  2. (2)

    CAD 1 model development, including independent validation;

  3. (3)

    reserving;

  4. (4)

    valuation (see GENPRU 1.3 (Valuation)), including independent validation; and

  5. (5)

    the adequacy of the IT infrastructure.

Model standards

BIPRU 7.9.24G

A firm should take appropriate steps to ensure that its CAD 1 model captures and produces an accurate measure of the risks inherent in the portfolio covered by the CAD 1 model. These risks may include, but are not limited to, gamma, vega and rho.

Options risk aggregation models

BIPRU 7.9.25G

For a firm to obtain a CAD 1 model waiver for its options risk aggregation model, it should have in place an appropriate options valuation model.

BIPRU 7.9.26G

The appropriate regulator does not specify the methodology that a firm should employ in order to produce the appropriate outputs from its options risk aggregation CAD 1 model. However, BIPRU 7.9.27G - BIPRU 7.9.43G provide details of how a firm could meet the requirement to capture gamma, vega and rho risks using a scenario matrix approach. Where a firm adopts the scenario matrix approach then the standards set out in BIPRU 7.9.27G - BIPRU 7.9.43G should be followed. The firm should also take into account other risks not captured by the scenario matrix approach. If a firm does not use the scenario matrix approach it should use an equivalent methodology. If a firm uses an equivalent methodology it should be able to demonstrate that the approach used meets the requirements of BIPRU 7.9.

BIPRU 7.9.27G

A scenario matrix is an approach by which an options portfolio is revalued given a number of simultaneous shifts in both the spot level of the underlying and the implied volatility.

BIPRU 7.9.28G

The scenario matrix approach may be employed for all types of options on all types of underlying asset.

BIPRU 7.9.29G

  1. (1)

    This paragraph provides an outline of the initial steps to be taken when using the scenario matrix approach.

  2. (2)

    A value for an option should be obtained using the firm's options valuation model.

  3. (3)

    The inputs into the options valuation model for implied volatility of the underlying asset and the price of the underlying asset should then be altered so that a new value for the option is obtained (details of the amount by which the implied volatility and the price of the underlying should be amended are set out in BIPRU 7.9.30G - BIPRU 7.9.36G).

  4. (4)

    The difference between the original value of the option and the new value obtained following the alterations should be input into the appropriate cell in the matrix. The value in the central cell where there is no change in implied volatility or price of the underlying should therefore be zero.

  5. (5)

    The process of obtaining a new price for the option should be repeated until the matrix is completed.

BIPRU 7.9.30G

The alteration to the implied volatility (known as the implied volatility shift) referred to in BIPRU 7.9.29G (3) may be a proportional shift. The size of the shift depends on the remaining life of the option and the asset class of the underlying. The table in BIPRU 7.9.32G sets out the shifts that should be applied where a proportional shift is used. Alternatively, a firm may use a single shift across all maturities or use an absolute rather than a proportional implied volatility shift. Where a single shift or an absolute shift is used it should be at least as conservative as the proportional shifts. Any use of a single shift or an absolute shift should be reviewed and, if necessary updated, on a regular basis.

BIPRU 7.9.31G

A firm may choose to use a less detailed term structure than that in the table in BIPRU 7.9.32G, but the shifts used should be no less conservative than those set out in that table. For example, a firm that uses one <3 month band, rather than the two bands (≤ 1 month and 1-3 months) set out in the table, should use the most conservative shift set out in the table for the bands covered. In this example that shift is 30%.

BIPRU 7.9.32G

Table: proportional implied volatility shifts

This table belongs to BIPRU 7.9.30G

Remaining life of option

Proportional shift

Equities, foreign currency and commodities

Interest rates and CIUs

≤ 1 month

30%

30%

> 1 ≤ 3 months

20%

20%

> 3 ≤ 6 months

15%

15%

> 6 ≤ 9 months

12%

12%

> 9 ≤ 12 months

9%

9%

> 1 ≤ 2 years

6%

9%

> 2 ≤ 4 years

4.5%

9%

> 4 years

3%

9%

BIPRU 7.9.33G

The size of the underlying price/rate shift depends on the asset class of the underlying as referred to in BIPRU 7.9.29G (3) and is set out in the table in BIPRU 7.9.34 G.

BIPRU 7.9.34G

Table: underlying price/rate shifts

This table belongs to BIPRU 7.9.33G

Underlying asset class

Shift

Equities

±8%

Foreign currency

±8%

Commodities

±15%, (but a firm may use the percentages applicable under the commodity extended maturity ladder approach if it would qualify under BIPRU 7.4 (Commodity PRR) to use that approach).

Interest rates

±100bp (but a firm may use the sliding scale of shifts by maturity as applicable to the interest rate duration method).

CIU

±32%, (but a firm may use the percentages applicable to the underlyings if the firm applies one of the CIU look through methods under BIPRU 7.7 (Position risk requirements for collective investment undertakings)).

BIPRU 7.9.35G

The shifts outlined in the table in BIPRU 7.9.34G are the maximum shifts required; in addition there will be a number of intermediate shifts as a result of the minimum matrix size criteria set out in BIPRU 7.9.36G.

BIPRU 7.9.36G

The minimum size of the scenario matrix should be 3x7, that is, three observations for implied volatility (including the actual implied volatility) and seven observations for the price of the underlying (including the actual price of the underlying). A firm should be able to justify its choice of granularity. Greater granularity may be required where the portfolio contains, for example, a large proportion of barrier options.

BIPRU 7.9.37G

  1. (1)

    A different scenario matrix should be set up for each underlying asset type in accordance with this paragraph.

  2. (2)

    For equities (including single equities, baskets and indices) there should be a separate matrix for each national market or non-decomposed basket or non-decomposed multi-national index.

  3. (3)

    For foreign currency products there should be a separate matrix for each currency pair where appropriate.

  4. (4)

    For commodity products there should be a separate matrix for each commodity. The question whether two items are the same commodity should be decided in accordance with BIPRU 7.4 (Commodity PRR).

  5. (5)

    For interest rate products there should be a separate matrix for each currency. In addition, a firm should not offset the gamma and vega exposures (except in the circumstances set out in BIPRU 7.9.38G) arising from any one of the following types of product with the gamma and vega exposures arising from any of the other products in the list:

    1. (a)

      swaptions (options on interest rates);

    2. (b)

      interest rate options (including options on exchange-traded deposit or bill futures);

    3. (c)

      bond options (including options on exchange-traded bond futures); and

    4. (d)

      other types of options required by the CAD 1 model waiver to form their own separate class of underlying asset.

  6. (6)

    The other types of options referred to in (5)(d) will generally be exotic options that do not fall easily into (5)(a) - (c)).

  7. (7)

    For CIUs there should be a separate matrix for each CIU fund. If the firm applies one of the CIU look through methods under BIPRU 7.7 (Position risk requirements for collective investment undertakings), then (1) - (6) apply based on what the underlyings are.

BIPRU 7.9.38G

A firm may offset gamma and vega exposures arising from the products listed in BIPRU 7.9.37G (5) where it can demonstrate that it trades different types of interest rate-related options as a portfolio and takes steps to control the basis risk between different types of implied volatility. To the extent that this is the case an individual matrix is not required for each of the products listed in BIPRU 7.9.37G (5) and a combined scenario matrix may be used.

BIPRU 7.9.39G

Where it is imprudent fully to offset long-dated and short-dated vega exposure owing to the risk of non-parallel shifts in the yield curve, a firm should use an appropriate number of scenario matrices to take account of non-parallel shifts in the yield curve according to the maturity of the option or underlying.

BIPRU 7.9.40G

Following the steps outlined in BIPRU 7.9.29G, a firm then removes the portion of the values in the matrix that can be attributed to the effect that delta has had on the change in the value of the option (a process known as delta-stripping).

BIPRU 7.9.41G

Once the effect of delta has been removed from the matrix, the values left in the matrix relate to gamma and vega risk. A firm's PRR in relation to gamma and vega risk on the individual option is the absolute of the most negative cell in the scenario matrix produced. Where all cells are positive the PRR is zero. The total PRR for the gamma and vega risk on the portfolio of options is a simple sum of the individual requirements. This amount should then be fed into a firm's PRR calculation.

BIPRU 7.9.42G

The values that have been obtained for the delta-equivalent positions of instruments included in the scenario matrix should then be treated in the same way as positions in the underlying. Where the delta obtained relates to interest rate position risk, the delta equivalent positions may be fed into the firm's interest rate pre-processing model to the extent that the positions fall within the scope of interest rate pre-processing models as set out in BIPRU 7.9.7G and provided that the firm's CAD 1 model waiver allows the firm's CAD 1 model to be used in this way. Alternatively, the delta obtained should be fed into the standard PRR calculations in BIPRU 7.2 (Interest rate PRR), BIPRU 7.3 (Equity PRR and basic interest rate PRR for equity derivatives), BIPRU 7.4 (Commodity PRR) or BIPRU 7.5 (Foreign currency PRR) as appropriate.

BIPRU 7.9.43G

In using the scenario matrix approach, none of the steps followed will take specific account of a firm's exposure to rho risk. Where a firm can demonstrate that for interest rate-related options the rho sensitivity is effectively included in the delta sensitivities produced, there is no separate capital requirement relating to rho. For all other options except commodity options, a firm should calculate a rho sensitivity ladder by currency using its CAD 1 model and either feed this into the interest rate maturity method or interest rate duration method calculation or, where the firm's CAD 1 model waiver allows the firm's CAD 1 model to be used in this way, feed that ladder into an interest rate pre-processing model. Generally a CAD 1 model does not need to deal specifically with rho risk for commodity options.

Interest rate pre-processing models

BIPRU 7.9.44G

To the extent that a firm's CAD 1 model waiver is for the use of an interest rate pre-processing model the firm should use it for the pre-processing of the instruments set out in BIPRU 7.9.7G, from which the residual positions are fed into the interest rate maturity method or interest rate duration method calculation.

BIPRU 7.9.45G

There are a number of different methods of constructing pre-processing models but all should comply with BIPRU 7.9.45G - BIPRU 7.9.53G. All pre-processing models should generate positions that have the same sensitivity to defined interest rate changes as the underlying cash flows.

BIPRU 7.9.46G

In an interest rate pre-processing model each transaction is converted into its constituent cash flows. The cash flows are discounted using zero coupon rates derived from the firm's own yield curves.

BIPRU 7.9.47G

The cash flows are then calculated again using the firm's own yield curve shifted by the amount set out in BIPRU 7.9.49G.

BIPRU 7.9.48G

The difference between the present values calculated using the firm's own yield curve and those calculated using the firm's curve shifted under BIPRU 7.9.47G are known as the sensitivity figures. Alternatively, a firm may shift the yield curve by one basis point and multiply up the sensitivity figures by the appropriate amount in order to achieve the shifts set out in BIPRU 7.9.47G. These sensitivity figures are then allocated to each of the 15 maturity bands set out in BIPRU 7.9.49G.

BIPRU 7.9.49G

Table: yield curve shifts

This table belongs to BIPRU 7.9.47G

Zone

Modified duration

Assumed interest rate change (percentage points)

1

0 ≤ 1 months

1.00

> 1 ≤ 3 months

1.00

> 3 ≤ 6 months

1.00

> 6 ≤ 12 months

1.00

2

> 1.0 ≤ 1.9 years

0.90

> 1.9 ≤ 2.8 years

0.85

> 2.8 ≤ 3.6 years

0.85

3

> 3.6 ≤ 4.3 years

0.75

3

> 4.3 ≤ 5.7 years

0.70

> 5.7 ≤ 7.3 years

0.70

> 7.3 ≤ 9.3 years

0.70

> 9.3 ≤ 10.6 years

0.70

> 10.6 ≤ 12 years

0.70

> 12.0 ≤ 20 years

0.70

> 20 years

0.70

BIPRU 7.9.50G

Sensitivity figures calculated by a firm using an interest rate pre-processing model are usually produced in the format of a net sensitivity by maturity bucket or by discrete gridpoint. These maturity buckets or gridpoints should then be allocated to the 15 bands set out in BIPRU 7.9.49G. The number of maturity buckets or gridpoints used to represent a yield curve can be referred to as granularity. The granularity should always be adequate to capture the material curve risk in the portfolio. Curve risk can be defined as the risk associated with holding long and short positions at different points along the yield curve.

BIPRU 7.9.51G

Positive and negative amounts placed in each of the different maturity bands in BIPRU 7.9.49G under the sensitivity calculation in BIPRU 7.9.50G should then be netted off to produce one figure for each of the bands. There is no capital requirement for this netting process.

BIPRU 7.9.52G

The individual sensitivity figures produced should then be input into the interest rate duration method calculation. The individual sensitivity figures for each band should be included with the other positions in the appropriate column in the table in BIPRU 7.2.65R (Table: Assumed interest rate change in the interest rate duration method).

BIPRU 7.9.53G

Instead of using the approach in BIPRU 7.9.52G a firm may use an approach based on the interest rate maturity method, making appropriate adjustments to the sensitivity figures.