Related provisions for BIPRU 4.5.1

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For purposes of repurchase transactions and securities lending or borrowing transactions, the FCA does not consider that there are any core market participants apart from those entities listed in article 227(3) of the EU CRR.
Intra-group exposures must not be netted for the purpose of BIPRU 8.4.11 R.
If a firm has an investment firm consolidation waiver, it must:(1) ensure that each CAD investment firm in the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group which is a firm or an EEA firm has in place systems to monitor and control the sources of capital and funding of all the members in the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group;(2) notify the FCA of any serious risk that could undermine the financial stability of the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group, as soon as
Although an investment firm consolidation waiver switches off most of this chapter, a firm should still carry out the capital adequacy calculations in BIPRU 8.3 to BIPRU 8.8 as if those parts of this chapter still applied to the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group and report these to the FCA. It should also still monitor large exposure risk on a consolidated basis.
The FCA will assess an application for individual consolidation against articles 9 and 396(2) (Compliance with large exposure requirements) of the EU CRR on a case-by-case basis. The FCA will assess whether it is still appropriate to permit the treatment if doing so risks conflict with its statutory objectives. The FCA will apply a high level of scrutiny to applications under article 9 of the EU CRR, consistent with the previous solo consolidation regime.
Article 113(6) of the EU CRR (Intra-group credit risk exemption) permits a firm, subject to conditions, to apply a 0% risk-weighting for exposures to certain entities within its FCAconsolidation group, namely its parent undertaking, its own subsidiaries and subsidiaries of its parent undertaking. Article 400(1)(f) of the EU CRR then fully exempts such exposures from the large exposures limit stipulated in article 395(1) of the EUCRR (Limits to large exposures).
The FCA will expect a firm to which this section applies not to use any member of its core UK group (which is not a firm) to route lending or to have exposures to any third party in excess of the limits stipulated in article 395(1) of the EU CRR (Limits to large exposures).
BIPRU 7.11.14RRP
(1) A firm may take full allowance when the value of two legs always move in the opposite direction and broadly to the same extent.(2) This will be the case in the following situations:(a) the two legs consist of completely identical instruments; or(b) a long cash position is hedged by a total rate of return swap (or vice versa) and there is an exact match between the reference obligation and the underlying exposure (i.e., the cash position).(3) The maturity of the swap itself
BIPRU 7.11.15RRP
An 80% offset may be applied when the value of two legs always move in the opposite direction and where there is an exact match in terms of the reference obligation, the maturity of both the reference obligation and the credit derivative, and the currency of the underlying exposure. In addition, key features of the credit derivative contract must not cause the price movement of the credit derivative materially to deviate from the price movements of the cash position. To the extent
BIPRU 7.11.16RRP
(1) A firm may take partial allowance when the value of two legs usually move in the opposite direction. This would be the case in the situations set out in (2) - (4).(2) The first situation referred to in (1) is that the position falls under BIPRU 7.11.16 R (2)(b) but there is an asset mismatch between the reference obligation and the underlying exposure. However, the positions meet the following requirements:(a) the reference obligation ranks pari passu with or is junior to
This section sets out, for the purposes of GENPRU and BIPRU14, rules and guidance as to how a firm should recognise and value assets, liabilities, exposures, equity and income statement items.
Subject to GENPRU 1.3.9 R to GENPRU 1.3.10 R and GENPRU 1.3.36 R, except where a rule in GENPRU, BIPRU or INSPRU provides for a different method of recognition or valuation, whenever a rule in GENPRU or BIPRU14 refers to an asset, liability, exposure, equity or income statement item, a firm must, for the purpose of that rule, recognise the asset, liability, exposure, equity or income statement item and measure its value in accordance with whichever of the following are applicable:(1)
Except where a rule in GENPRU or BIPRU makes a14 different provision, GENPRU 1.3.4 R applies whenever a rule in GENPRU or BIPRU14 refers to the value or amount of an asset, liability, exposure, equity or income statement item, including:(1) whether, and when, to recognise or de-recognise an asset or liability;(2) the amount at which to value an asset, liability, exposure, equity or income statement item; and(3) which description to place on an asset, liability, exposure, equity
(1) 4When marking to market, a firm must use the more prudent side of bid/offer unless the firm is a significant market maker in a particular position type and it can close out at the mid-market price.(2) 4When calculating the current exposure value of a credit risk exposure for counterparty credit risk purposes:(a) a firm must use the more prudent side of bid/offer or the mid-market price and the firm must be consistent in the basis it chooses; and4(b) where the difference between
An originator which, in respect of a securitisation in the non-trading book,1 has made use of BIPRU 9.3.1 R in the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts, or a sponsor, must not, with a view to reducing potential or actual losses to investors, provide support to the securitisation beyond its contractual obligations.[Note: BCD Article 101(1)]
If an originator or sponsor fails to comply with BIPRU 9.6.1 R or BIPRU 9.6.1A R1 in respect of a securitisation, it must:(1) hold capital against all of the securitised exposures associated with the securitisation transaction as if they had not been securitised; and(2) disclose publicly:(a) that it has provided non-contractual support;1 and(b) the regulatory capital impact of doing so.[Note: BCD Article 101(2)]
(1) Securitisation documentation should make clear, where applicable, that any repurchase of securitised exposures or securitisation positions by the originator or sponsor beyond its contractual obligations is not mandatory and may only be made at fair market value. In general, any such repurchase should be subject to a firm's credit review and approval process, which should be adequate to ensure that the repurchase complies with BIPRU 9.6.1 R.(2) If an originator or sponsor repurchases
Regulation 22 of the Capital Requirements Regulations 2006 deals with recognition by the appropriate regulator of eligible ECAIs for exposurerisk weight purposes. Regulation 25 deals with revoking recognition.
The criteria which the appropriate regulator must apply when assessing ECAIs for recognition for exposurerisk weighting purposes are set out in Regulation 22 and Schedule 1 to the Capital Requirements Regulations 2006. In making an assessment against those criteria and in carrying out the mapping process described in BIPRU 3.3.7 G to BIPRU 3.3.9 G the appropriate regulator will have regard to the approach set out in the Committee of European Banking Supervisors' "Guidelines on
The list of eligible ECAIs includes those who have been recognised as eligible for exposurerisk weighting purposes by a competent authority of another EEA State and are subsequently recognised as eligible ECAIs by the appropriate regulator without carrying out its own evaluation process under Regulation 22(2) of the Capital Requirements Regulations 2006.
6A BIPRU firm with an IRB permission which has any material credit exposures excluded from its IRB models should also include these exposures in its stress and scenario testing to meet its obligations under the general stress and scenario testing rule. A BIPRU firm without an IRB permission,15 should conduct analyses to assess risks to the credit quality of its counterparties, including any protection sellers, considering both on and off-balance sheet exposures.
There are three broad purposes of stress testing and scenario analysis. Firstly, it can be used as a means of quantifying how much capital might be absorbed if an adverse event or events occurred. As such it represents a simple ‘what if’ approach to estimating exposure to risks. This might be a proportionate approach to risk management for an unsophisticated business. Secondly, it can be used to provide a check on the outputs and accuracy of risk models; particularly, in identifying
Both stress testing and scenario analyses are forward-looking analysis techniques, which seek to anticipate possible losses that might occur if an identified risk crystallises. In applying them, a firm should decide how far forward to look. This should depend upon:(1) how quickly it would be able to identify events or changes in circumstances that might lead to a risk crystallising resulting in a loss; and(2) after it has identified the event or circumstance, how quickly and effectively
Where a firm is exposed to market risk, the6 time horizon over which stress tests and scenario analyses 6should be carried out will 6depend on, among other things,6 the maturity and liquidity of the positions stressed. For example, for the market risk arising from the holding of investments, this will 6depend upon:6666(1) the extent to which there is a regular, open and transparent market in those assets, which would allow fluctuations in the value of the investment to be more
BIPRU 7.10.40RRP
For interest rate risk, a VaR model must incorporate a set of risk factors corresponding to the interest rate curves in each currency in which the firm has interest rate sensitive positions. A firm must ensure that it captures the variations of volatility of rates along the yield curve. In order to achieve this, a firm must divide the yield curves of, at a minimum, the major currencies and markets in which it has material interest rate exposures into a minimum of six maturity
BIPRU 7.10.43RRP
For commodity risk, the VaR model must use a separate risk factor at least for each commodity in which the firm has material positions. The VaR model must also capture the risk of less than perfectly correlated movements between similar, but not identical, commodities and the exposure to changes in forward prices arising from maturity mismatches. It must also take account of market characteristics, notably delivery dates and the scope provided to traders to close out position
BIPRU 7.10.60RRP
The VaR model must be fully integrated into the daily risk management process of the firm, and serve as the basis for reporting risk exposures to senior management of the firm.
BIPRU 7.10.84GRP
Stress testing is a way of identifying the risk to a firm posed by a breakdown of model assumptions or by low-probability events. Where stress tests reveal unacceptable vulnerability to a given set of circumstances, a firm should take prompt steps to manage those risks appropriately, for example by hedging against the outcome or reducing the size of the firm'sexposure.
A firm should assess its exposure to changes in interest rates, in particular risks arising from the effect of interest rate changes on non-trading book activities that are not captured by the CRR. In doing so, a firm may wish to use stress tests to determine the impact on its balance sheet of a change in market conditions.
A firm should assess its exposure to risks transferred through the securitisation of assets should those transfers fail for whatever reason. A firm should consider the effect on its financial position of a securitisation arrangement failing to operate as anticipated or of the values and risks transferred not emerging as expected.
A firm should assess its exposure to residual risks that may result from the partial performance or failure of credit risk mitigation techniques for reasons that are unconnected with their intrinsic value. This could result from, for instance, ineffective documentation, a delay in payment or the inability to realise payment from a guarantor in a timely manner. Given that residual risks can always be present, a firm should assess the appropriateness of its CRR against its assumptions
A firm should assess, and monitor, in detail its exposure to sectoral, geographic, liability and asset concentrations. The appropriate regulator considers that concentrations in these areas increase a firm's exposure to credit risk. Where a firm identifies such concentrations it should consider the adequacy of its CRR.
Table: specific risk position risk adjustmentsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.2.43R.IssuerResidual maturityPosition risk adjustmentDebt securities issued or guaranteed by central governments, issued by central banks, international organisations, multilateral development banks or EEA States' regional governments or local authorities which would qualify for credit quality step 1 or which would receive a 0% risk weight under the standardised approach to credit risk.Any0%(A) Debt securities
Table: specific risk position risk adjustments - standardised approach3Credit quality step1234 (only for credit assessments other than short-term credit assessments)All other credit quality stepsSecuritisations1.6%4%8%28%100%Resecuritisations3.2%8%18%52%100%A firm may only apply the position risk adjustments in this table where it would have to calculate a risk weighted exposure amount in accordance with the standardised approach to securitisation and resecuritisation positions
Table: specific risk Position Risk Adjustments - IRB approach3Credit Quality StepSecuritisation positionsResecuritisation positionsCredit assessments other than short termShort-term credit assessmentsABCDE110.56%0.96%1.6%1.6%2.4%20.64%1.20%2%2%3.2%30.8%1.44%2.8%2.8%4%420.96%1.6%3.2%5.2%51.60%2.8%4.8%8%62.8%4%8%12%734.8%6%12%18%88%16%28%920%24%40%1034%40%52%1152%60%68%all other unrated100%A firm may only apply the position risk adjustments in this table where it would have to calculate
3A securitisation exposure in the trading book that would be subject to deduction in accordance with GENPRU 2.2. (Capital resources) or to a 1250% risk weight in accordance with BIPRU 9 (Securitisation) is subject to a capital charge that is no less than that set out under those provisions, capped at the maximum possible default-risk-related loss. Unrated liquidity facilities are subject to a capital charge that is no less than that set out in BIPRU 9.
Where a firm has not chosen to apply the definition of default at the level of an individual credit facility in accordance with article 178(1) of the EU CRR, the FCA expects it to ensure that the PD associated with unsecured exposures is not understated as a result of the presence of any collateralised exposures.
The FCA expects a firm to estimate PD for a rating system in line with this section where the firm's internal experience of defaults for that rating system was 20 defaults or fewer, and reliable estimates of PD cannot be derived from external sources of default data, including the use of market price-related data. In PD estimation for all exposures covered by the rating system, the FCA expects the firm to:(1) use a statistical technique to derive the distribution of defaults implied
The FCA expects a firm to assign exposures to the risk weight category for specialised lending exposures based on the criteria set out in the tables in IFPRU 4 Annex 1G(Slotting criteria).
3Undertaking, recommending or providing advice on transactions without a reasonable understanding of the risk exposure of the transaction to a customer falls within APER 4.2.2 G.
3Undertaking transactions without a reasonable understanding of the risk exposure of the transaction to the firm falls within APER 4.2.2 G.
A firm must calculate a countercyclical capital buffer of common equity tier 1 capital equal to its total risk exposure amount multiplied by the weighted average of the countercyclical buffer rates that apply to exposures in the jurisdictions where the firm'srelevant credit exposures are located. [Note: article 130(1) (part) of CRD]
(1) To calculate the weighted average in IFPRU 10.3.1 R, a firm must apply to each applicable countercyclical buffer rate its total own funds requirements for credit risk, specific risk, incremental default and migration risk that relates to the relevant credit exposures in the jurisdiction in question, divided by its total own funds requirements for credit risk that relates to all of its relevant credit exposures.(2) For the purposes of (1), a firm must calculate its total own
(1) This guidance sets out the FCA's expectations for granting permission to a firm to use its own one-sided credit valuation adjustment internal models (an "internal CVA model") for the purpose of estimating the maturity factor "M", as proposed under article 162(2)(h) of the EU CRR (Maturity).(2) In the context of counterparty credit risk, the maturity factor "M" is intended to increase the own funds requirements to reflect potential higher risks associated with medium and long-term
(1) This guidance sets out the FCA's expectations for permitting a firm with the permission to use the Internal Model Method set out in Part Three, Title II, Chapter 6, Section 6 (Internal model method) and the permission to use an internal VaR model for specific risk set out in Part Three, Title IV, Chapter 5 (Use of internal models) associated with traded debt instruments to set to 1 the maturity factor "M" defined in article 162 of the EU CRR.(2) In the context of counterparty
BIPRU 3.1 sets out how a firm should calculate the credit risk capital component, which is one of the elements that make up the credit risk capital requirement under GENPRU 2.1.51 R. Part of that calculation involves calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for exposures in the firm'snon-trading book. The rest of BIPRU 3 sets out how the firm should carry out that calculation.
The credit risk capital component of a firm is 8% of the total of its risk weighted exposure amounts for exposures falling into BIPRU 3.1.6 R, calculated in accordance with BIPRU 3.
A firm may offset gamma and vega exposures arising from the products listed in BIPRU 7.9.37G (5) where it can demonstrate that it trades different types of interest rate-related options as a portfolio and takes steps to control the basis risk between different types of implied volatility. To the extent that this is the case an individual matrix is not required for each of the products listed in BIPRU 7.9.37G (5) and a combined scenario matrix may be used.
Where it is imprudent fully to offset long-dated and short-dated vega exposure owing to the risk of non-parallel shifts in the yield curve, a firm should use an appropriate number of scenario matrices to take account of non-parallel shifts in the yield curve according to the maturity of the option or underlying.
In using the scenario matrix approach, none of the steps followed will take specific account of a firm's exposure to rho risk. Where a firm can demonstrate that for interest rate-related options the rho sensitivity is effectively included in the delta sensitivities produced, there is no separate capital requirement relating to rho. For all other options except commodity options, a firm should calculate a rho sensitivity ladder by currency using its CAD 1 model and either feed
The use of ECAIs' credit assessments for the calculation of a firm'srisk weighted exposure amounts under BIPRU 9 must be consistent and in accordance with BIPRU 9.8.2 RBIPRU 9.8.7 R. Credit assessments must not be used selectively.[Note:BCD Article 99]
A firm may nominate one or more eligible ECAIs the credit assessments of which must be used in the calculation of its risk weighted exposure amounts under BIPRU 9 (a nominated ECAI).[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 3 point 2]
LR 15.2.7RRP
An applicant must have a published investment policy that contains information about the policies which the closed-ended investment fund will follow relating to asset allocation, risk diversification, and gearing, and that includes maximum exposures.
LR 15.2.8GRP
The information in the investment policy, including quantitative information concerning the exposures mentioned in LR 15.2.7 R, should be sufficiently precise and clear as to enable an investor to:(1) assess the investment opportunity;(2) identify how the objective of risk spreading is to be achieved; and(3) assess the significance of any proposed change of investment policy.
The guidance in BIPRU 3.3 (Recognition of ratings agencies) applies for the purposes of BIPRU 9 as it does to exposurerisk weighting in BIPRU 3, save that the reference in BIPRU 3.3 to the regulation 221 of the Capital Requirements Regulations 20061 should be read as a reference to regulation 231 of the Capital Requirements Regulations 20061 for the purposes of BIPRU 9.
2Where BIPRU 9.7.2R (5) applies to securitisation positions in an ABCP programme, the firm may be granted a waiver which allows it to use the risk weight assigned to a liquidity facility in order to calculate the risk weighted exposure amount for the positions in the ABCP programme, provided that the liquidity facility ranks pari passu with the positions in the ABCP programme so that they form overlapping positions and 100% of the commercial paper issued by the ABCP programme