Related provisions for BIPRU 4.2.28

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BIPRU 4.3.1RRP
This section applies to all exposures treated under the IRB approach.
BIPRU 4.3.3RRP
The methodology used by a firm for assigning exposures to different IRB exposure classes must be appropriate and consistent over time.[Note: BCD Article 86(9)]
BIPRU 4.3.4RRP
The risk weighted exposure amounts for credit risk for exposures belonging to one of the exposure classes referred to in (1) to (4) must, unless deducted from capital resources, be calculated in accordance with the following provisions:(1) for exposures in the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class, BIPRU 4.4.57 R to BIPRU 4.4.60 R, BIPRU 4.4.79 R, BIPRU 4.5.8 R to BIPRU 4.5.10 R (for specialised lending exposures), BIPRU 4.9.3 R and BIPRU 4.8.16 R to BIPRU 4.8.17
BIPRU 4.3.5RRP
The calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for credit risk and dilution risk must be based on the relevant parameters associated with the exposure in question. These include probability of default (PD), loss given default (LGD), maturity (M) and the exposure value of the exposure. PD and LGD may be considered separately or jointly, in accordance with the provisions relating to PD and LGD in BIPRU 4.4, BIPRU 4.6, BIPRU 4.7 and BIPRU 4.8 at:(1) for exposures in the sovereign,
BIPRU 4.3.6RRP
The expected loss amounts for exposures belonging to one of the IRB exposure classes referred to in (1) to (3) must be calculated in accordance with the methods set out in the following provisions:(1) for exposures in the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class, BIPRU 4.4.61 R to BIPRU 4.4.62 R and (for specialised lending exposures) BIPRU 4.5.13 R to BIPRU 4.5.15R;(2) for exposures in the retail exposure class, BIPRU 4.6.47 R to BIPRU 4.6.48 R;(3) for exposures
BIPRU 4.3.7RRP
The calculation of expected loss amounts in accordance with BIPRU 4.3.6 R must be based on the same input figures of PD, LGD and the exposure value for each exposure as being used for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 4. For defaultedexposures,where a firm uses its own estimate of LGDs, EL must be the firm's best estimate of expected loss (ELBE), for the defaultedexposure in accordance with BIPRU 4.3.122 R.[Note:BCD Article 88(2)]
BIPRU 4.3.19RRP
A firm must document the design and operational details of its rating systems. The documentation must evidence compliance with the minimum IRB standards and the firm'sIRB permission, and address topics including portfolio differentiation, rating criteria, responsibilities of parties that rate obligors and exposures, frequency of assignment reviews, and management oversight of the rating process.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 31]
BIPRU 4.3.25RRP
A rating system comprises all of the methods, processes, controls, data collection and IT systems that support the assessment of credit risk, the assignment of exposures to grades or pools (rating), and the quantification of default and loss estimates for a certain type of exposure.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 1]
BIPRU 4.3.40RRP
(1) A firm must regularly perform a credit risk stress test to assess the effect of certain specific conditions on its total capital requirements for credit risk. The test to be employed must be one chosen by the firm. The test to be employed must be meaningful and reasonably conservative. Stressed portfolios must contain the vast majority of a firm's total exposures covered by the IRB approach.(2) The stress test must be designed to assess the firm's ability to meet its capital
BIPRU 4.3.48RRP
A firm must take all relevant information into account in assigning obligors and facilities to grades or pools. Information must be current and must enable the firm to forecast the future performance of the exposure. The less information a firm has, the more conservative must be its assignments of exposures to obligor and facility grades or pools. If a firm uses an external rating as a primary factor determining an internal rating assignment, the firm must ensure that it considers
BIPRU 4.3.51RRP
(1) This paragraph applies to the use of statistical models and/or other mechanical methods to assign exposures to obligor grades, obligor pools, facility grades or facility pools.(2) A firm must be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator that the model has good predictive power and that capital requirements are not distorted as a result of its use.(3) The input variables to the model must form a reasonable and effective basis for the resulting predictions. The model
BIPRU 4.3.53GRP
(1) This paragraph contains guidance on BIPRU 4.3.51 R for the use of external models.(2) BIPRU 4.3.51 R (2) - BIPRU 4.3.51 R (8) also apply to mechanical methods to assign exposures or obligors to facility grades or pools and to a combination of models and mechanical methods.(3) The standards which a firm applies to an external model should not be lower than those for internal models. (4) The appropriate regulator will not accredit any individual model or vendor. The burden is
BIPRU 4.3.57RRP
The following provisions also apply with respect to the definition of default:(1) for overdrafts, days past due commence once an obligor has breached an advised limit, has been advised a limit smaller than current outstandings, or has drawn credit without authorisation and the underlying amount is material;(2) an advised limit means a limit which has been brought to the knowledge of the obligor;(3) days past due for credit cards commence on the minimum payment due date;(4) in
BIPRU 4.3.58RRP
Where a firm applies the definition of default at facility level in accordance with BIPRU 4.6.21 R, it should define materiality for the purposes of BIPRU 4.3.57 R (5) by reference to the facility amount only, disregarding other exposures of the obligor.
BIPRU 4.3.60GRP
(1) This paragraph contains guidance on the definition of default.(2) If:(a) a firm ordinarily assigns exposures in the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class to a member of a group substantially on the basis of membership of that group and a common group rating; and(b) the firm does so in the case of a particular group;(3) the firm should consider whether members of that group should be treated as a single obligor for the purpose of the definition of default.(4)
BIPRU 4.3.63RRP
(1) Elements to be taken as indications of unlikeliness to pay must include the items set out in this rule.(2) The firm putting the credit obligation on non-accrued status must be taken as an indication of unlikeliness to pay.(3) The firm making a value adjustment resulting from a significant perceived decline in credit quality subsequent to the firm taking on the exposure must be taken as an indication of unlikeliness to pay.(4) The firm selling the credit obligation at a material
BIPRU 4.3.67GRP
(1) The realisation or forfeiture of collateral may be taken as an indication of unlikeliness to pay for the purposes of the definition of default.(2) However, the realisation or forfeiture of collateral may not indicate unlikeliness to pay:(a) in the case of an exposure in a market (such as one that involves retail exposures involving margin lending) in which it is established practice for collateral to be sold if its value falls below a certain percentage of the exposure and
BIPRU 4.3.68GRP
(1) If an obligor approach is being taken with respect to retail exposures (that is, the application of the definition of default at an obligor level rather than at a facility level as set out in BIPRU 4.6.21 R,) a firm should ensure that the PD associated with unsecured exposures is not understated as a result of the presence of any collateralised exposures. A firm should be able to explain to the appropriate regulator, if asked, how it has ensured that its estimate of PD is
BIPRU 4.3.71RRP
If a firm considers that a previously defaultedexposure is such that no trigger of default continues to apply, the firm must rate the obligor or facility as it would for a non-defaultedexposure. Should the definition of default subsequently be triggered, another default must be deemed to have occurred.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 47]
BIPRU 4.3.72GRP
A firm should have a clear and documented policy for determining whether an exposure that has been in default should subsequently be returned to performing status.
BIPRU 4.3.82GRP
If a firm uses a rating model to assign exposures to the borrower or facility grades, it may reflect the data on main drivers of risk parameters by its inclusion in the model as a risk driver or as part of a subsequent process that adjusts the output of that model to calculate the risk parameters PD, LGD, conversion factor and EL.
BIPRU 4.3.87GRP
A firm should be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator:(1) how, with respect to each rating system, both assignment of ratings and estimates of PD, LGD and conversion factors are affected by:(a) movements in the economic cycle; and(b) other cyclical effects which are material to levels of default, loss or the amount of exposures at default for the exposures covered by the rating system; and(2) the level of conservatism inherent in its ratings, as provided for by BI
BIPRU 4.3.95RRP
(1) If:(a) a firm's internal experience of exposures of a type covered by a model or other rating system is 20 defaults or fewer; and(b) in the firm's view, reliable estimates of PD cannot be derived from external sources of default data, including the use of market price related data, for all the exposures covered by the rating system;the firm must estimate PD for exposures covered by that rating system in accordance with this rule.(2) A firm must use a statistical technique
BIPRU 4.3.96GRP
A firm may if appropriate also choose to use the approach in BIPRU 4.3.91 G if the internal experience on exposures covered by a rating system is greater than 20 defaults.
BIPRU 4.3.97GRP
If a firm excludes defaultedexposures that have been cured (as referred to in BIPRU 4.3.71 R) or restructured (as referred to in BIPRU 4.3.63 R (5)) from estimates of LGD in accordance with BIPRU 4.3.110 G, it may also exclude cures from estimates of PD for these exposures1.
BIPRU 4.3.100RRP
A firm must calculate the default weighted average on the basis of the number of defaults included in the calculations made under the historical average rules so far as they relate to the calculation of PDs and must not be weighted by the size of exposures.
BIPRU 4.3.101RRP
(1) A firm's estimates of LGDs must take into account:(a) data in respect of relevant incomplete workouts; and(b) the possibility that the proportion of defaultedexposures which are cured (as referred to in BIPRU 4.3.71 R) or restructured (as referred to in BIPRU 4.3.63 R (5)) or the length of the period over which a firm makes recoveries under a defaultedexposure may be different from the firm's observed historic experience.(2) An incomplete workout as referred to in (1)(a) means
BIPRU 4.3.105GRP
A firm may derive the LGD in accordance with BIPRU 4.3.104 R (2)(c) either by directly assigning to the facility grade or pool an estimate of LGD appropriate for downturn conditions, or alternatively by estimating a default weighted average LGD in accordance with BIPRU 4.3.99 R and BIPRU 4.3.76 R and converting it into an LGD appropriate for downturn conditions by the use of a formula. It should be able to demonstrate that that formula produces well-founded estimates of LGDs consistent
BIPRU 4.3.110GRP
Where a firm is able to demonstrate that the effect is immaterial in accordance with BIPRU 4.1.25 R (Compliance), it may exclude defaultedexposures that have been cured (as referred to in BIPRU 4.3.67 G (1)) or restructured (as referred to in BIPRU 4.3.63 R (5)) from the data about default and loss experience on which LGDs are calculated provided it can demonstrate that its calculation of capital requirements (including capital requirements resulting from the application of capital
BIPRU 4.3.113RRP
The methods that a firm uses for discounting cash flows for the purposes of estimating LGDs must take account of the uncertainties associated with the receipt of recoveries with respect to a defaulted exposure. If a firm intends to use a discount rate that does not take full account of the uncertainty in recoveries, it must be able to explain by what other process it has taken into account that uncertainty for the purposes of calculating LGDs.
BIPRU 4.3.115GRP
A firm may exclude from its calculation of loss indirect costs that it incurs for the purpose of making recoveries with respect to a defaulted exposure if it would also have incurred those costs if there had not been a default.
BIPRU 4.3.122RRP
For the specific case of exposures already in default, a firm must use the sum of its best estimate of expected loss for each exposure given current economic circumstances and exposure status and the possibility of additional unexpected losses during the recovery period.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 80]
BIPRU 4.3.126GRP
(1) A firm using own estimates of conversion factors should take into account all facility types that may result in an exposure when an obligor defaults, including uncommitted facilities.(2) A firm should treat a facility as an exposure from the earliest date at which a customer is able to make drawings under it.(3) To the extent that a firm makes available multiple facilities, it should be able to demonstrate:(a) how it deals with the fact that exposures on one may become exposures
BIPRU 4.3.131RRP
If a firm uses different estimates of conversion factors for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and internal purposes it must be documented. The firm must be able to demonstrate their reasonableness to the appropriate regulator.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 92]
BIPRU 4.4.1RRP
(1) This section applies with respect to the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class.(2) The sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class includes specialised lending exposures.(3) Both BIPRU 4.4 and BIPRU 4.5 (Specialised lending exposures) apply to specialised lending exposures. A firm may calculate risk weighted exposure amounts for a specialised lending exposure either:(a) (if it is able to do so) in accordance with BIPRU 4.4; or(b) in accordance
BIPRU 4.4.4RRP
Any credit obligation not assigned to the IRB exposure classes referred to in BIPRU 4.3.2 R (1) (Sovereigns), BIPRU 4.3.2 R (2) (Institutions) and BIPRU 4.3.2 R (4) - BIPRU 4.3.2 R (6) (Retail, equity and securitisations) must be assigned to the corporate exposure class.[Note:BCD Article 86(7)]
BIPRU 4.4.8RRP
An obligor grade means for the purpose of BIPRU 4 as it applies to the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class a risk category within a rating system's obligor rating scale, to which obligors are assigned on the basis of a specified and distinct set of rating criteria, from which estimates of PD are derived. A firm must document both the relationship between obligor grades in terms of the level of default risk each grade implies and the criteria used to distinguish
BIPRU 4.4.17GRP
Although it will not usually be the case that facility ratings and conversion factors will have to be updated more frequently than annually, LGDs and exposure values are subject to more frequent recalculation due to their connection to drawn balances, which can vary on a daily basis.
BIPRU 4.4.21RRP
In addition to complying with the material in BIPRU 4.3.54 R (Data maintenance) a firm must collect and store:(1) complete rating histories on obligors and recognised guarantors;(2) the dates the ratings were assigned;(3) the key data and methodology used to derive the rating;(4) the person responsible for the rating assignment;(5) the identity of obligors and exposures that defaulted;(6) the date and circumstances of such defaults;(7) data on the PDs and realised default rates
BIPRU 4.4.22RRP
(1) This rule, in accordance with BIPRU 4.3.57 R (4) (Definition of default), sets the exact number of days past due that a firm should abide by in the case of exposures to PSEs.(2) For counterparts that are PSEs situated within the United Kingdom the number of days past due is 180.(3) For counterparts that are PSEs situated in another EEA State the number of days past due is the lower of:(a) 180; and(b) the number of days past due fixed under the CRD implementation measure with
BIPRU 4.4.34RRP
A firm must use the following LGD values:(1) senior exposures without eligible collateral, 45%;(2) subordinated exposures without eligible collateral, 75%;(3) a firm may recognise funded and unfunded credit protection in the LGD in accordance with BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation), as modified by BIPRU 4.10;(4) covered bonds may be assigned an LGD value of 11.257%; and7(5) for certain senior corporate exposure purchased receivables, for certain subordinated corporate exposure purchased
BIPRU 4.4.37RRP
(1) The exposure value for the items set out in this rule must be calculated as the committed but undrawn amount multiplied by the applicable conversion factor set out in this rule.(2) For credit lines which are uncommitted, that are unconditionally cancellable at any time by the firm without prior notice, or that effectively provide for automatic cancellation due to deterioration in a borrower's credit worthiness, a conversion factor of 0 % applies. To apply a conversion factor
BIPRU 4.4.43RRP
1Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.4.34 R and BIPRU 4.8.25 R, if a firm'sIRB permission permits it to use own LGD estimates under the advanced IRB approach for exposures to which BIPRU 4 applies and permits it to use the approach in this rule, unfunded credit protection may be recognised by adjusting PD and/or LGD estimates subject to the minimum IRB standards. A firm must not assign guaranteed exposures an adjusted PD or LGD such that the adjusted risk weight would be lower than that of
BIPRU 4.4.45RRP
1If a firm uses its own estimates of conversion factors under the advanced IRB approach it must calculate the exposure value of off-balance sheet exposures calculated with the use of conversion factors by using its own estimates of conversion factors across different product types as mentioned in BIPRU 4.4.37 R and BIPRU 4.4.39 R (2) to BIPRU 4.4.39 R (4).[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 3 point 9 (part)]
BIPRU 4.4.49RRP
1A facility grade means for the purpose of the advanced IRB approach a risk category within a rating system's facility scale to which exposures are assigned on the basis of a specified and distinct set of rating criteria from which own estimates of LGDs are derived. The grade definition must include both a description of how exposures are assigned to the grade and of the criteria used to distinguish the level of risk across grades.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 10]
BIPRU 4.4.50RRP
1Significant concentrations within a single facility grade must be supported by convincing empirical evidence that the facility grade covers a reasonably narrow LGD band, respectively, and that the risk posed by all exposures in the grade falls within that band.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 11]
BIPRU 4.4.51RRP
1For a firm permitted to use own estimates of LGDs or conversion factors under the advanced IRB approach, each exposure must be assigned to a facility grade as part of the credit approval process. This is in addition to the requirements in BIPRU 4.4.11 R - BIPRU 4.4.13 R.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 20]
BIPRU 4.4.53RRP
1As well as complying with BIPRU 4.3.54 R and BIPRU 4.4.21 R (Data maintenance), a firm using own estimates of LGDs and/or conversion factors under the advanced IRB approach must collect and store:(1) complete histories of data on the facility ratings and LGD and conversion factor estimates associated with each rating scale3;(2) the dates the ratings were assigned and the estimates were done;(3) the key data and methodology used to derive the facility ratings and LGD and conversion
BIPRU 4.4.58RRP
Table: Formulae for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amountsThis table belongs to BIPRU 4.4.57 RCorrelation (R)0.12 × (1 - EXP(-50*PD))/(1-EXP(-50)) + 0.24*[1-(1-EXP(-50*PD))/(1-EXP(-50))]Maturity factor (b)(0.11852-0.05478*1n(PD))2(LGD*N[(1-R)-0.5*G(PD)+(R/(1-R))0.5 *G(0.999)]-PD*LGD)*(1-1.5*b)-1*(1+(M-2.5)*b)*12.5*1.06N(x)denotes the cumulative distribution function for a standard normal random variable (i.e. the probability that a normal random variable with mean zero
BIPRU 4.4.62RRP
3Table: Formulae for the calculation of expected loss amountsThis table belongs to BIPRU 4.4.61 RExpected loss (EL)equals PD×LGDExpected loss amountequals EL×exposure valueFor defaultedexposures (PD = 1) where a firm uses its own estimates of LGDs, EL must be ELBE, the firm's best estimate of expected loss for the defaultedexposure according to BIPRU 4.3.122 R.For exposures subject to the treatment set out in BIPRU 4.4.79 R (Double default) EL must be 0.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part
BIPRU 4.4.64RRP
The PD of a corporate exposure or an exposure in the IRB exposure class referred to in BIPRU 4.3.2 R (2) (Institutions) must be at least 0.03%.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 2]
BIPRU 4.4.67RRP
(1) A firm must calculate maturity (M) for each of the exposures referred to in this rule in accordance with this rule and subject to BIPRU 4.4.68 R to BIPRU 4.4.70 R. In all cases, M must be no greater than 5 years.(2) For an instrument subject to a cash flow schedule M must be calculated according to the following formula:where CFt denotes the cash flows (principal, interest payments and fees) contractually payable by the obligor in period t.(3) For derivatives subject to a
BIPRU 4.4.72RRP
A firm must not treat the exposure value of a facility as being less than current drawings under it. Interest accrued to date on an exposure under a facility must be included in current drawings or an allowance for it must be built into the conversion factor.
BIPRU 4.4.79RRP
The risk weighted exposure amount for each exposure which meets the requirements set out in BIPRU 5.7.2 R and BIPRU 4.4.83 R (Double default) may be adjusted according to the following formula:(1) Risk weighted exposure amount = RW *exposure value * (0.15 + 160*PDpp)](2) PDpp = PD of the protection provider(3) RW must be calculated using the relevant risk weight formula set out in BIPRU 4.4.57 R for the exposure, the PD of the obligor and the LGD of a comparable direct exposure
BIPRU 4.4.80RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.4.34 R and BIPRU 4.4.43 R, for the purposes of BIPRU 4.4.79 R, the LGD of a comparable direct exposure to the protection provider shall either be the LGD associated with an unhedged facility to the guarantor or the unhedged facility of the obligor, depending upon whether in the event both the guarantor and the obligor default during the life of the hedged transaction available evidence and the structure of the guarantee indicate that the amount recovered
BIPRU 4.4.83RRP
An institution, an insurance undertaking (including an insurance undertaking that carries out reinsurance) or an export credit agency which fulfils the following conditions may be recognised as an eligible provider of unfunded credit protection which qualifies for the treatment set out in BIPRU 4.4.79 R:(1) the protection provider has sufficient expertise in providing unfunded credit protection;(2) the protection provider is regulated in a manner equivalent to the rules laid down
BIPRU 4.4.85RRP
To be eligible for the treatment set out in BIPRU 4.4.79 R, credit protection deriving from a guarantee or credit derivative must meet the following conditions:(1) the underlying obligation must be to:(a) a corporate exposure, excluding an exposure to an insurance undertaking (including an insurance undertaking that carries out reinsurance); or(b) an exposure to a regional government, local authority or public sector entity which is not treated as an exposure to a central government
BIPRU 4.10.1GRP
BIPRU 4.10 applies to all exposures treated under the IRB approach.
BIPRU 4.10.2GRP
BIPRU 4.10 sets out modifications to BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation) for those exposures for which the IRB approach is being used.
BIPRU 4.10.4RRP
(1) Where the requirements of BIPRU 5.2.2 R - BIPRU 5.2.8 R are met the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts, and, as relevant, expected loss amounts, may be modified in accordance with BIPRU 5 as modified by BIPRU 4.10.(2) No exposure in respect of which credit risk mitigation is obtained must produce a higher risk weighted exposure amount or expected loss amount than an otherwise identical exposure in respect of which there is no credit risk mitigation.(3) Where the
BIPRU 4.10.9RRP
(1) The condition in BIPRU 4.10.6 R (3) does not apply for exposures secured by residential real estate property situated within the territory of another EEA State.(2) However (1) only applies if and to the extent that the CRD implementation measures for that EEA State in relation to the IRB approach implement the option set out in paragraph 16 of Part 1 of Annex VIII of the Banking Consolidation Directive (waiver for residential real estate property) with respect to residential
BIPRU 4.10.18RRP
(1) If a type of other physical collateral referred to in BIPRU 4.10.16 R is potentially eligible under a firm'sIRB permission a firm must only recognise it as eligible if the minimum requirements in (2) to (10) are met.(2) The collateral arrangement must be legally effective and enforceable in all relevant jurisdictions and must enable the firm to realise the value of the property within a reasonable timeframe.(3) With the sole exception of permissible prior claims referred to
BIPRU 4.10.29RRP
(1) A firm may apply the treatment in paragraph 74 of Part 3 of Annex VIII of the Banking Consolidation Directive (50% risk weight for exposures secured by real estate) in respect of exposures collateralised by:(a) residential real estate property; or(b) commercial real estate property;located in the territory of another EEA State.(2) However (1)(a) or (1)(b) only applies if the CRD implementing measures for that EEA State with respect to the IRB approach have implemented the
BIPRU 4.10.30RRP
(1) Where:(a) risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts are calculated under the IRB approach; and(b) an exposure is collateralised by both financial collateral and other eligible collateral;LGD* to be taken as the LGD for the purposes of the IRB approach must be calculated in accordance with this rule.(2) A firm must subdivide the volatility-adjusted value of the exposure (i.e. the value after the application of the volatility adjustment as set out in BIPRU 5.4.28
BIPRU 4.10.32RRP
(1) This rule sets out how the calculations under BIPRU 5.6.11 R (Using the supervisory volatility adjustments or the own estimates volatility adjustments approaches to master netting agreements covering repurchase transactions and/or securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions and/or other capital market driven transactions) must be modified under the IRB approach.(2) Where risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts are calculated under the IRB approach,
BIPRU 4.10.33RRP
(1) This rule sets out how the calculations under BIPRU 5.6.24 R (Using the internal models approach to master netting agreements covering repurchase transactions and/or securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions and/or other capital market driven transactions) must be modified under the IRB approach.(2) Where risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts are calculated under the IRB approach E is the exposure value for each separate exposure under
BIPRU 4.10.34RRP
(1) This rule sets out how the calculations under BIPRU 5.6.29 R (Calculating risk-weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts for master netting agreements covering repurchase transactions and/or securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions and/or other capital market driven transactions) must be modified under the IRB approach.(2) E* must be taken as the exposure value of the exposure to the counterparty arising from the transactions subject to the master
BIPRU 4.10.35RRP
(1) This rule sets out how the calculations under BIPRU 5.4.28 R (Calculating adjusted values under the financial collateral comprehensive method) must be modified under the IRB approach.(2) E as referred to in the provisions listed in (1) is the exposure value as would be determined under the IRB approach if the exposure was not collateralised. For this purpose, where a firm calculates risk weighted exposure amounts under the IRB approach, the exposure value of the items listed
BIPRU 4.10.36RRP
(1) This rule sets out the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts2 and expected loss2 amounts under the financial collateral comprehensive method2 for a firm using the IRB approach.222(2) LGD* (the effective loss given default) calculated as set out in this paragraph must be taken as the LGD for the purposes of BIPRU 4.(3) LGD* = LGD x (E*/E) where:(a) LGD is the loss given default that would apply to the exposure under the IRB approach if the exposure was not collateralised;(b)
BIPRU 4.10.37RRP
(1) In the case of a firm using the IRB approach to calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts, the persons in (2) are added to the list in BIPRU 5.4.64 R (Definition of core market participant).(2) The persons referred to in (1) are other financial companies (including insurance companies) exposures to which do not have a credit assessment by an eligible ECAI and are internally rated as having a probability of default equivalent to that associated with
BIPRU 4.10.38RRP
(1) In the case of a firm using the IRB approach in calculating risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts, the persons in (2) are added to the list in BIPRU 5.7.1 R (List of eligible providers of unfunded credit protection).(2) The persons referred to in (1) are other corporate entities, including parent undertakings, subsidiary undertakings and affiliate corporate entities of the firm, that do not have a credit assessment by an eligible ECAI and are internally
BIPRU 4.10.39RRP
Where risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts are calculated under the IRB approach, to be eligible a guarantor must be internally rated by a firm in accordance with the provisions of the minimum IRB standards.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 1 point 27]
BIPRU 4.10.40RRP
BIPRU 4.10.41 R to BIPRU 4.10.48 R set out the minimum requirements:(1) assessing the effect of guarantees and credit derivatives for:(a) exposures in the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class2 where the advanced IRB approach is being used to calculate LGDs; and(b) retail exposures; and(2) additionally, in the case of retail exposure guarantees, to the assignment of exposures to grades or pools, and the estimation of PD.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 97]
BIPRU 4.10.50RRP
In addition to BIPRU 5.8.2 R, where there is a maturity mismatch the credit protection must not be recognised where the exposure is a short term exposure specified in the firm'sIRB permission as being subject to a one-day floor rather than a one-year floor in respect of the maturity value (M) under BIPRU 4.4.68 R.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 4 point 2(b)]
BIPRU 4.10.51RRP
GA as calculated under BIPRU 5.8.11 R is then taken as the value of the protection for the purposes of calculating the effects of unfunded credit protection under the IRB approach.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 4 point 8 (part)]
BIPRU 4.7.3RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.3.5 R (Relevant parameters), the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for credit risk for all exposures belonging to the equity exposureIRB exposure class must be calculated in accordance with one of the following ways:(1) the simple risk weight approach (see BIPRU 4.7.8 R;(2) the PD/LGD approach (see BIPRU 4.7.13 R); and(3) the internal models approach (see BIPRU 4.7.23 R);in accordance with BIPRU 4.7 and subject to the firm'sIRB permission.[Note:BCD
BIPRU 4.7.6RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.7.5 R a firm may, if its IRB permission permits it to do so, attribute the risk weighted exposure amounts for equity exposures to ancillary services undertakings according to the treatment of non credit-obligation assets.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 18]
BIPRU 4.7.12RRP
The expected loss amounts1 for equity exposures must be calculated according to the following formula:(1) expected loss amount = EL × exposure value; and(2) the EL values must be the following:(a) expected loss (EL) = 0.8% for private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios;(b) expected loss (EL) = 0.8% for exchange traded equity exposures; and(c) expected loss (EL) = 2.4% for all other equity exposures.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 32]
BIPRU 4.7.14RRP
The risk weighted exposure amounts must be calculated according to the formulas in BIPRU 4.4.58 R (Risk weighted exposure amounts for sovereigns, institutions and corporates). If a firm does not have sufficient information to use the definition of default a scaling factor of 1.5 must be assigned to the risk weights.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 22]
BIPRU 4.7.15RRP
At the individual exposure level the sum of the expected loss amount multiplied by 12.5 and the risk weighted exposure amount must not exceed the exposure value multiplied by 12.5.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 23]
BIPRU 4.7.16RRP
A firm may recognise unfunded credit protection obtained on an equity exposure in accordance with the methods set out in BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation) as modified by BIPRU 4.10. This must be subject to an LGD of 90% on the exposure to the provider of the hedge. For private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios an LGD of 65% may be used.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 24]
BIPRU 4.7.17RRP
The expected loss amounts for equity exposures must be calculated according to the following formulae:(1) expected loss (EL) = PD × LGD; and(2) expected loss amount = EL × exposure value.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 33]
BIPRU 4.7.18RRP
PDs must be determined according to the methods for corporate exposures. The following minimum PDs must be applied:(1) 0.09% for exchange traded equity exposures where the investment is part of a long-term customer relationship;(2) 0.09% for non-exchange traded equity exposures where the returns on the investment are based on regular and periodic cash flows not derived from capital gains;(3) 0.40% for exchange traded equity exposures including other short positions as set out
BIPRU 4.7.20RRP
Private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios may be assigned an LGD of 65%.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 25]
BIPRU 4.7.21RRP
All other exposures must be assigned an LGD of 90%.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 26]
BIPRU 4.7.24RRP
The risk weighted exposure amount is the potential loss on the firm'sequity exposures as derived using internal value-at-risk models subject to the 99th percentile, one-tailed confidence interval of the difference between quarterly returns and an appropriate risk-free rate computed over a long-term sample period, multiplied by 12.5. The risk weighted exposure amounts at the equity exposure portfolio2 level must not be less than the total of the sums2 of the minimum risk weighted
BIPRU 4.7.26RRP
The expected loss amounts for equity exposures under the internal models approach must be 0%.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 34]
BIPRU 4.7.27RRP
(1) A firm must meet the standards set out in (2) to (9) for the purpose of calculating capital requirements.(2) The estimate of potential loss must be robust to adverse market movements relevant to the long-term risk profile of the firm's specific holdings. The data used to represent return distributions must reflect the longest sample period for which data is available and be meaningful in representing the risk profile of the firm's specific equity exposures. The data used must
BIPRU 4.7.34RRP
A firm must have sound internal standards for situations where comparison of actual equity exposure returns with the models' estimates calls the validity of the estimates or of the models as such into question. These standards must take account of business cycles and similar systematic variability in equity exposure returns. All adjustments made to internal models in response to model reviews must be documented and consistent with the firm's model review standards.[Note:BCD Annex
BIPRU 4.8.2GRP
Purchased receivables do not form an IRB exposure class on their own. For any purchased receivable, the provisions of the sections of BIPRU 4 that deal with the IRB exposure class to which it belongs also apply, as modified by this section.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 15 (part)]
BIPRU 4.8.7RRP
For corporate exposure purchased receivables a firm may estimate ELs by obligor grade from long run averages of one-year realised default rates.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 60]
BIPRU 4.8.8RRP
If a firm derives long run average estimates of PDs and LGDs for corporate exposure purchased receivables from an estimate of EL, and an appropriate estimate of PD or LGD, the process for estimating total losses must meet the overall standards for estimation of PD and LGD set out in the minimum IRB standards,2 and the outcome must be consistent with the concept of LGD as set out in BIPRU 4.3.99 R.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 61]
BIPRU 4.8.9RRP
A firm may use external and internal reference data for its LGD estimates in the case of retail exposures that are purchased receivables.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 85]
BIPRU 4.8.16RRP
For its corporate exposure purchased receivables a firm must comply with the minimum requirements set out in BIPRU 4.8.11 R - BIPRU 4.8.15 R. For corporate exposure purchased receivables that comply in addition with the conditions set out in BIPRU 4.8.18 R, and where it would be unduly burdensome for a firm to use the risk quantification standards for corporate exposures as set out in the minimum IRB standards for these receivables, the risk quantification standards for retail
BIPRU 4.8.17RRP
For corporate exposure purchased receivables, refundable purchase discounts, collateral or partial guarantees that provide first-loss protection for defaultlosses, dilution losses, or both, may be treated as first-loss positions under the provisions in BIPRU 9 (Securitisation) about the IRB approach.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 8]
BIPRU 4.8.19RRP
With respect to retail exposures, for purchased receivables, refundable purchase discounts, collateral or partial guarantees that provide first-loss protection for defaultlosses, dilution losses, or both, may be treated as first-loss positions under the provisions in BIPRU 9 (Securitisation) about the IRB approach.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 15]
BIPRU 4.8.21RRP
The risk weights for dilution risk for purchased receivables (both corporate exposures and retail exposures) must be calculated according to this rule. The risk weights must be calculated according to the formula in BIPRU 4.4.58 R. However, for the purposes of that formula, the total annual sales referred to in BIPRU 4.4.59 R are the weighted average by individual exposures of the pool. The input parameters PD and LGD and the exposure value must be determined under the applicable
BIPRU 4.8.22RRP
For purchased corporate exposure receivables in respect of which a firm cannot demonstrate that its PD estimates meet the minimum IRB standards, the PDs for these exposures must be determined according to the following methods:(1) for senior claims on purchased corporate exposure receivables PD must be the firm's estimate of EL divided by LGD for these receivables;(2) for subordinated claims on purchased corporate exposure receivables PD must be the firm's estimate of EL; and1(3)
BIPRU 4.8.23RRP
In the case of corporate exposures, for dilution risk of purchased receivables PD must be set equal to EL estimate for dilution risk. If a firm is under its IRB permission using the advanced IRB approach for LGD estimates for corporate exposures and it can decompose its EL estimates for dilution risk of purchased corporate exposure receivables into PDs and LGDs in a reliable manner, the PD estimate may be used. A firm may recognise unfunded credit protection in the PD in accordance
BIPRU 4.8.24RRP
In the case of retail exposures, for dilution risk of purchased receivables PD must be set equal to EL estimates for dilution risk. If a firm can decompose its EL estimates for dilution risk of purchased receivables into PDs and LGDs in a reliable manner, the PD estimate may be used.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 19]
BIPRU 4.8.25RRP
The following LGD values apply for purchased corporate exposure receivables:(1) for senior purchased corporate exposure receivables exposures where a firm cannot demonstrate that its PD estimates meet the minimum IRB standards, the value is 45%;(2) for subordinated purchased corporate exposure receivables exposures where a firm cannot demonstrate that its PD estimates meet the minimum IRB standards, the value is 100%; and(3) for dilution risk of purchased corporate exposure receivables,
BIPRU 4.8.26RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.4.34 R and BIPRU 4.8.25 R, for dilution risk and default risk if a firm is under its IRB permission using the advanced IRB approach for LGD estimates for corporate exposures and it can decompose its EL estimates for purchased corporate exposure receivables into PDs and LGDs in a reliable manner, the LGD estimate for purchased corporate exposure receivables may be used.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 9]
BIPRU 4.8.27RRP
For dilution risk of purchased retail exposure receivables an LGD value of 75% must be used. If a firm can decompose its EL estimates for dilution risk of purchased receivables into PDs and LGDs in a reliable manner, the LGD estimate may be used.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 21]
BIPRU 4.8.29RRP
(1) The exposure value for the items in (2) must be calculated as the committed but undrawn amount multiplied by a conversion factor.(2) For undrawn purchase commitments for revolving purchased receivables that are unconditionally cancellable or that effectively provide for automatic cancellation at any time by the firm without prior notice, a conversion factor of 0% applies. To apply a conversion factor of 0%, a firm must actively monitor the financial condition of the obligor,
BIPRU 4.8.30RRP
The expected loss amounts for dilution risk of purchased receivables must be calculated according to the following formula: expected loss (EL) = PD × LGD; andexpected loss amount = EL × exposure value.[Note: BCD Article 88(5) and Annex VII Part 1 point 35]
BIPRU 4.2.1RRP
This section applies to all exposures treated under the IRB approach.
BIPRU 4.2.2RRP
A firm's systems for the management and rating of credit risk exposures must be sound and implemented with integrity and, in particular, they must meet the following standards in accordance with the minimum IRB standards:(1) the firm'srating systems provide for a meaningful assessment of obligor and transaction characteristics, a meaningful differentiation of risk and accurate and consistent quantitative estimates of risk;(2) internal ratings and default and loss estimates used
BIPRU 4.2.5GRP
(1) This paragraph provides guidance on BIPRU 4.2.2 R and in particular BIPRU 4.2.2 R (1).(2) The information that a firm produces or uses for the purpose of the IRB approach should be reliable and take proper account of the different users of the information produced (customers, shareholders, regulators and other market participants).(3) A firm should establish quantified and documented targets and standards, against which it should test the accuracy of data used in its rating
BIPRU 4.2.11RRP
A firm must be able to demonstrate that it has been using for the IRB exposure classes in question rating systems that were broadly in line with the minimum IRB standards for internal risk measurement and management purposes for at least three years prior to the date of its IRB permission.[Note:BCD Article 84(3)]
BIPRU 4.2.17RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 4.2.26 R, a firm and any parent undertaking and its subsidiary undertakings must implement the IRB approach for all exposures.[Note: BCD Article 85(1) (part)]
BIPRU 4.2.18RRP
To the extent that a firm'sIRB permission permits this, implementation may be carried out sequentially across the different IRB exposure classes within the same business unit, across different business units in the same group or for the use of own estimates of LGDs or conversion factors for the calculation of risk weights for the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class.3[Note:BCD Article 85(1) (part)]
BIPRU 4.2.19RRP
In the case of the retail exposures, implementation may (but only to the extent provided for in the firm'sIRB permission) be carried out sequentially across the categories of exposures to which the different correlations in BIPRU 4.6.41 R-BIPRU 4.6.44 R correspond.[Note:BCD Article 85(1) (part)]
BIPRU 4.2.20RRP
(1) Implementation of the IRB approach as referred to in BIPRU 4.2.18 R must be carried out within a reasonable period of time as set out in the IRB permission.(2) The implementation must be carried out subject to strict conditions determined by the appropriate regulator and set out in the IRB permission.(3) A firm must not use the flexibility under BIPRU 4.2.18 R selectively with the purpose of achieving reduced minimum capital requirements in respect of those IRB exposure classes
BIPRU 4.2.21GRP
(1) A firm should achieve full roll-out of the IRB approach to all its exposures, subject to the exemptions outlined in BIPRU 4.2.26 R, within the period specified in its IRB permission. A firm should not retain a permanent mix of portfolios on the standardised approach and the IRB approach, on the foundation IRB approach and the advanced IRB approach or on a mixture of all approaches with the exception of portfolios covered by those exemptions.(2) This applies to a move:(a) from
BIPRU 4.2.22RRP
A firm using the IRB approach for any IRB exposure class must at the same time use the IRB approach for the equity exposure class.[Note:BCD Article 85(3)]
BIPRU 4.2.23RRP
Subject to BIPRU 4.2.17 R - BIPRU 4.2.20 R, BIPRU 4.2.22 R and BIPRU 4.2.26 R, a firm that has an IRB permission must not use the standardised approach for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for the exposures to which the IRB approach applies under the IRB permission.[Note:BCD Article 85(4)]1
BIPRU 4.2.24RRP
Subject to BIPRU 4.2.17 R - BIPRU 4.2.22 R and BIPRU 4.2.26 R, a firm whose IRB permission provides for the use of the advanced IRB approach for the calculation of LGDs and conversion factors for the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class must not use the LGD values and conversion factors applicable to the foundation IRB approach for the exposures to which the advanced IRB approach applies under the IRB permission.[Note:BCD Article 85(5)]
BIPRU 4.2.26RRP
(1) To the extent that its IRB permission permits this, a firm permitted to use the IRB approach in the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts3 for one or more IRB exposure classes may apply the standardised approach in accordance with this rule.3(2) A firm may apply the standardised approach to the IRB exposure class referred to in BIPRU 4.3.2 R (1) (Sovereigns) where the number of material counterparties is limited and it would be unduly burdensome
BIPRU 4.2.27GRP
As part of the application for an IRB permission, a firm should have a well documented policy explaining the basis on which exposures are to be selected for permanent exemption from the IRB approach and for treatment under the standardised approach. The firm's roll out plan should also contain provisions for the continuing application of that policy on a consistent basis over time.
BIPRU 4.2.29RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 4.2.26 R (4), the equity exposureIRB exposure class of a firm must be considered material if its aggregate value, excluding equity exposures incurred under legislative programmes as referred to in BIPRU 4.2.26 R (8) but including exposures in a CIU treated as equity exposures in accordance with BIPRU 4.9.11 R to BIPRU 4.9.15 R,4 exceeds, on average over the preceding year, 10% of the firm'scapital resources. If the number of those equity exposures is
BIPRU 4.2.30RRP
(1) This rule sets out what must be treated as being non-significant business or immaterial for the purposes of BIPRU 4.2.26 R (4), for exposures that do not fall within the equity exposureIRB exposure class.(2) A firm may elect permanently to exclude exposures from the IRB approach and apply the standardised approach. However a firm may only make use of this exemption to the extent that:(a) the consolidated credit risk requirement (adjusted under (6)) so far as it is attributable
BIPRU 4.2.31RRP
If a firm applies to use the advanced IRB approach for the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class, BIPRU 4.2.26 R (4) also applies with respect to exposures in that class. For these purposes, to the extent permitted in the firm'sIRB permission, a firm may:(1) exclude some exposures from the IRB approach and apply the standardised approach to those exposures; and(2) exclude other exposures from the advanced IRB approach and apply the foundation IRB approach to
BIPRU 4.2.32GRP
Where BIPRU 4.2.31 R applies:(1) the 15% limit in BIPRU 4.2.30 R (2) is a combined limit for excluded exposures remaining on the standardised approach and excluded exposures remaining on the foundation IRB approach; and(2) the calculation in BIPRU 4.2.30 R (2)(a) is carried out under whichever method of calculation would be applicable to the exposure in question.
BIPRU 4.2.34GRP
(1) Generally, the appropriate regulator will consider excluding, through a firm'sIRB permission, exposures falling into BIPRU 4.2.26 R (6) from the IRB approach. The degree to which this exclusion applies will be set out in the firm'sIRB permission.(2) Exposures excluded under (1) will be eligible for a 0% risk weight under the standardised approach if they satisfy the conditions in BIPRU 3.2.25 R to BIPRU 3.2.27A R5 (Zero risk weight for certain intra-group exposures).5(3) Exposures
BIPRU 4.2.35GRP
(1) This guidance deals with some possible effects of acquiring a major new business after the grant of an IRB permission.(2) A firm should if possible ensure that the exposures arising through the acquisition are dealt with in accordance with the firm'sIRB permission.(3) If the acquisition is made during the currency of a roll out plan under BIPRU 4.2.18 R, a firm should ensure that the exposures arising through the acquisition are dealt with in accordance with that plan. For
BIPRU 4.6.2RRP
To be eligible to be treated as a retail exposure, exposures must meet the following criteria:(1) they must be either to an individual person or persons, or to a small or medium sized entity, provided in the latter case that the total amount owed to the firm and parent undertaking and its subsidiary undertakings, including any past due exposure, by the obligor client or group of connected clients, but excluding claims or contingent claims secured on residential real estate collateral,
BIPRU 4.6.4GRP
(1) This paragraph sets out guidance on BIPRU 4.6.2 R so far as it relates to the boundary between retail exposures and corporate exposures.(2) In deciding what steps are reasonable for the purposes of BIPRU 4.6.2 R (1), a firm may take into account complexity and cost, as well as the materiality of the impact upon its capital calculation. A firm should be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator that it has complied with the obligation to take reasonable steps under BIPRU
BIPRU 4.6.11RRP
(1) A firm must consider the following risk drivers when assigning exposures to grades or pools:(a) obligor risk characteristics;(b) transaction risk characteristics, including product or collateral types or both; and(c) delinquency.(2) In the case of (1)(b) a firm must explicitly address cases where several exposures benefit from the same collateral.(3) However:(a) a firm need not consider delinquency if this is compatible with its IRB permission; and(b) (in the case of a firm
BIPRU 4.6.14RRP
A firm must at least annually update obligor and facility assignments or review the loss characteristics and delinquency status of each identified risk pool whichever is applicable. A firm must also at least annually review in a representative sample the status of individual exposures within each pool as a means of ensuring that exposures continue to be assigned to the correct pool.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 29]
BIPRU 4.6.18RRP
In addition to complying with BIPRU 4.3.54 R (Data maintenance) a firm must collect and store:(1) data used in the process of allocating exposures to grades or pools;(2) data on the estimated PDs, LGDs and conversion factors associated with grades or pools of exposures;(3) the identity of obligors and exposures that defaulted;(4) for defaultedexposures, data on the grades or pools to which the exposure was assigned over the year prior to default and the realised outcomes on LGD
BIPRU 4.6.20RRP
(1) This rule, in accordance with BIPRU 4.3.57 R (4) (Definition of default), sets the exact number of days past due that a firm must abide by in the case of retail exposures.(2) For retail exposures to counterparts situated within the United Kingdom the number of days past due is 180 days with the exception of retail SME exposures. For these exposures the number is 90 days.(3) For retail exposures to counterparts situated in another EEA State the number of days past due is the
BIPRU 4.6.27RRP
If a firm derives long run average estimates of PD and LGD for retail exposures from an estimate of total losses, and an appropriate estimate of PD or LGD, the process for estimating total losses must meet the minimum IRB standards1 for estimation of PD and LGD, and the outcome must be consistent with the concept of LGD as set out in BIPRU 4.3.99 R (Default weighted average).[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 70]
BIPRU 4.6.44RRP
(1) For qualifying revolving retail exposures a correlation (R) of 0.04 must replace the correlation formula in the table in BIPRU 4.6.42 R.(2) Retail exposures qualify as qualifying revolving retail exposures if they meet the following conditions:(a) the IRB permission of the firm in question does not disapply this paragraph;(b) the exposures are to individuals;(c) the exposures are revolving, unsecured, and, to the extent they are not drawn, immediately and unconditionally cancellable
BIPRU 4.6.45GRP
A firm should be able to demonstrate the low volatility of loss rates mentioned in BIPRU 4.6.44 R (2)(e) at the time of the initial application for an IRB permission and thereafter at any time on request. The benchmark level should be the volatility of loss rates for the qualifying revolving retail exposure portfolio relative to the volatilities of loss rates of other relevant types of retail exposures. A firm should demonstrate low volatility by reference to data on the mean
BIPRU 4.6.54RRP
Unfunded credit protection may be recognised as eligible by adjusting PD or LGD estimates subject to the minimum IRB standards as specified in BIPRU 4.10.43 R - BIPRU 4.10.48 R and in accordance with the IRB permission either in support of an individual exposure or a pool of exposures. A firm must not assign guaranteed exposures an adjusted PD or LGD such that the adjusted risk weight would be lower than that of a comparable, direct exposure to the guarantor.[Note:BCD Annex VII
BIPRU 4.1.6GRP
The IRB approach is an alternative to the standardised approach for calculating a firm's credit risk capital requirements. It may be applied to all a firm'sexposures or to some of them, subject to various limitations on partial use as set out in BIPRU 4.2. Under the IRB approach capital requirements are based on a firm's own estimates of certain parameters together with other parameters set out in the Banking Consolidation Directive.
BIPRU 4.1.8GRP
For exposures in the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class, there is a foundation IRB approach under which a firm provides its own estimates of PD and an advanced IRB approach under which a firm additionally provides its own estimates of LGD and conversion factors. The distinction between the foundation IRB approach and the advanced IRB approach only applies to this IRB exposure class.
BIPRU 4.1.10GRP
For the corporate exposure class there is a separate sub-class of specialised lending exposure. A firm may calculate risk weights for these exposures, where it is able to do so, in the same way as it does for the rest of its corporate exposure class, i.e. using the foundation IRB approach or the advanced IRB approach. Where a firm is not able to use this approach it may calculate risk weights for specialised lending exposures by slotting them into predetermined risk weights.
BIPRU 4.1.14GRP
(1) The appropriate regulator will only grant an IRB permission if it is satisfied that the firm's systems for the management and rating of credit risk exposures are sound and implemented with integrity and, in particular, that they meet the standards in BIPRU 4.2.2 R in accordance with the minimum IRB standards.(2) Under BIPRU 4.2.11 R, a firm applying for an IRB permission is required to demonstrate that it has been using for the IRB exposure classes in question rating systems
BIPRU 4.1.16RRP
A firm must calculate its credit risk capital component as the sum of:(1) (for exposures to which the standardised approach is applied) the credit risk capital component as calculated under BIPRU 3.1.5 R; and(2) (for exposures to which the IRB approach is applied to which the standardised approach would otherwise apply in accordance with BIPRU 3.1.5 R (Credit risk capital component)), 8% of the total of the firm'srisk weighted exposure amounts calculated in accordance with the
BIPRU 4.1.17GRP
For exposures covered by an IRB permission, BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation) is modified by BIPRU 4.10.
BIPRU 4.1.19GRP
Exposures treated under BIPRU 13 are required to be dealt with in accordance with the IRB approach to the extent set out in BIPRU 13.
BIPRU 4.1.20GRP
By modifying GENPRU 2.1.51 R to allow the firm to use the IRB approach to calculate all or part of its risk weighted exposure amounts, the appropriate regulator is treating it like an application rule. The modification means that the provisions of BIPRU relating to the IRB approach supersede the rules relating to the standardised approach for exposures coming within the scope of the IRB permission.
BIPRU 4.1.23RRP
If a provision of the Handbook relating to the IRB approach says that a firm may do something if its IRB permission allows it, a firm may do that thing unless its IRB permission expressly says that it may not do so except that:(1) BIPRU 4.2.18 R - BIPRU 4.2.19 R (Sequential implementation of IRB approach) and BIPRU 4.2.26 R (1)-BIPRU 4.2.26R (5) (Combined use of standardised approach with IRB approach) only apply if expressly permitted by a firm'sIRB permission;(2) a firm may
IFPRU 4.7.1GRP
The FCA expects a firm to ensure that no LGD estimate is less than zero.
IFPRU 4.7.2GRP
The FCA does not expect a firm to be using zero LGD estimates in cases other than where it had cash collateral supporting the exposures.
IFPRU 4.7.6GRP
To ensure that estimates of LGDs take into account the most up-to-date experience, the FCA expects a firm to take account of data for relevant incomplete workouts (ie, defaulted exposures for which the recovery process is still in progress, with the result that the final realised losses in respect of those exposures are not yet certain) (see article 179(1)(c) of the EU CRR).
IFPRU 4.7.7GRP
To ensure that sovereign LGD models are sufficiently conservative in view of the estimation error that may arise from the lack of data on losses to sovereigns, the FCA expects a firm to apply a 45% LGD floor to each unsecured exposure in the sovereign asset class (see article 179(1)(a) of the EU CRR).
IFPRU 4.7.10GRP
To ensure that its LGD estimates are oriented towards downturn conditions, the FCA expects a firm to have a process through which it:(1) identifies appropriate downturn conditions for each IRB exposure class within each jurisdiction;(2) identifies adverse dependencies, if any, between default rates and recovery rates; and(3) incorporates adverse dependencies, if identified, between default rates and recovery rates in the firm's estimates of LGD in a manner that meets the requirements
IFPRU 4.7.11GRP
To ensure that its LGD estimates incorporate material discount effects, the FCA expects a firm's methods for discounting cash flows to take account of the uncertainties associated with the receipt of recoveries for a defaulted exposure. For example, by adjusting cash flows to certainty-equivalents or by using a discount rate that embodies an appropriate risk premium; or by a combination of the two.
IFPRU 4.7.13GRP
The FCA expects a firm using advanced IRB approaches to have done the following in respect of wholesale LGD estimates:(1) applied LGD estimates at transaction level;(2) ensured that all LGD estimates (both downturn and non-downturn) are cautious, conservative and justifiable, given the paucity of observations. Under article 179(1)(a) of the EU CRR, estimates must be derived using both historical experience and empirical evidence, and not be based purely on judgemental consideration.
IFPRU 4.7.18GRP
The extent to which a borrower's assets are already given as collateral will clearly affect the recoveries available to unsecured creditors. If the degree to which assets are pledged is substantial, this will be a material driver of LGDs on such exposures. Although potentially present in all transactions, the FCA expects a firm to be particularly aware of this driver in situations in which borrowing on a secured basis is the normal form of financing, leaving relatively few assets
BIPRU 4.5.3RRP
Within the corporate exposureIRB exposure class, a firm must separately identify as specialised lending exposures, exposures which possess the following characteristics:(1) the exposure is to an entity which was created specifically to finance and/or operate physical assets;(2) the contractual arrangements give the lender a substantial degree of control over the assets and the income that they generate; and(3) the primary source of repayment of the obligation is the income generated
BIPRU 4.5.4RRP
If a firm is using or is applying to use the advanced IRB approach for some or all of its exposures in the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class, then specialised lending exposures treated under BIPRU 4.5.8 R (Slotting) must be treated as being dealt with under the advanced IRB approach for the purposes of the calculations in BIPRU 4.2.30 R and BIPRU 4.2.31 R. If a firm is not using or applying to use the advanced IRB approach for any of its exposures in the
BIPRU 4.5.8RRP
For specialised lending exposures in respect of which a firm cannot demonstrate that its PD estimates meet the minimum IRB standards it must assign risk weights to these exposures according to the table in BIPRU 4.5.9 R.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 6 (part)]
BIPRU 4.5.10RRP
A firm may generally assign preferential risk weights of 50% to exposures in category 1, and a 70% risk weight to exposures in category 2 if:(1) its IRB permission allows this; and(2) the firm's underwriting characteristics and other risk characteristics are substantially strong for the relevant category.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 6 (part)]
BIPRU 4.5.14RRP
Where a firm'sIRB permission authorises it generally to assign preferential risk weights as outlined in BIPRU 4.5.10 R of 50% to exposures in category 1, and 70% to exposures in category 2, the EL value for exposures in category 1 must be 0%, and for exposures in category 2 must be 0.4%.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 31 (part)]
BIPRU 9.12.1RRP
BIPRU 9.12 applies to the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts of securitisation positions under the IRB approach.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 37 (part)]
BIPRU 9.12.8RRP
For an originator, a sponsor, or for other firms which can calculate KIRB, the risk weighted exposure amounts calculated in respect of its positions in a securitisation may be limited to that which would produce an amount in respect of its credit risk capital requirement equal to the sum of 8% of the risk weighted exposure amount which would be produced if the securitised assets had not been securitised and were on the balance sheet of the firm plus the expected loss amounts of
BIPRU 9.12.20RRP
(1) If:(a) a firm'sIRB permission allows it to use this treatment; and(b) the conditions in (2)(16) are satisfied,a firm may attribute to an unrated position in an asset backed commercial paper programme a derived rating as laid down in (3).(2) Positions in the commercial paper issued from the programme must be rated positions.(3) Under the ABCP internal assessment approach, the unrated position must be assigned by the firm to one of the rating grades described in (5). The position
BIPRU 9.12.22RRP
(1) Subject to any permission of the type described in BIPRU 9.12.28 G, the risk weight to be applied to the exposure amount must be:12.5 (S[L+T] - S[L]) / T(2) The remaining provisions of this paragraph define the terms used in the formulae in (1) and (3).(3) 2(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) In these expressions, Beta [x; a, b]refers to the cumulative beta distribution with parameters a and b evaluated at x.(16) T (the thickness of the tranche in which the
BIPRU 9.12.28GRP
(1) When it is not practical for the firm to calculate the risk weighted exposure amounts for the securitised exposures as if they had not been securitised and the position does not qualify for the ABCP internal assessment approach, a firm may apply to the appropriate regulator for a variation of its IRB permission under which, on an exceptional basis, it may temporarily apply the method in (2) for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for an unratedsecuritisation
BIPRU 5.4.1RRP
(1) Where the credit risk mitigation used relies on the right of a firm to liquidate or retain assets, eligibility depends upon whether risk weighted exposure amounts, and, as relevant, expected loss amounts, are calculated under the standardised approach or the IRB approach.(2) Eligibility further depends upon whether the financial collateral simple method is used or the financial collateral comprehensive method.(3) In relation to repurchase transactions and securities or commodities
BIPRU 5.4.31RRP
A firm may choose to use the supervisory volatility adjustments approach or the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach independently of the choice it has made between the standardised approach and the IRB approach for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts. However, if a firm seeks to use the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach, it must do so for the full range of instrument types, excluding immaterial portfolios where it may use the supervisory
IFPRU 4.3.2GRP
A significant IFPRU firm should consider developing internal credit risk assessment capacity and to increase use of the internal ratings based approach for calculating own funds requirements for credit risk where its exposures are material in absolute terms and where it has at the same time a large number of material counterparties. This provision is without prejudice to the fulfilment of criteria laid down in Part Three, Title I, Chapter 3, Section 1 of the EU CRR (IRB approach).[Note:
IFPRU 4.3.9GRP
The FCA expects a firm seeking to apply the Standardised Approach on a permanent basis to certain exposures to have a well-documented policy explaining the basis on which exposures are to be selected for permanent exemption from the IRB approach. This policy should be provided to the FCA when the firm applies for permission to use the IRB approach and maintained thereafter. Where a firm also wishes to undertake sequential implementation, the FCA expects the firm's roll-out plan
IFPRU 4.3.11GRP
Where a firm wishes permanently to apply the Standardised Approach to certain business units on the grounds that they are non-significant and/or certain exposure classes or types of exposures on the grounds that they are immaterial in terms of size and perceived risk profile, the FCA expects to permit a firm to make use of this exemption only to the extent that the risk-weighted exposure amount calculated under article 92(3)(a) and (f) of the EU CRR that are based on the Standardised
IFPRU 4.3.14GRP
Where a firm wishes to permanently apply the Standardised Approach to exposures to connected counterparties in accordance with article 150(1)(e) of the EU CRR, the FCA would normally expect to grant permission to do so only if the firm had a policy that provided for the identification of connected counterparties exposures that would be permanently exempted from the IRB approach and also identified connected counterparty exposures (if any) that would not be permanently exempted
IFPRU 4.3.15GRP
In the event that a firm with IRB permission acquires a significant new business, it should discuss with the FCA whether sequential roll-out of the firm's IRB approach to these exposures would be appropriate. In addition, the FCA would expect to review any existing time period and conditions for sequential roll-out and determine whether these remain appropriate (see article 148 of the EU CRR).
BIPRU 9.13.6RRP
(1) For firms using the IRB approach set out in BIPRU 4, this paragraph applies in place of BIPRU 9.13.4 R.(2) For the purposes of this section, originators interest means the sum of:(a) the exposure value of that notional part of a pool of drawn amounts sold into a securitisation, the proportion of which in relation to the amount of the total pool sold into the structure determines the proportion of the cash-flows generated by principal and interest collections and other associated
BIPRU 9.13.7RRP
For firms using the IRB approach set out in BIPRU 4, this paragraph applies in place of BIPRU 9.13.5 R. The exposure of the originator associated with its rights in respect of that part of the originators interest described in BIPRU 9.13.6 R (2)(a) must not be treated as a securitisation position but as a pro rata exposure to the securitised drawn amounts as if they had not been securitised in an amount equal to that described in BIPRU 9.13.6 R (2)(a). The originator must also
BIPRU 4.9.2RRP
The following must be calculated in accordance with BIPRU 9 (Securitisation):(1) risk-weighted exposure amounts for securitisedexposures and for exposures belonging to the IRB exposure class referred to in BIPRU 4.3.2 R (6) (securitisation positions); and(2) the expected loss amounts for securitisedexposures.[Note: BCD Article 87(10) and Article 88(3)]
BIPRU 4.9.5RRP
The non credit obligation assetIRB exposure class includes the residual value of leased properties, if not included in the lease exposure as defined in BIPRU 4.4.75 R.[Note: BCD Article 86(8)]
BIPRU 13.3.6RRP
A firm may determine exposures arising from long settlement transactions using any of the CCR mark to market method, the CCR standardised method and the CCR internal model method, regardless of the methods chosen for treating financial derivatives instruments and repurchase transactions, securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions, and margin lending transactions. In calculating capital requirements for long settlement transactions, a firm that uses the IRB approach
BIPRU 13.3.14RRP
When a firm purchases credit derivative protection against a non-trading book ,exposure or against a CCRexposure, it must compute its capital requirement for the hedged asset in accordance with:(1) BIPRU 5.7.16 R to BIPRU 5.7.25 R and BIPRU 4.10.49 R (4) to (6) (Unfunded credit protection: Valuation and calculation of risk-weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts); or1(2) 1where a firm calculates risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the IRB approach:1(a)
BIPRU 9.14.1RRP
This section applies to credit risk mitigation in relation to a securitisation position for a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts using the IRB approach.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 37 (part)]
BIPRU 14.2.11RRP
Subject to BIPRU 14.2.3 R to BIPRU 14.2.5 R and BIPRU 14.2.14 R to BIPRU 14.2.17 R, a firm must calculate exposure values and risk weighted exposure amounts for the exposures falling under BIPRU 14.2.2 R (1) to BIPRU 14.2.2R (5) in accordance with:(1) the standardised approach to credit risk; or(2) if the firm has an IRB permission, the IRB approach in accordance with the terms of the firm'sIRB permission.[Note: CAD Annex II point 6]
BIPRU 14.2.18RRP
Where a firm calculates risk weighted exposure amounts for the purposes of BIPRU 14 in accordance with the IRB approach, then for the purposes of the calculation provided for in BIPRU 4.3.8 R, the following will apply:44(1) value adjustments made to take account of the credit quality of the counterparty may be included in the sum of value adjustments and provisions made for the exposures indicated in BIPRU 14; and(2) unless the firm'sIRB permission does not permit it, if the credit
IFPRU 4.8.4GRP
The EAD required for IRB purposes is the exposure expected to be outstanding under a borrower's current facilities should it go into default in the next year, assuming that economic downturn conditions occur in the next year and a firm's policies and practices for controlling exposures remain unchanged other than changes that result for the economic downturn conditions.