Related provisions for IPRU-INV 11.3.17

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(1) 1The professional liability risks to be covered pursuant to the UK legislation that implemented1 Article 9(7) of Directive 2011/61/EU shall be risks of loss or damage caused by a relevant person through the negligent performance of activities for which the AIFM has legal responsibility.(2) Professional liability risks as defined in paragraph 1 shall include, without being limited to, risks of:(a) loss of documents evidencing title of assets
(1) 1This Article shall apply to AIFMs that choose to cover professional liability risks through additional own funds.(2) The AIFM shall provide additional own funds for covering liability risks arising from professional negligence at least equal to 0,01 % of the value of the portfolios of AIFs managed. The value of the portfolios of AIFs managed shall be the sum of the absolute value of all assets of all AIFs managed by the AIFM, including assets acquired through use of leverage,
Examples of liquid assets that are acceptable under IPRU-INV 11.3.17R include cash, readily realisable investments that are not held for short-term resale, and debtors.[Note: article 9(8) of AIFMD]
BIPRU 12.2 provides that an ILAS BIPRU firm must ensure that its liquidity resources contain an adequate buffer of high quality, unencumbered assets. BIPRU 12.7 describes in more detail the nature of the assets that are eligible for inclusion in that buffer. The rules in this section provide that some types of assets are eligible for use only by a simplified ILAS BIPRU firm.
In deciding on the precise composition of its liquid assets buffer, a firm should ensure that it tailors the contents of the buffer to the needs of its business and the liquidity risk that it faces. In particular, a firm should ensure that it holds assets in its buffer which can be realised with the speed necessary to meet its liabilities as they fall due. In doing so, a firm should have regard to the currencies in which its liabilities are denominated and should take into account
BIPRU 12.7.10GRP
The appropriate regulator regards as encumbered any asset which the firm in question has provided as collateral. Therefore, where assets have been used as collateral in this way (for example, in a repo), they should not be included in the firms liquid assets buffer. However, any assets provided by the firm to a central bank as collateral which meet the requirements in BIPRU 12.7.9A R will be recognised as unencumbered by the for the purposes of BIPRU 12.7.9R (1). For the avoidance
BIPRU 12.7.11RRP
(1) For the purpose of BIPRU 12.7.9R (3), a firm1 must periodically realise a proportion of the assets in its liquid assets buffer through repo or outright sale to the market.1(2) [deleted]11(3) A firm must ensure that in carrying out such periodic realisation:(a) it does so without reference to the firm's day-to-day liquidity needs;(b) it realises in varying amounts the assets in its liquid assets buffer;(c) the cumulative effect of its periodic realisation over any twelve month
A firm must recognise an asset or liability, and measure its amount, in accordance with the relevant accounting principles applicable to it for the purpose of preparing its annual financial statements unless a rule requires otherwise.
The capital resources requirement for a social housing firm whose Part 4A permission is limited to carrying on the regulated activities of: (1) home financing;1 or11(2) home finance administration1(or both);11is that the firm's net tangible assets must be greater than zero.
If a social housing firm is carrying on home financing1or home finance administration1(and no other regulated activity), its net tangible assets must be greater than zero. However, if it carries on insurance distribution activity6 or home finance mediation activity1, there is no special provision and the capital resources requirement for firms carrying on designated investment business, insurance distribution activity or home finance mediation activity6 only applies to it as appropriate.
(1) The capital resources requirement for a firm carrying on only2home financing, 1which is not connected to regulated mortgage contracts, 2or home financing1and home finance administration1 which is not connected to regulated mortgage contracts2 (and no other regulated activity) is the higher of:111111(a) £100,000; and(b) 1% of:(i) its total assets plus total undrawn commitments and unreleased amounts under the home reversion plan1; less:(ii) excluded loans or amounts 1plus intangible
When calculating total assets, the firm may exclude a loan or plan 1which has been transferred to a third party only if it meets the following conditions:(1) the first condition is that the loan or the plan 1has been transferred in a legally effective manner by:(a) novation; or(b) legal or equitable assignment; or(c) sub-participation; or(d) declaration of trust; and(2) the second condition is that the home finance provider1:1(a) retains no material economic interest in the loan
BIPRU 3.4.107RRP
(1) Covered bonds means covered bonds as defined in the definition in the Glossary10 and collateralised by any of the following eligible assets:(a) exposures to or guaranteed by the UK central government, the Bank of England,10public sector entities, regional governments and local authorities in the UK10;(b) (i) exposures to or guaranteed by non-UK10 central governments, non-UK10central banks, multilateral development banks, international organisations that qualify for the credit
BIPRU 3.4.121RRP
Where BIPRU 3.4.116 R does not apply, a firm may determine the risk weight for a CIU as set out in BIPRU 3.4.123 R to BIPRU 3.4.125 R, if the following eligibility criteria are met:(1) one of the following conditions is satisfied:(a) the CIU is managed by a company which is subject to supervision in the UK10; or(b) the following conditions are satisfied:(i) the CIU is managed by a company which is subject to supervision that is equivalent to that laid down in UK10 law; and55(ii)
BIPRU 3.4.127RRP
Tangible assets within the meaning of Article 4(10) of the Bank Accounts Directive must be assigned a risk weight of 100%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 82]
BIPRU 3.4.132RRP
In the case of asset sale and repurchase agreements and outright forward purchases, the risk weight must be that assigned to the assets in question and not to the counterparties to the transactions.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 88]
(1) 16A structured deposit is a kind of deposit.(2) A structured deposit is a deposit which is fully repayable at maturity on terms under which interest or a premium will be paid or is at risk, according to a formula involving factors such as:(a) an index or combination of indices; or(b) a financial instrument or combination of financial instruments; or(c) a commodity or combination of commodities or other physical or non-physical non-fungible assets; or;22(d) a foreign exchange
6Alternative finance investment bonds (defined in article 77A of the Regulated Activities Order and referred to in the Handbook as alternative debentures) are a form of Sharia compliant bond (known as sukuk in the plural or sakk in the singular) which are intended to be regulated in an equivalent manner to conventional debt securities, where appropriate. Sukuk arrangements allow assets to be held for the benefit of investors in certificates issued by a company. The benefits
The arrangements which grant rights under an alternative debenture arise where:(1) the arrangements provide for a person (the bond-holder) to pay a sum of money (the capital) to another (the bond-issuer);(2) the arrangements identify assets, or a class of assets, which the bond-issuer will acquire for the purpose of generating income or gains directly or indirectly (the bond assets);(3) the arrangements specify a period at the end of which they cease to have effect (the bond term);(4)
Different types of alternative debentures are permitted so that, for example:(1) the assets of the arrangement may be acquired before or after it commences;(2) the bond-holder may (but need not) be entitled under the arrangements to terminate them, or participate in terminating them before the end of the bond term;(3) the return may be fixed, floating or determined in some other way;(4) the amount of the redemption payment may (but need not) be subject to reduction in the event
  1. (1)

    The main provision within the definition of alternative debenture arrangements that seeks to ensure that only instruments that display the characteristics of a debt security can be alternative debentures is set out at PERG 2.6.11CG (5). It provides that the amount of additional payments under the arrangements must not exceed an amount which would, at the time the bond is issued, be a reasonable commercial return on a loan of capital. Where the return is not fixed at the outset, it is the maximum possible amount of the additional payments that must be considered in deciding this question. The following example demonstrates how this condition should be approached.

  2. Example

    ABC Ltd is a property development company. It wishes to increase its portfolio on a short-term basis. It issues 5-year sukuk to investors and uses the proceeds to buy the head lease of a commercial property. The rental income from the lease is distributed to investors in proportion to their holdings without a cap on the level of return. After 5 years, the head lease is sold on at a profit and the proceeds shared between investors.

    In this example, the investors participate directly in the success or failure of the underlying property business. The sakk is not really in the nature of a debt instrument. It is unlikely to be an alternative debenture as:

    • additional payments under the arrangements would exceed a reasonable commercial return on a loan of the capital.

      Further, where the return is not fixed at the outset, it is the maximum possible amount of the additional payments that must be considered. Here, the issue terms of the sukuk impose no upper limit on the amount of the periodic distributions: a sakk holder subscribing 1,000 may, in a year, get back 200 or 2,000 or nothing depending on the rental market. The maximum potential return is clearly in excess of a reasonable commercial return on a loan of 1,000; and

    • the arrangements have not been admitted to an official list or admitted to trading on a regulated market or recognised investment exchange (see PERG 2.6.11CG (6)).

  3. (2)

    If, in the above example, investors returns were capped at 500 per sakk per year, then this is the amount that must be considered in deciding whether the return exceeds a reasonable commercial return on a loan, even where the amounts actually received turn out to be far lower.

  4. (3)

    In applying the reasonable commercial return test, the sakk should be compared to a hypothetical loan to the issuer on similar terms and carrying similar risks. For example, a conventional security convertible into shares will normally carry a lower rate of interest because the conversion right has a value. The return on an exchangeable or convertible sakk should be measured against the return on an equivalent exchangeable or convertible debt security.

  5. (4)

    The risk to investors in sukuk may vary slightly from that of a conventional bond in some instances. This may be due to the fact that sukuk holders only have recourse to the bond assets or some other structural feature which results in the risk profile being higher. In such instances it may be justifiable for the rate of return to be slightly higher than that of a conventional loan.

  6. (5)

    As with any financial instrument, the pricing of sukuk will depend on the issuers view of the market at the time of issue and reasonable commercial return may vary depending on the issuer and the economic circumstances prevalent at the time of issue.

(1) A firm may take into account factors other than those identified in the overall Pillar 2 rule when it assesses the level of capital it wishes to hold. These factors might include external rating goals, market reputation and its strategic goals. However, a firm should be able to distinguish, for the purpose of its dialogue with the appropriate regulator, between capital it holds in order to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule, capital that it holds as a capital
A firm should assess its exposure to risks transferred through the securitisation of assets should those transfers fail for whatever reason. A firm should consider the effect on its financial position of a securitisation arrangement failing to operate as anticipated or of the values and risks transferred not emerging as expected.
A firm should assess, and monitor, in detail its exposure to sectoral, geographic, liability and asset concentrations. The appropriate regulator considers that concentrations in these areas increase a firm's exposure to credit risk. Where a firm identifies such concentrations it should consider the adequacy of its CRR.
When assessing liquidity risk, a firm should consider the extent to which there is a mismatch between assets and liabilities.
Some further areas to consider in developing the liquidity risk scenario might include:(1) any mismatching between expected asset and liability cash flows;(2) the inability to sell assets quickly;(3) the extent to which a firm's assets have been pledged; and(4) the possible need to reduce large asset positions at different levels of market liquidity and the related potential costs and timing constraints.
Where a securities firm deals in illiquid securities (for example, unlisted securities or securities listed on illiquid markets), or holds illiquid assets, potentially large losses can arise from trades that have failed to settle or because of large unrealised market losses. A securities firm may therefore consider the impact of liquidity risk on its exposure to:(1) credit risk; and(2) market risk.
FIT 2.3.1GRP
In determining a person's financial soundness, the FCA1 will have regard, and a firm3 should also have regard, 1to any factors including, but not limited to:112(1) whether the person has been the subject of any judgment debt or award, in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, that remains outstanding or was not satisfied within a reasonable period;(2) whether, in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, the person has made any arrangements with their2 creditors, filed for bankruptcy, had a
FIT 2.3.2GRP
The FCA1will not normally require a 1candidate to supply a statement of assets or liabilities. The fact that a person may be of limited financial means will not, in itself, affect their 1suitability to perform a controlled function. The FCA would expect a firm3 to take a similar view in assessing whether staff being assessed under FIT, are fit and proper.11112
EG 10.3.1RP
1Where the FCA applies to the court under section 380(3) or sections 381(3) and (4) of the Act, the FCA may ask the court to exercise its inherent jurisdiction to make orders on an interim basis, restraining a person from disposing of, or otherwise dealing with, assets. To succeed in an application for such interim relief, the FCA will have to show a good arguable case for the granting of the injunction. The FCA will not have to show that a contravention has already occurred or
EG 10.3.2RP
1The FCA may request the court to exercise its inherent jurisdiction in cases, for example, where it has evidence showing that there is a reasonable likelihood that a person will contravene a requirement of the Act and that the contravention will result in the dissipation of assets belonging to investors.
EG 10.4.3RP
1The FCA'sown-initiative powers do not apply to unauthorised persons. This means that an application for an injunction is the only power by which the FCA may seek directly to prevent unauthorised persons from actual or threatened breaches or market abuse. The FCA will decide whether an application against an unauthorised person is appropriate, in accordance with the approach discussed in paragraph 10.2.2. The FCA may also seek an injunction to secure assets where it intends to
EG 10.4.5RP
1Where the FCA exercises its powers under section 380, section 381 and/or invokes the court's inherent jurisdiction to obtain an order restraining the disposal of assets, it may also apply to the court for a restitution order for the distribution of those assets.
Where:(1) an MCD regulated mortgage contract is denominated in pound sterling1 ("currency A"); and(2) the consumer receives income or holds assets in currency A but also receives income or holds assets in another currency ("currency B");the MCD regulated mortgage contract will not be a foreign currency loan unless the credit is to be repaid wholly or in part from the income received or assets held in currency B.
The alternative currency referred to in MCOB 2A.3.1R (1) must be either:(1) the currency in which the consumer primarily receives income or holds assets from which the credit is to be repaid, as indicated at the time that the most recent affordability assessment in relation to the regulated mortgage contract was made; or(2) pound sterling1. [Note: article 23(2) of the MCD]
LR 10.4.1RRP
(1) A listed company must notify a RIS as soon as possible after the terms of a class 2 transaction are agreed.(2) The notification must include:(a) details of the transaction, including the name of the other party to the transaction;(b) a description of the business carried on by, or using, the net assets the subject of the transaction;(c) the consideration, and how it is being satisfied (including the terms of any arrangements for deferred consideration);(d) the value of the
LR 10.4.2RRP
(1) A listed company must notify a RIS as soon as possible if, after the notification under LR 10.4.1 R, it becomes aware that:(a) there has been a significant change affecting any matter contained in that earlier notification; or(b) a significant new matter has arisen which would have been required to be mentioned in that earlier notification if it had arisen at the time of the preparation of that notification.(2) The supplementary notification must give details of the change
REC 2.3.3GRP
In determining whether a UK recognised body has financial resources sufficient for the proper performance of its relevant functions, the FCA5 may have regard to:5(1) the operational and other risks to which the UK recognised body is exposed;(2) if the UK recognised body guarantees the performance of transactions in specified investments, the counterparty and market risks to which it is exposed in that capacity; 5(3) the amount and composition of the UK recognised body's capital;(4)
REC 2.3.5GRP
In assessing whether a UK recognised body has sufficient financial resources in relation to counterparty and market risks, the FCA5 may have regard to:5(1) the amount and liquidity of its financial assets and the likely availability of liquid financial resources to the UK recognised body during periods of major market turbulence or other periods of major stress for the UK financial system;3 and(2) the nature and scale of the UK recognised body's exposures to counterparty and market
REC 2.3.11GRP
4For the purposes of REC 2.3, "eligible financial resources" should consist of liquid financial assets held on the balance sheet of a UK recognised body, including cash and liquid financial instruments where the financial instruments have minimal market and credit risk and are capable of being liquidated with minimal adverse price effect.
REC 2.3.13GRP
(1) 4Under the standard approach, the amount of eligible financial resources is equal to six months of operating costs.(2) Under the standard approach, the FCA5 assumes liquid financial assets are needed to cover the costs that would be incurred during an orderly wind-down of the UK recognised body'sexempt activities, while continuing to satisfy all the recognition requirements and complying with any other obligations under the Act (including the obligations to pay periodic fees
For the purposes of the overall liquidity adequacy rule, liquidity resources are not confined to the amount or value of a firm's marketable, or otherwise realisable, assets. Rather, in assessing the adequacy of those resources, a firm should have regard to the overall character of the resources available to it which enable it to meet its liabilities as they fall due. Therefore, for the purposes of that rule, a firm should ensure that:(1) it holds sufficient assets which are
BIPRU 12.2.13GRP
BIPRU 12.7 contains more detailed rules and guidance about the type of assets that an ILAS BIPRU firm is permitted to hold in order to satisfy BIPRU 12.2.8R.
BIPRU 12.2.18GRP
After completing a review of the ILAA as part of the SLRP, the appropriate regulator will give a standard ILAS BIPRU firmindividual liquidity guidance, advising it of the amount and quality of liquidity resources which the appropriate regulator considers are appropriate having regard to the liquidity risk profile of the firm. In giving individual liquidity guidance, the appropriate regulator will also advise the firm of what it considers to be a prudent funding profile for the

Table: Items which are eligible to contribute to the capital resources of a firm


Additional explanation


Share capital

This must be fully paid and may include:


ordinary share capital; or


preference share capital (excluding preference shares redeemable by shareholders within two years).


Capital other than share capital (for example, the capital of a sole trader, partnership or limited liability partnership)

The capital of a sole trader is the net balance on the firm's capital account and current account. The capital of a partnership is the capital made up of the partners':


capital account, that is the account:


into which capital contributed by the partners is paid; and


from which, under the terms of the partnership agreement, an amount representing capital may be withdrawn by a partner only if:

(i) he ceases to be a partner and an equal amount is transferred to another such account by his former partners or any person replacing him as their partner; or

(ii) the partnership is otherwise dissolved or wound up; and


current accounts according to the most recent financial statement.

For the purpose of the calculation of capital resources, in respect of a defined benefit occupational pension scheme:


a firm must derecognise any defined benefit asset;


a firm may substitute for a defined benefit liability the firm'sdeficit reduction amount, provided that the election is applied consistently in respect of any one financial year.


Reserves (Note 1)

These are, subject to Note 1, the audited accumulated profits retained by the firm (after deduction of tax, dividends and proprietors' or partners' drawings) and other reserves created by appropriations of share premiums and similar realised appropriations. Reserves also include gifts of capital, for example, from a parent undertaking.

For the purposes of calculating capital resources, a firm must make the following adjustments to its reserves, where appropriate:


a firm must deduct any unrealised gains or, where applicable, add back in any unrealised losses on debt instruments held, or formerly held,3 in the available-for-sale financial assets category;


a firm must deduct any unrealised gains or, where applicable, add back in any unrealised losses on cash flow hedges of financial instruments measured at cost or amortised cost;


in respect of a defined benefit occupational pension scheme:


a firm must derecognise any defined benefit asset;


a firm may substitute for a defined benefit liability the firm'sdeficit reduction amount, provided that the election is applied consistently in respect of any one financial year.


Interim net profits (Note 1)

If a firm seeks to include interim net profits in the calculation of its capital resources, the profits have, subject to Note 1, to be verified by the firm's external auditor, net of tax, anticipated dividends or proprietors' drawings and other appropriations.


Revaluation reserves


General/ collective provisions (Note 1)

These are provisions that a firm carrying on home financing1or home finance administration1holds against potential losses that have not yet been identified but which experience indicates are present in the firm's portfolio of assets. Such provisions must be freely available to meet these unidentified losses wherever they arise. Subject to Note 1, general/collective provisions must be verified by external auditors and disclosed in the firm's annual report and accounts.



Subordinated loans

Subordinated loans must be included in capital on the basis of the provisions in this chapter that apply to subordinated loans.



Reserves must be audited and interim net profits, general and collective provisions must be verified by the firm's external auditor unless the firm is exempt from the provisions of Part VII of the Companies Act 1985 (section 249A (Exemptions from audit)) or, where applicable, Part 16 of the Companies Act 2006 (section 477 (Small companies: Conditions for exemption from audit))2 relating to the audit of accounts. 2


Table: Items which must be deducted from capital resources


Investments in own shares


Intangible assets (Note 1)


Interim net losses (Note 2)


Excess of drawings over profits for a sole trader or a partnership (Note 2)


Notes 1. Intangible assets are the full balance sheet value of goodwill (but not until 14 January 2008 - see transitional provision 1), capitalised development costs, brand names, trademarks and similar rights and licences.

2. The interim net losses in row 3, and the excess of drawings in row 4, are in relation to the period following the date as at which the capital resources are being computed.

A sole trader or a partner may use any personal assets, including property, to meet the capital requirements of this chapter, but only to the extent necessary to make up a shortfall.
(1) 1This section deals with the circumstances and manner in which an ACS is to be wound up or a sub-fund of a co-ownership scheme is to be terminated otherwise than by the court as an unregistered company under the Insolvency Act 1986 or the Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 1989 (further rules regarding schemes of arrangement are found in COLL 7.6 (Schemes of arrangement)).(2) An ACS may be wound up under this section only if it is solvent. Under section 261W of the Act (Requests
(1) Upon the happening of any of the matters or dates referred to in (3), and subject to the requirement of (4) being satisfied, and not otherwise:(a) COLL 6.2 (Dealing), COLL 6.3(Valuation and pricing), COLL 6.6.20R to COLL 6.6.24G (Assessment of value)3 and COLL 5 (Investment and borrowing powers) cease to apply to the ACS or to the units and scheme property in the case of a sub-fund of a co-ownership scheme; (b) the depositary must cease to issue and cancelunits, except in
(1) The effect of COLL 7.4A.9R2 is that the authorised contractual scheme manager must continue to prepare annual and half-yearly long reports and to make them available to unitholders in accordance with COLL 4.5.14R (Publication and availability of annual and half-yearly long report).(2) Where there are outstanding unrealised assets, keeping unitholders appropriately informed may, for example, be carried out by providing updates to unitholders at six-monthly or more frequent
(1) Except to the extent that the authorised contractual scheme manager can show that it has complied with COLL 7.4A.8 R (Duty to ascertain liabilities), the authorised contractual scheme manager is personally liable to meet any liability of an ACS or a sub-fund of a co-ownership scheme, of which it is the authorised contractual scheme manager, wound up or terminated under this section (whether or not the winding up of the ACS or the termination of the sub-fund has been completed)
COLL 11.6.9RRP
(1) Where:(a) the authorised fund manager of a feeder UCITS has submitted the documents required under COLL 11.6.5R (2) and (3); and(b) does not receive the necessary approvals from the FCA by the business day preceding the last day on which the authorised fund manager of the feeder UCITS can request repurchase or redemption of its units in the master UCITS;the authorised fund manager of the feeder UCITS must exercise the right to repurchase or redeem its units in the master UCITS
COLL 11.6.13RRP
Where the authorised fund manager of a feeder UCITS gives notice to the FCA under section 251 or section 261Q1 of the Act or regulation 21 of the OEIC Regulations that it intends to wind up the scheme, it must inform:(1) the unitholders of the feeder UCITS; and(2) where notice is given under COLL 11.6.5R (4) (Application for approval by a feeder UCITS where a master UCITS merges or divides), the authorised fund manager of the master UCITS;of its intention without undue delay.[Note:
3To the extent that a firm4 has provided the information required by FEES 4.4.7 D to the FCA as part of its compliance with another provision of the Handbook, it is deemed to have complied with the provisions of that direction.444
EG 19.10.16RP
1POCA provides the legislative framework for the confiscation from criminals of the proceeds of their crime. Under POCA, the FCA can apply to the Crown Court for a restraint order when it is investigating or prosecuting criminal cases. A restraint order prevents the person(s) named in the order from dealing with the assets it covers for the duration of the order.
EG 19.10.17RP
1The FCA may apply for such an order where a criminal investigation has been started or where proceedings have started but not concluded; in either case there must be reasonable cause to believe that the defendant has benefited from criminal conduct. In this context, a person benefits from criminal conduct if he obtains property or a pecuniary advantage as a result of or in connection with conduct that would be an offence if it took place in England or Wales, regardless of whether
EG 19.10.20RP
1The order can apply to assets wherever they are held, and anyone breaching the order would be guilty of contempt of court in this country. The FCA may request that the court make ancillary orders requiring the person to disclose his assets and/or to repatriate assets held overseas.
LR 10.2.6BGRP
(1) 3The following arrangements will meet the definition of break fee arrangements in LR 10.2.6A R (although this list is not intended to be exhaustive): ‘no shop’ and ‘go shop’ type provisions, which require payment of a sum to a party in the event the seller finds an alternative purchaser; a requirement to pay another party’s wasted costs in the event a transaction fails; non refundable deposits.(2) In contrast, payments in the nature of damages (whether liquidated or unliquidated)
LR 10.2.7RRP
(1) Sums payable pursuant to break fee arrangements3 in respect of a transaction are to be treated as a class 1 transaction if the total value of those sums 3exceeds:33(a) if the listed company is being acquired, 1% of the value of the listed company calculated by reference to the offer price; and(b) in any other case, 1% of the market capitalisation of the listed company.(1A) 3The total value of sums payable pursuant to break fee arrangements for the purpose of paragraph (1)
LR 10.2.8RRP
If:(1) a major subsidiary undertaking of a listed company issues equity shares for cash or in exchange for other securities or to reduce indebtedness;(2) the issue would dilute the listed company's percentage interest in the major subsidiary undertaking; and(3) the economic effect of the dilution is equivalent to a disposal of 25% or more of the aggregate of the gross assets or profits (after the deduction of all charges except taxation) of the group;the issue is to be treated