Related provisions for COBS 18.1.3

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COBS 11.8.1RRP
1This section applies to a firm:(1) which carries out any of the following activities:(a) receiving client orders;(b) executing client orders;(c) arranging for client orders to be executed;(d) carrying out transactions on behalf of the firm, or another person in the firm's group, and which are part of the firm's trading activities or the trading activities of another person in the firm's group;(e) executing orders that result from decisions by the firm to deal on behalf of its
COBS 11.8.2RRP
This section does not apply to the carrying on of the following activities:(1) activities carried on between operators, or between operators and depositories, of the same fund3 (when acting in that capacity);3(2) corporate finance business;(3) corporate treasury functions.
COBS 11.8.3RRP
This section does not apply to the following firms or persons:(1) a service company;(2) a non-directive friendly society;(3) a non-directive insurer;(4) a UCITS qualifier.
COBS 11.8.4RRP
This section applies only with respect to a firm's activities carried on from an establishment maintained by the firm in the United Kingdom.
COBS 11.8.5RRP
A firm must take reasonable steps to record relevant telephone conversations, and keep a copy of relevant electronic communications, made with, sent from or received on equipment:(1) provided by the firm to an employee or contractor; or(2) the use of which by an employee or contractor has been sanctioned or permitted by the firm;to enable that employee or contractor to carry out any of the activities referred to in COBS 11.8.1 R.
COBS 11.8.5ARRP
2A firm must take reasonable steps to prevent an employee or contractor from making, sending or receiving relevant telephone conversations and electronic communications on privately-owned equipment which the firm is unable to record or copy.
COBS 11.8.6RRP
The obligation in COBS 11.8.5 R and COBS 11.8.5A R2does not apply to:(1) [deleted]22(2) a discretionary investment manager, in respect of telephone conversations or electronic communications made with, sent to or received from a firm which the discretionary investment manager reasonably believes is subject to the recording obligation in COBS 11.8.5 R in respect of that conversation or communication; or(3) a discretionary investment manager, in respect of telephone conversations
COBS 11.8.7GRP
Electronic communications includes communications made by way of facsimile, email and instant messaging devices.
COBS 11.8.8RRP
For the purposes of COBS 11.8.5 R and COBS 11.8.5A R2 a relevant conversation or communication is any one of the following:(1) a conversation or communication between an employee or contractor of the firm with a client, or when acting on behalf of a client, with another person, which concludes an agreement by the firm to carry out the activities referred to in COBS 11.8.1 R as principal or as agent;(2) a conversation or communication between an employee or contractor of the firm
COBS 11.8.9GRP
(1) COBS 11.8.8R (2) includes conversations and communications relating to specific transactions which are intended to lead to the conclusion of an agreement by the firm to deal with or on behalf of the client as principal or agent, even if those conversations or communications do not lead to the conclusion of such an agreement. It does not include conversations or communications which are not intended to lead to the conclusion of such an agreement, such as general conversations
COBS 11.8.10RRP
A firm must take reasonable steps to retain all records made by it under COBS 11.8.5 R:(1) for a period of at least 6 months from the date the record was created;(2) in a medium that allows the storage of the information in a way accessible for future reference by the FCA, and so that the following conditions are met:(a) the FCA must be able to access the records readily;(b) it must be possible for any corrections or other amendments, and the contents of the records prior to such
COBS 6.1.1RRP
(1) 1This section applies to a firm that carries on designated investment business for:(a) a retail client; and(b) in the case of MiFID or equivalent third country business, a client.(2) If expressly provided, this section also applies to ancillary services not covered by (1), but only in the course of MiFID or equivalent third country business carried on with or for a client.
COBS 6.1.2RRP
If a firm provides basic advice on stakeholder products in accordance with the basic advicerules, this section does not apply to that service.
COBS 6.1.4RRP
A firm must provide a retail client with the following general information, if relevant:(1) the name and address of the firm, and the contact details necessary to enable a client to communicate effectively with the firm;(2) in the case of MiFID or equivalent third country business, the languages in which the client may communicate with the firm, and receive documents and other information from the firm;(3) the methods of communication to be used between the firm and the client
COBS 6.1.6RRP
(1) A firm that manages investments for a client must establish an appropriate method of evaluation and comparison such as a meaningful benchmark, based on the investment objectives of the client and the types of designated investments included in the client portfolio, so as to enable the client to assess the firm's performance.(2) If a firm proposes to manage investments for a retail client, the firm must provide the client with such of the following information as is applicable:(a)
COBS 6.1.7RRP
(1) A firm that holds designated investments or client money for a retail client subject to the custody chapter or the client money chapter must provide that client with the following information:444(a) if applicable,(i) that the designated investments or client money of that client may be held by a third party on behalf of the firm;(ii) the responsibility of the firm under the applicable national law for any acts or omissions of the third party; and(iii) the consequences for
COBS 6.1.9RRP
A firm must provide a retail client with information on costs and associated charges including, if applicable:(1) the total price to be paid by the client in connection with the designated investment or the designated investment business or ancillary services, including all related fees, commissions, charges and expenses, and all taxes payable via the firm or, if an exact price cannot be indicated, the basis for the calculation of the total price so that the client can verify
COBS 6.1.11RRP
(1) A firm must provide a client with the information required by this section in good time before the provision of designated investment business or ancillary services unless otherwise provided by this rule.(2) A firm may instead provide that information immediately after starting to provide designated investment business or ancillary services if:(a) the firm was unable to comply with (1) because, at the request of the client, the agreement was concluded using a means of distance
COBS 6.1.13RRP
Except where expressly provided, a firm must provide the information required by this section in a durable medium or via a website (where it does not constitute a durable medium) where the website conditions are satisfied. [Note: article 29(4) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 6.1.14RRP
(1) A firm must notify a client in good time about any material change to the information provided under this section which is relevant to a service that the firm is providing to that client.(2) A firm must provide this notification in a durable medium if the information to which it relates was given in a durable medium. [Note: article 29(6) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 6.1.15GRP
(1) A firm need not treat each of several transactions in respect of the same type of financial instrument as a new or different service and so does not need to comply with the disclosure rules in this chapter in relation to each transaction. [Note: recital 50 to the MiFID implementing Directive](2) But a firm should ensure that the client has received all relevant information in relation to a subsequent transaction, such as details of product charges that differ from those disclosed
COBS 6.1.16RRP
(1) A firm carrying on MiFID business must make available to a client, who has used or intends to use those services, information necessary for the identification of the compensation scheme or any other investor-compensation scheme of which the firm is a member (including, if relevant, membership through a branch) or any alternative arrangement provided for in accordance with the Investor Compensation Directive.(2) The information under (1) must include the amount and scope of
COBS 12.2.1RRP
This section applies to a firm which produces, or arranges for the production of, investment research that is intended or likely to be subsequently disseminated to clients of the firm or to the public, under its own responsibility or that of a member of its group. [Note: article 25(1) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 12.2.2GRP
The concept of dissemination of investment research to clients or to the public is not intended to include dissemination exclusively to persons within the group of the firm. [Note: recital 33 of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 12.2.3RRP
A firm must ensure the implementation of all of the measures for managing conflicts of interest in SYSC 10.1.11 R in relation to the financial analysts involved in the production of investment research and other relevant persons whose responsibilities or business interests may conflict with the interests of the persons to whom investment research is disseminated. [Note: article 25 (1) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 12.2.4GRP
Persons whose responsibilities or business interests may reasonably be considered to conflict with the interests of the persons to whom investment research is disseminated include corporate finance personnel and persons involved in sales and trading on behalf of clients or the firm. [Note: recital 30 of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 12.2.5RRP
A firm must have in place arrangements designed to ensure that the following conditions are satisfied:(1) if a financial analyst or other relevant person has knowledge of the likely timing or content of investment research which is not publicly available or available to clients and cannot readily be inferred from information that is so available, that financial analyst or other relevant person must not undertake personal transactions or trade on behalf of any other person, including
COBS 12.2.5AGRP
Firms are reminded that they must also comply with COBS 11.7 (Rule on personal account dealing).
COBS 12.2.6GRP
Knowledge by a financial analyst or other relevant person that the firm intends to produce or disseminate investment research to its clients or to the public (including in circumstances where research material has not yet been written) could constitute knowledge of the likely timing and content of investment research under COBS 12.2.5 R (1).
COBS 12.2.7GRP
For the purposes of COBS 12.2.5 R (2):(1) current recommendations should be considered to be those recommendations contained in investment research which have not been withdrawn and which have not lapsed; and[Note: recital 34 of the MiFID implementing Directive](2) exceptional circumstances in which financial analysts and other relevant persons may, with prior written approval, undertake personal transactions in financial instruments to which investment research relates should
COBS 12.2.8GRP
Small gifts or minor hospitality below a level specified in the firm'sconflicts of interest policy and mentioned in the description of that policy that is made available to clients in accordance with COBS 6.1.4 R (8) should not be considered as inducements for the purposes of COBS 12.2.5 R (3). [Note: recital 32 of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 12.2.9GRP
A financial analyst should not become involved in activities other than the preparation of investment research where such involvement is inconsistent with the maintenance of the financial analysts objectivity. The following should ordinarily be considered as inconsistent with the maintenance of a financial analyst's objectivity:(1) participating in investment banking activities such as corporate finance business and underwriting; or(2) participating in 'pitches' for new business
COBS 12.2.10RRP
A firm which disseminates investment research produced by another person to the public or to clients is exempt from complying with the requirements in COBS 12.2.3 R and COBS 12.2.5 R if the following criteria are met:(1) the person that produces the investment research is not a member of the group to which the firm belongs;(2) the firm does not substantially alter the recommendations within the investment research;(3) the firm does not present the investment research as having
COBS 12.2.11GRP
The FCA would expect a firm'sconflicts of interest policy to provide for investment research to be published or distributed to its clients in an appropriate manner. For example, the FCA considers it will be:(1) appropriate for a firm to take reasonable steps to ensure that its investment research is published or distributed only through its usual distribution channels; and(2) inappropriate for an employee (whether or not a financial analyst) to communicate the substance of any
COBS 12.2.12GRP
The FCA would expect a firm to consider whether or not other business activities of the firm could create the reasonable perception that its investment research may not be an impartial analysis of the market in, or the value or prospects of, a financial instrument. A firm would therefore be expected to consider whether its conflicts of interest policy should contain any restrictions on the timing of the publication of investment research. For example, a firm might consider whether
COBS 12.2.13GRP
The FCA considers that the significant conflicts of interest which could arise are likely to mean it is inappropriate for a financial analyst or other relevant person to prepare investment research which is intended firstly for internal use for the firm's own advantage, and then for later publication to its clients (in circumstances in which it might reasonably be expected to have a material influence on its clients' investment decisions).
COBS 6.1E.1RRP
(1) 1A2platform service provider must clearly disclose the total platform charge to the retail client32 in a durable medium in good time before the provision of designated investment business.22(2) In the event that it is not possible to make the disclosure in (1) in good time before the provision of designated investment business, the disclosure must be made as soon as practicable thereafter.
COBS 6.1E.2GRP
A2platform service provider should pay due regard to its obligations under Principle 6 (Customers’ interests), Principle 7 (Communications with clients) and the client's best interests rule, and ensure that it presents retail investment products without bias.2232
COBS 6.1E.3GRP
2A platform service provider should pay due regard to its obligations under Principle 6 (Customers’ interests) and the client's best interests rule and not vary its platform charges inappropriately according to provider or, for substitutable and competing retail investment products, the type of retail investment product.
COBS 6.1E.4RRP
2Except as specified in COBS 6.1E.6 R and COBS 6.1E.7 R, a platform service provider must:(1) only be remunerated for its platform service (and any other related services it provides), by platform charges; and(2) ensure that none of its associates accepts any remuneration in respect of those services.
COBS 6.1E.5GRP
2Examples of remuneration that should not be accepted by a platform service provider or its associates include (but are not limited to):(1) a share of an annual management charge; and(2) any payment (other than a product charge or a platform charge) made to a platform service provider in its capacity as a retail investment product provider where the relevant retail investment product is distributed to retail clients by its platform service.
COBS 6.1E.6RRP
2A platform service provider or its associates may solicit and accept payments from:(1) a firm, other than a retail investment product provider, which is in the business of making personal recommendations to retail clients in relation to retail investment products; and/or(2) a firm, other than a retail investment product provider, which is in the business of arranging or dealingretail investment products for retail clients.
COBS 6.1E.7RRP
2Other than in COBS 6.1E.6 R, a3platform service provider or its associates may solicit and accept payments from any3firm, including a retail investment product provider,3 which are only for:(1) pricing error corrections;(2) administering corporate actions;(3) research carried out by the platform service provider and management information; and(4) advertising;provided that:(5) the services are available to firms at a price which does not vary inappropriately according to firm;(6)
COBS 6.1E.8RRP
2A platform service provider must not arrange for a retail client to buy a retail investment product if:(1) the product’s charges are presented in a way that offsets or may appear to offset any adviser charges or platform charges that are payable by that retail client; or(2) the platform service provider's charges are presented in a way that offsets or may appear to offset any product charges or adviser charges that are payable by the retail client; or(3) the product’s charges
COBS 6.1E.9RRP
2A firm must not use a platform service as part of a personal recommendation to a retail client in relation to a retail investment product unless it has satisfied itself that the platform service provider, and its associates, only receive remuneration for business carried on in the UK which is permitted by the rules in this section.
COBS 6.1E.10RRP
2COBS 6.1E.4 R does not prevent a platform service provider receiving a share of an annual management charge from an authorised fund manager if the platform service provider passes that share on to the retail client in the form of:(1) additional units; or(2) cash, provided that it does not offset or appear to offset any adviser charges or platform charges.
COBS 6.1E.11GRP
2Examples of a cash share of an annual management charge that would not offset or appear to offset any adviser charges or platform charges are:(1) where the retail client has redeemed his retail investment product; or(2) where the value of the payment made to the retail client in each month does not exceed £1 for each fund.
COBS 6.1E.12GRP
2If a platform service provider passes a share of an annual management charge on to a retail client by way of additional units or cash, it should pay due regard to its obligations under Principle 7 (Communications with clients).
COBS 16.6.1RRP
3(1) This section applies to a long-term insurer, unless, at the time of application, the client, other than an EEA ECA recipient, was habitually resident:3(a) in an EEA State other than the United Kingdom; or(b) outside the EEA and he was not present in the United Kingdom.(2) In addition, COBS 16.6.8 R applies to an operator of a personal pension scheme or stakeholder pension scheme in relation to a retail client who elects to make income withdrawals.3
COBS 16.6.2RRP
4(1) The policyholder must be informed if during the term of a life policy entered into on or after 1 July 1994 there is any change in the following information:4(a) the policy conditions;4(b) the name of the insurer, its legal form or the address of its head office and, where appropriate, of the agency or branch which concluded the contract; and4(c) the information in (8) to (13) of COBS 13 Annex 1 (The Solvency II Directive information) in the event of a change in the policy
COBS 16.6.3RRP
If a life policy entered into on or after 1 July 1994 provides for the payment of bonuses and the amounts of bonuses are unspecified, the long-term insurer must, in every calendar year except the first, either:(1) notify the policyholder in writing of the amount of any bonus which has become payable under the contract, and which has not previously been notified under this rule; or(2) give the policyholder in writing sufficient information to enable him to determine the amount
COBS 16.6.3ARRP
4If a firm provides figures, on or after 1 January 2016, about the potential future development of bonuses under a with-profits policy it must inform the policyholder annually in writing of any differences between the actual bonuses payable to date and the figures previously provided.[Note: article 185(5) of the Solvency II Directive]
COBS 16.6.4RRP
(1) When a firm provides information in accordance with this section, it must provide the information in a durable medium, unless (2) applies.(2) If the contract is being made by telephone, the firm may give the information orally to the customer. If the customer enters into the contract, a written version of the required information must be sent to the customer within five business days of the contract being entered into.
COBS 16.6.5RRP
Where a life policy is effected jointly, the information required by this section may be sent to the first named client.
COBS 16.6.6RRP
A firm must make an adequate record of information provided to a customer under this section and retain that record for a minimum period after the information is provided of five years.
COBS 16.6.7RRP
1At each anniversary of the date on which a long-term care insurance contract which is based on single premium investment bonds was entered into, the insurer must:(1) provide the retail client with a table based on the format of COBS 13 Annex 3 2.2R containing at least the current fund value and projected future policy values (as in column "What you might get back"); (2) where it is the case, inform the retail client of the possibility that future policy values may be insufficient
COBS 16.6.8RRP
1At intervals no longer than 12 months from the date of an election by a retail client to make income withdrawals, the relevant operator of a personal pension scheme or stakeholder pension scheme3must:3(1) provide the retail client with such information as is necessary for3 the retail client to review the election, including where relevant the information required by COBS 13 Annex 2 2.9R3; and3(2) inform the retail client how to obtain advice on investments in respect of his income
COBS 11.3.1RRP
(1) A firm (other than a management company providing collective portfolio management services)1 which is authorised to execute orders on behalf of clients must implement procedures and arrangements which provide for the prompt, fair and expeditious execution of client orders, relative to other orders or the trading interests of the firm.[Note: paragraph 1 of article 22(1) of MiFID](2) These procedures or arrangements must allow for the execution of otherwise comparable orders
COBS 11.3.2RRP
A firm must satisfy the following conditions when carrying out client orders:(1) it must ensure that orders executed on behalf of clients are promptly and accurately recorded and allocated;(2) it must carry out otherwise comparable orders sequentially and promptly unless the characteristics of the order or prevailing market conditions make this impracticable, or the interests of the client require otherwise; and(3) it must inform a retail client about any material difficulty relevant
COBS 11.3.3GRP
For the purposes of the provisions of this section, orders should not be treated as otherwise comparable if they are received by different media and it would not be practicable for them to be treated sequentially. [Note: recital 78 to the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 11.3.4RRP
Where a firm is responsible for overseeing or arranging the settlement of an executed order or executes the order itself in the course of providing collective portfolio management services,1 it must take all reasonable steps to ensure that any clientfinancial instruments or client funds received in settlement of that executed order are promptly and correctly delivered to the account of the appropriate client. [Note: article 47(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive,1 article 19(1)
COBS 11.3.5RRP
A firm must not misuse information relating to pending client orders, and shall take all reasonable steps to prevent the misuse of such information by any of its relevant persons. [Note: article 47(3) of the MiFID implementing Directive,1 article 19(1) of MiFID and article 27(2) of the UCITS implementing Directive]1
COBS 11.3.6GRP
Without prejudice to the Market Abuse Directive, for the purposes of the rule on the misuse of information (see COBS 11.3.5 R), any use by a firm of information relating to a pending client order in order to deal on own account in the financial instruments to which the client order relates, or in related financial instruments, should be considered a misuse of that information. However, the mere fact that market makers or bodies authorised to act as counterparties confine themselves
COBS 11.3.7RRP
A firm is not permitted to carry out a client order or a transaction for own account in aggregation with another client order unless the following conditions are met:(1) it must be unlikely that the aggregation of orders and transactions will work overall to the disadvantage of any client whose order is to be aggregated;(2) it must be disclosed to each client whose order is to be aggregated that the effect of aggregation may work to its disadvantage in relation to a particular
COBS 11.3.8RRP
If a firm aggregates a client order with one or more other orders and the aggregated order is partially executed, it must allocate the related trades in accordance with its order allocation policy. [Note: article 48(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive,1 article 19(1) of MiFID and article 28(2) of the UCITS implementing Directive]1
COBS 11.3.9RRP
A firm which has aggregated transactions for own account with one or more client orders must not allocate the related trades in a way which is detrimental to a client.[Note: article 49(1) of the MiFID implementing Directive,1 article 19(1) of MiFID and article 28(3) of the UCITS implementing Directive]1
COBS 11.3.10RRP
(1) If a firm aggregates a client order with a transaction for own account and the aggregated order is partially executed, it must allocate the related trades to the client in priority to the firm.(2) However, if the firm is able to demonstrate on reasonable grounds that without the combination it would not have been able to carry out the order on such advantageous terms, or at all, it may allocate the transaction for own account proportionally, in accordance with its order allocation
COBS 11.3.11RRP
A firm must, as part of its order allocation policy, put in place procedures to prevent the reallocation, in a way that is detrimental to the client, of transactions for own account which are executed in combination with client orders. [Note: article 49(3) of the MiFID implementing Directive and article 19(1) of MiFID]
COBS 11.3.12GRP
For the purposes of the provisions of this section, the reallocation of transactions should be considered as detrimental to a client if, as an effect of that reallocation, unfair precedence is given to the firm or to any particular person. [Note: recital 77 to the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 11.3.13GRP
In this section, carrying out client orders includes:(1) the execution of orders on behalf of clients;(2) the placing of orders with other entities for execution that result from decisions to deal in financial instruments on behalf of clients when providing the service of portfolio management or collective portfolio management;1(3) the transmission of client orders to other entities for execution when providing the service of reception and transmission of orders.
COBS 21.3.-1RRP
4The rules in this section apply to linked long-term contracts of insurance where the investment risk is borne by a policyholder who is a natural person.
COBS 21.3.1RRP
An insurer must not contract to provide benefits under linked long-term contracts of insurance4 that are determined:4(1) wholly or partly, or directly or indirectly, by reference to fluctuations in any index other than an approved index;(2) wholly or partly by reference to the value of, or the income from, or fluctuations in the value of, property other than any of the following:(a) approved securities;(b) listed securities; (c) permitted unlisted securities; (d) permitted land
COBS 21.3.1ARRP
4A firm must classify the types of property listed in COBS 21.3.1R (2)(a) to (2)(l) according to their economic behaviour ahead of their legal form.
COBS 21.3.2GRP
(1) Nothing in these rules prevents a firm making allowance in the value of any permitted link for any notional tax loss associated with the relevant linked assets for the purposes of fair pricing.3(2) In the appropriate regulator's view the Consumer Prices Index, as well as the Retail Prices Index, is a national index of retail prices and so may be used as an approved index for the purposes of COBS 21.3.1R (1).3
COBS 21.3.6RRP
4A money-market instrument will be regarded as normally dealt in on the money market if it:(1) has a maturity at issuance of up to, and including, 397 days; or(2) has a residual maturity of up to, and including, 397 days; or(3) undergoes regular yield adjustments in line with money market conditions at least every 397 days; or(4) undergoes regular yield adjustments in line with money market conditions at least every 397 days.
COBS 21.3.7RRP
(1) 4A money-market instrument will be regarded as liquid if it can be sold at limited cost in an adequately short timeframe.(2) A money-market instrument will be regarded as having a value which can be accurately determined at any time if accurate and reliable valuations systems, which fulfil the following criteria, are available:(a) enabling the firm to calculate a net asset value in accordance with the value at which the instrument held in the portfolio could be exchanged between
COBS 21.3.8GRP
4A firm should assess the liquidity of a money-market instrument in accordance with CESR's UCITS eligible assets guidelines, with respect to article 4(1) of the UCITS eligible assets Directive.
COBS 21.3.9RRP
4A permitted stock lending transaction is one which, for a Solvency II firm, satisfies the requirements in COBS 21.3.11 R to COBS 21.3.12 R and, for an insurer which is not a Solvency II firm, satisfies INSPRU 3.2.36A R to INSPRU 3.2.42 G.
COBS 21.3.10RRP
4The specific method of stock lending permitted is an arrangement of the kind described in section 263B of the Taxation of Chargeable Gains Act 1992, under which the lender transfers securities to the borrower other than by way of sale and the borrower is to transfer those securities, or securities of the same type and amount, back to the lender at a later date. In accordance with good market practice, a separate transaction by way of transfer of assets is also involved for the
COBS 21.3.11RRP
(1) 4The stock lending arrangement is of the kind described in section 263B of the Taxation of Chargeable Gains Act 1992 (without extension by section 263C), and:(a) all the terms of the agreement under which securities are to be reacquired by the firm for the account of the unit-linked fund are in a form which is acceptable to the firm and in accordance with good market practice;(b) the counterparty is:(i) an authorised person; or(ii) a person authorised by a Home State regulator;
COBS 21.3.12RRP
(1) 4Collateral is adequate for the purposes of this section only if it is:(a) transferred to the firm or the firm's agent;(b) at least equal in value, at the time of the transfer to the firm or its agent, to the value of the securities transferred by the firm; and(c) in the form of one or more of:(i) cash;(ii) a certificate of deposit;(iii) a letter of credit;(iv) a readily realisable security;(v) commercial paper with no embedded derivative content;(vi) a qualifying money market
COBS 21.3.13RRP
4A permitted derivatives contract is one which:(1) for a Solvency II firm, is effected or issued:(a) on or under the rules of a regulated market; or(b) off-market with an approved counterparty; andsatisfies COBS 21.3.14 G; and(2) for an insurer which is not a Solvency II firm, satisfies INSPRU 3.2.5 R to INSPRU 3.2.35A G with the exception of INSPRU 3.2.18 R; and(3) in each of (1) and (2) the provisions are applied in relation to assets covering liabilities in respect of linked
COBS 21.3.14GRP
4Firms are also required to comply with the PRA Rulebook Solvency II Firms Investment and ensure that the use of derivative contracts is adequately covered. Firms are also referred to the rules in COLL 5.3 (Derivative Exposure) in relation to the use of derivatives in investment funds and the further guidance from CESR and its successor body, ESMA, which represent good practice in this area.
COBS 19.5.1RRP
This section applies to a firm which operates a relevant scheme in which there are at least two relevant policyholders.
COBS 19.5.2RRP
(1) Subject to COBS 19.5.3 R, a firm must establish an IGC. (2) This rule does not apply to a firm ('Firm A') if another firm in Firm A's group has made arrangements under this section for an IGC to cover relevant schemes operated by Firm A.
COBS 19.5.3RRP
(1) If a firm considers it appropriate, having regard to the size, nature and complexity of the relevant schemes it operates, it may establish a governance advisory arrangement instead of an IGC.(2) If a firm has decided to establish a governance advisory arrangement rather than an IGC, this section (other than COBS 19.5.9R (2), COBS 19.5.9R (3), COBS 19.5.10 G, COBS 19.5.11 R and COBS 19.5.12 G) apply to the firm by reading references to the IGC as references to the governance
COBS 19.5.4GRP
(1) Firms with large or complex relevant schemes should establish an IGC. For the purposes of this section, a firm may determine whether it has large relevant schemes by reference to:(a) the number of relevant policyholders in relevant schemes; (b) the funds under management in relevant schemes; and(c) the number of employers contributing to relevant schemes.(2) Examples of features that might indicate complex schemes include: (a) schemes that are operated on multiple information
COBS 19.5.5RRP
A firm must include, as a minimum, the following requirements in its terms of reference for an IGC:(1) the IGC will act solely in the interests of relevant policyholders;(2) the IGC will assess the ongoing value for money for relevant policyholders delivered by relevant schemes particularly, though not exclusively, through assessing:(a) whether default investment strategies within those schemes:(i) are designed and executed in the interests of relevant policyholders;(ii) have
COBS 19.5.6GRP
(1) An IGC is expected to act in the interests of relevant policyholders both individually and collectively. Where there is the potential for conflict between individual and collective interests, the IGC should manage this conflict effectively. An IGC is not expected to deal directly with complaints from individual policyholders. (2) The primary focus of an IGC should be the interests of relevant policyholders. Should a firm ask an IGC to consider the interests of other members,
COBS 19.5.7RRP
A firm must:(1) take reasonable steps to ensure that the IGC acts and continues to act in accordance with its terms of reference;(2) take reasonable steps to provide the IGC with all information reasonably requested by the IGC for the purposes of carrying out its role;(3) provide the IGC with sufficient resources as are reasonably necessary to allow it to carry out its role independently;(4) have arrangements to ensure that the views of relevant policyholders can be directly represented
COBS 19.5.8GRP
(1) A firm should consider allocating responsibility for the management of the relationship between the firm and its IGC to a person at the firm holding an FCAsignificant-influence function.(2) A firm should fund independent advice for the IGC if this is necessary and proportionate.(3) A firm should not unreasonably withhold from the IGC information that would enable the IGC to carry out a comprehensive assessment of value for money. (4) A firm should have arrangements for sharing
COBS 19.5.9RRP
(1) A firm must take reasonable steps to ensure that the IGC has sufficient collective expertise and experience to be able to make judgements on the value for money of relevant schemes.(2) A firm must recruit independent IGC members through an open and transparent recruitment process.(3) A firm must appoint members to the IGC so that:(a) the IGC consists of at least five members, including an independent Chair and a majority of independent members; (b) IGC members are bound by
COBS 19.5.10GRP
(1) The effect of COBS 19.5.9R (3)(b) is that employees of the firm who serve on an IGC should be subject to appropriate contractual terms so that, when acting in the capacity of an IGC member, they are free to act within the terms of reference of the IGC without conflict with other terms of their employment. In particular, when acting as an IGC member, an employee will be expected to act solely in the interests of relevant policyholders and should be able to do so without breaching
COBS 19.5.11RRP
The firm, in appointing independent IGC members, must determine whether such a member is independent in character and judgement and whether there are relationships or circumstances which are likely to affect, or could appear to affect, that member’s judgement.
COBS 19.5.12GRP
(1) An IGC member is unlikely to be considered independent if any of the following circumstances exist:(a) the individual is an employee of the firm or of a company within the firm'sgroup or paid by them for any role other than as an IGC member, including participating in the firm's share option or performance-related pay scheme;(b) the individual has been an employee of the firm or of another company within the firm'sgroup within the five years preceding his appointment to the
COBS 5.2.1RRP
This section applies to a firm1carrying on 1an electronic commerce activity1from an establishment in the United Kingdom, with or for a person in the United Kingdom or another EEA State1.
COBS 5.2.2RRP
A firm must make at least the following information easily, directly and permanently accessible to the recipients of the information society services it provides:(1) its name;(2) the geographic address at which it is established;(3) the details of the firm, including its e-mail address, which allow it to be contacted rapidly and communicated with in a direct and effective manner;(4) an appropriate statutory status disclosure statement (GEN 4 Annex 1 R or GEN 4 Annex 1A R as appropriate3),
COBS 5.2.3RRP
If a firm refers to price, it must do so clearly and unambiguously, indicating whether the price is inclusive of tax and delivery costs.[Note: article 5(2) of the E-Commerce Directive]
COBS 5.2.4RRP
A firm must ensure that commercial communications which are part of, or constitute, an information society service, comply with the following conditions:(1) the commercial communication must be clearly identifiable as such;(2) the person on whose behalf the commercial communication is made must be clearly identifiable;(3) promotional offers must be clearly identifiable as such, and the conditions that must be met to qualify for them must be easily accessible and presented clearly
COBS 5.2.5RRP
An unsolicited commercial communication sent by e-mail by a firm established in the United Kingdom must be identifiable clearly and unambiguously as an unsolicited commercial communication as soon as it is received by the recipient. [Note: article 7(1) of the E-Commerce Directive]
COBS 5.2.6RRP
A firm must (except when otherwise agreed by parties who are not consumers):(1) give an ECA recipient at least the following information, clearly, comprehensibly and unambiguously, and prior to the order being placed by the recipient of the service:(a) the different technical steps to follow to conclude the contract;(b) whether or not the concluded contract will be filed by the firm and whether it will be accessible;(c) the technical means for identifying and correcting input
COBS 5.2.7RRP
For the purposes of COBS 5.2.6 R (3), an order and an acknowledgement of receipt are deemed to be received when the parties to whom they are addressed are able to access them. [Note: article 11(1) of the E-Commerce Directive]
COBS 5.2.8RRP
Contractual terms and conditions provided by a firm to an ECA recipient must be made available in a way that allows the recipient to store and reproduce them. [Note: article 10(3) of the E-Commerce Directive]
COBS 5.2.9RRP
The requirements relating to the placing and receipt of orders (COBS 5.2.6 R) do not apply to contracts concluded exclusively by exchange of e-mail or by equivalent individual communications. [Note: article 10(4) and 11(3) of the E-Commerce Directive]
COBS 4.1.1RRP
1This chapter applies to a firm:(1) communicating with a client in relation to its designated investment business;(2) communicating or approving a financial promotion other than:(a) a financial promotion of qualifying credit, a home purchase plan or a home reversion plan; or(b) a financial promotion in respect of a non-investment insurance contract; or(c) a promotion of an unregulated collective investment scheme that would breach section 238(1) of the Act if made by an authorised
COBS 4.1.1ARRP
6COBS 4.4.3 R applies to a firm with respect to the activity of issuing electronic money.
COBS 4.1.2GRP
(1) 4This chapter applies in relation to an authorised professional firm in accordance with COBS 18 (Specialist regimes).(2) This chapter applies, to a limited extent, in relation to communicating or approving a financial promotion that relates to a deposit if the deposit is a structured deposit, cash deposit ISA or cash deposit CTF.
COBS 4.1.3GRP
A firm is required to comply with the financial promotion rules in relation to a financial promotioncommunicated by its appointed representative even where the financial promotion does not require approval because of the exemption in article 16 of the Financial Promotion Order (Exempt persons).[Note: see section 39 of the Act]
COBS 4.1.4GRP
(1) In COBS 4.3.1 R, COBS 4.5.8 R and COBS 4.7.1 R, the defined terms "financial promotion" and "direct offer financial promotion" include, in relation to MiFID or equivalent third country business, all communications that are marketing communications within the meaning of MiFID.(2) In the case of MiFID or equivalent third country business, certain requirements in this chapter are subject to an exemption for the communication of a third party prospectus in certain circumstances.
COBS 4.1.5GRP
(1) A firm communicating with an eligible counterparty2 should have regard to the application of COBS to eligible counterparty business (COBS 1 Annex 1 Part 1).(2) This chapter does not apply in relation to communicating with an eligible counterparty other than the section on compensation information (see COBS 4.4) 2but elements of the requirements in PRIN may apply.
COBS 4.1.6GRP
Approving a financial promotion without communicating it (which includes causing it to be communicated)3 is not MiFID or equivalent third country business. Communicating a financial promotion to a person, such as a corporate finance contact or a venture capital contact, who is not a client within the meaning of COBS 3.2.1 R (1), COBS 3.2.1 R (2) or COBS 3.2.1 R (4) in respect of the MiFID or equivalent third country business to which the financial promotion relates,3 is also not
COBS 4.1.7GRP
A reference in this chapter to MiFID or equivalent third country business includes a reference to communications that occur before an agreement to perform services in relation to MiFID or equivalent third country business.[Note: see recital 82 to the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 4.1.8RRP
(1) In relation to communications by a firm to a client in relation to its designated investment business this chapter applies in accordance with the general application rule and the rule on business with UKclients from an overseas establishment (COBS 1 Annex 1 Part 2 paragraph 2.1R).(2) In addition, the financial promotion rules apply to a firm in relation to:(a) the communication of a financial promotion to a person inside the United Kingdom;(b) the communication of a cold call
COBS 4.1.9GRP
(1) The EEA territorial scope rule modifies the general territorial scope of the rules in this chapter to the extent necessary to be compatible with European law. This means that in a number of cases, the rules in this chapter will apply to communications made by UK firms to persons located outside the United Kingdom and will not apply to communications made to persons inside the United Kingdom by EEA firms. Further guidance on this is located in COBS 1 Annex 1.(2) One effect
COBS 4.1.10GRP
Firms should note the territorial scope of this chapter is also affected by:(1) the disapplication for financial promotions originating outside the United Kingdom that are not capable of having an effect within the United Kingdom (section 21(3) of the Act (Restrictions on financial promotion)) (see the defined term “excluded communication”);(2) the exemptions for overseas communicators (see the defined term “excluded communication”); and(3) the rules on financial promotions with
COBS 9.1.1RRP
1This chapter applies to a firmwhich makes a personal recommendation in relation to a designated investment (other than a P2P agreement).2
COBS 9.1.2RRP
If a firm makes a personal recommendation in relation to a stakeholder product, other than in the course of MiFID or equivalent third country business, it may choose to give basic advice under the rules in section 9.6 of this chapter instead of the rules in the remainder of this chapter.
COBS 9.1.3RRP
This chapter applies to a firm which manages investments.
COBS 9.1.5RRP
If the firm makes a personal recommendation to a professional client to take out a life policy, this chapter applies only those rules which implement the requirements of the Insurance Mediation Directive.
COBS 9.1.6GRP
If a rule implements a requirement of the Insurance Mediation Directive, a Note follows the rule indicating which provision is being implemented. COBS 7 (Insurance mediation) contains further rules implementing the Insurance Mediation Directive.
COBS 9.1.7GRP
The effect of these application rules and the fact that the Insurance Mediation Directive does not apply to an insurer (unless it is involved in mediation activities) is that this chapter does not apply to an insurer when it is making a personal recommendation to a professional client to take out a life policy.
COBS 9.1.8GRP
For a firm making personal recommendations in relation to pensions, COBS 19 contains additional provisions relevant to assessing suitability and the contents of suitability reports.
COBS 9.1.9GRP
COBS 7 (Insurance mediation) contains requirements relating to the basis on which certain recommendations may be made, including requirements relating to fair analysis and range and scope.
COBS 16.3.1RRP
(1) If a firm is managing investments on behalf of a client, it must provide the client with a periodic statement in a durable medium unless such a statement is provided by another person.(2) If the client is a retail client, the periodic statement must include such of the periodic information (COBS 16 Annex 2R) 1as is applicable. [Note: article 41(1) and (2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 16.3.2RRP
(1) In the case of a retail client, the periodic statement must be provided once every six months, except in the following cases:(a) if the retail client so requests, the periodic statement must be provided every three months;(b) if the retail client elects to receive information about executed transactions on a transaction-by-transaction basis (COBS 16.3.3 R) and there are no transactions in derivatives or other securities giving the right to acquire or sell a transferable security
COBS 16.3.3RRP
(1) If the client elects to receive information about executed transactions on a transaction-by-transaction basis, a firmmanaging investments must provide promptly to the client, on the execution of a transaction, the essential information concerning that transaction in a durable medium.(2) If the client is a retail client, the firm must send him a notice confirming the transaction and containing such of the information identified in column (1) of the table in COBS 16 Annex 1R
COBS 16.3.4GRP
In accordance with COBS 2.4.9 R, a firm may dispatch a periodic statement to an agent, other than the firm or an associate of the firm, nominated by the client in writing.
COBS 16.3.5RRP
For the purposes of calculating the unit price in the trade confirmation information or periodic information, where the order is executed in tranches, the firm may supply the client with information about the price of each tranche or the average price. If the average price is provided, the firm must supply the retail client with information about the price of each tranche upon request. [Note: article 40(4) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 16.3.6RRP
(1) If a firm:(a) manages investments for a retail client; or(b) operates a retail client account that includes an uncovered open position in a contingent liability transaction,it must report to the retail client any losses exceeding any predetermined threshold, agreed between it and the retail client.(2) The firm must report:(a) no later than the end of the business day in which the threshold is exceeded; or(b) if the threshold is exceeded on a non-business day, the close of
COBS 16.3.7RRP
For the purposes of this section, a contingent liability transaction is one that involves any actual or potential liability for the client that exceeds the cost of acquiring the instrument. [Note: recital 63 of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 16.3.8RRP
[intentionally blank]
COBS 16.3.9GRP
When providing a periodic statement to a retail client, a firm should consider whether to include:(1) the collateral value in respect of any contingent liability transaction in the client's portfolio during the relevant period; and(2) option account valuations in respect of each open option written by the client in the client's portfolio at the end of the relevant period; stating:(a) the share, future, index or other investment involved;(b) the trade price and date for the opening
COBS 16.3.11RRP
A firm must make, and retain, a copy of any periodic statement:(1) for MiFID or equivalent third country business, for a period of at least five years; or(2) for business that is not MiFID or, for a period of at least three years;from the date of despatch. [Note: see article 51(3) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 4.6.1RRP
(1) Subject to (2) and (3), this section applies to a firm in relation to:1(a) 1the provision of information in relation to its MiFID or equivalent third country business;222(b) the communication or approval of a financial promotion;1where such information or financial promotion is addressed to, or disseminated in such a way that it is likely to be received by, a retail client.1(2) If3 a communication relates to a firm'sMiFID or equivalent third country business, this section
COBS 4.6.2RRP
A firm must ensure that information that contains an indication of past performance of relevant business, a relevant investment or a financial index, satisfies the following conditions:(1) that indication is not the most prominent feature of the communication;(2) the information includes appropriate performance information which covers at least the immediately preceding five years, or the whole period for which the investment has been offered, the financial index has been established,
COBS 4.6.3GRP
The obligations relating to describing performance should be interpreted in the light of their purpose and in a way that is appropriate and proportionate taking into account the means of communication and the information the communication is intended to convey. For example, a periodic statement in relation to managing investments that is sent in accordance with the rules on reporting information to clients (see COBS 16) may include past performance as its most prominent featu
COBS 4.6.4GRP
If a financial promotion includes information referring to the past performance of a packaged product that is not a financial instrument2, a firm will comply with the rule on appropriate performance information (COBS 4.6.2R (2)) if the financial promotion includes, in the case of a scheme, unit-linked life policy, unit-linked personal pension scheme or unit-linked stakeholder pension scheme (other than a unitised with-profits life policy or stakeholder pension scheme) past performance
COBS 4.6.4BGRP
(1) The firm should present the information referred to in COBS 4.6.4 G no less prominently than any other past performance information.(2) This guidance does not apply to a prospectus, key investor information document4 or simplified prospectus drawn up in accordance with COLL.
COBS 4.6.5GRP
(1) In relation to a packaged product (other than a scheme, a unit-linked life policy, unit-linked personal pension scheme or a unit-linked stakeholder pension scheme (that is not a unitised with-profits life policy or stakeholder pension scheme)), the information should be given on:(a) an offer to bid basis (which should be stated) if there is an actual return or comparison of performance with other investments; or(b) an offer to offer, bid to bid or offer to bid basis (which
COBS 4.6.6RRP
A firm must ensure that information that contains an indication of simulated past performance of relevant business, a relevant investment or a financial index, satisfies the following conditions:(1) it relates to an investment or a financial index;(2) the simulated past performance is based on the actual past performance of one or more investments or financial indices which are the same as, or underlie, the investment concerned;(3) in respect of the actual past performance, the
COBS 4.6.7RRP
(1) A firm must ensure that information that contains an indication of future performance of relevant business, a relevant investment, a structured deposit or a financial index, satisfies the following conditions:(a) it is not based on and does not refer to simulated past performance;(b) it is based on reasonable assumptions supported by objective data;(c) it discloses the effect of commissions, fees or other charges if the indication is based on gross performance; and(d) it contains
COBS 4.6.8GRP
A firm should not provide information on future performance if it is not able to obtain the objective data needed to comply with the rule on future performance. For example, objective data in relation to EIS shares may be difficult to obtain.
COBS 4.6.9RRP
(1) 1A firm that communicates to a client a projection for a packaged product which is not a financial instrument2must ensure that the projection complies with the projectionsrules in COBS 13.4, COBS 13.5 and COBS 13 Annex 2.2(2) A firm must not communicate a projection for a highly volatile product to a client unless the product is a financial instrument.
COBS 4.10.1GRP
The rules in SYSC 3 (and also for Solvency II firms, the PRA Rulebook: Solvency II firms: Conditions Governing Business)1 and SYSC 4 require a firm that communicates with a client in relation to designated investment business, or communicates or approves a financial promotion, to put in place systems and controls or policies and procedures, or an effective internal control system,1 in order to comply with the rules in this chapter.
COBS 4.10.2RRP
(1) Before a firmapproves a financial promotion for communication by an unauthorised person, it must confirm that the financial promotion complies with the financial promotion rules.(2) If, at any time after a firm has complied with (1), a firm becomes aware that a financial promotion no longer complies with the financial promotion rules, it must withdraw its approval and notify any person that it knows to be relying on its approval as soon as reasonably practicable.(3) When approving
COBS 4.10.3GRP
(1) Section 21(1) of the Act (Restrictions on financial promotion) prohibits an unauthorised person from communicating a financial promotion, in the course of business, unless an exemption applies or the financial promotion is approved by a firm. Many of the rules in this chapter apply when a firmapproves a financial promotion in the same way as when a firmcommunicates a financial promotion itself.(2) A firm may also wish to approve a financial promotion that it communicates itself.
COBS 4.10.4RRP
A firm must not approve a financial promotion to be made in the course of a personal visit, telephone conversation or other interactive dialogue.
COBS 4.10.5RRP
If a firmapproves a financial promotion in circumstances in which one or more of the financial promotion rules, or the prohibition on approval of promotions for collective investment schemes in section 240(1) of the Act (Restriction on approval), are expressly disapplied, the approval must be given on terms that it is limited to those circumstances.
COBS 4.10.6GRP
For example, if a firmapproves a financial promotion for communication to a professional client or an eligible counterparty, the approval must be limited to communication to such persons.
COBS 4.10.7GRP
If an approval is limited, and an unauthorised personcommunicates the financial promotion to persons not covered by the approval, the unauthorised person may commit an offence under the restriction on financial promotion in the Act (section 21). A firm giving a limited approval may wish to notify the unauthorised person accordingly.
COBS 4.10.8GRP
If a firm continues to communicate a financial promotion when the financial promotion no longer complies with the rules in this chapter, it will breach those rules.
COBS 4.10.9GRP
A financial promotion which is clearly only relevant at a particular date will not cease to comply with the financial promotion rules merely because the passage of time has rendered it out-of-date; an example would be a dated analyst's report.
COBS 4.10.11GRP
A firm should inform anyone relying on its confirmation of compliance if it becomes aware that the financial promotion no longer complies with the rules in this chapter.
COBS 13.6.1RRP
1A firm that agrees to start facilitating the payment of an adviser charge or consultancy charge, or an increase in such a charge, from an in-force packaged product, must prepare sufficient information for the retail client to be able to understand the likely effect of that facilitation, in good time before it takes effect2.2
COBS 9.4.1RRP
1A firm must provide a suitability report to a retail client if the firm makes a personal recommendation to the client and the client:(1) acquires a holding in, or sells all or part of a holding in:(a) a regulated collective investment scheme;(b) an investment trust where the relevant shares have been or are to be acquired through an investment trust savings scheme;(c) an investment trust where the relevant shares are to be held within an ISA which has been promoted as the means
COBS 9.4.2RRP
If a firm makes a personal recommendation in relation to a life policy, it must provide the client with a suitability report.[Note: article 12(3) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 9.4.3RRP
The obligation to provide a suitability report does not apply:(1) if the firm, acting as an investment manager for a retail client, makes a personal recommendation relating to a regulated collective investment scheme;(2) if the client is habitually resident outside the EEA and the client is not present in the United Kingdom at the time of acknowledging consent to the proposal form to which the personal recommendation relates;(3) to any personal recommendation by a friendly society
COBS 9.4.4RRP
A firm must provide the suitability report to the client:(1) in the case of a life policy, before the contract is concluded unless the necessary information is provided orally or immediate cover is necessary; or(2) in the case of a personal pension scheme or stakeholder pension scheme, where the rules on cancellation (COBS 15) require notification of the right to cancel, no later than the fourteenth day after the contract is concluded; or(3) in any other case, when or as soon
COBS 9.4.5RRP
If, in respect of a life policy, the firm gives necessary information orally or gives immediate cover, it must provide a suitability report to the client in a durable medium immediately after the contract is concluded.[Note: article 13(2) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 9.4.6RRP
In the case of telephone selling of a life policy, when the only contact between a firm and its client before conclusion of a contract is by telephone, the suitability report must:(1) comply with the distance marketing disclosure rules (COBS 5.1);(2) be provided immediately after the conclusion of the contract; and(3) be in a durable medium.[Note: article 13(3) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 9.4.7RRP
The suitability report must, at least:(1) specify the client's demands and needs;(2) explain why the firm has concluded that the recommended transaction is suitable for the client having regard to the information provided by the client; and(3) explain any possible disadvantages of the transaction for the client.[Note: article 12(3) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 9.4.8GRP
A firm should give the client such details as are appropriate according to the complexity of the transaction.[Note: article 12(3) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 9.4.9RRP
If a firm is providing a suitability report in the course of insurance mediation activity, the information must be provided:(1) in a durable medium which is available and accessible to the client;(2) in a clear and accurate manner, comprehensible to the client; and(3) in an official language of the State of the commitment in which the contract of insurance is made or in any other language agreed by the parties.[Note: article 13 of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 9.4.10GRP
When a firm is making a personal recommendation to a retail client about income withdrawals or purchase short-term annuities, explanation of possible disadvantages in the suitability report should include the risk factors involved in entering into an income withdrawal or purchase of a short-term annuity. These may include:(1) the capital value of the fund may be eroded;(2) the investment returns may be less than those shown in the illustrations;(3) annuity or scheme pension rates
COBS 11.7.1RRP
A firm that conducts designated investment business must establish, implement and maintain adequate arrangements aimed at preventing the following activities in the case of any relevant person who is involved in activities that may give rise to a conflict of interest, or who has access to inside information as defined in the Market Abuse Directive or to other confidential information relating to clients or transactions with or for clients by virtue of an activity carried out by
COBS 11.7.2RRP
For the purposes of this section, the relevant provisions are:(1) the rules on personal transactions undertaken by financial analysts in COBS 12.2.5 R (1) and (2);(2) the rule on the misuse of information relating to pending client orders in COBS 11.3.5 R.
COBS 11.7.2AGRP
1The requirements of this section are without prejudice to article 3(a) of the Market Abuse Directive which prohibits any person who possesses inside information under article 2 of that directive from disclosing that information to any other person unless that disclosure is made in the normal course of the exercise of his employment, profession or duties.
COBS 11.7.3GRP
For the purposes of COBS 11.7.1R (1)(c), any other obligation of the firm under MiFID refers to a firm's obligations under the regulatory system that are not owed to a customer and any of the firm's obligations under another EEA States' implementation of MiFID where it operates a branch in the EEA.
COBS 11.7.4RRP
The arrangements required under this section must in particular be designed to ensure that:(1) each relevant person covered by this section is aware of the restrictions on personal transactions, and of the measures established by the firm in connection with personal transactions and disclosure, in accordance with this section;(2) the firm:(a) is informed promptly of any personal transaction entered into by a relevant person, either by notification of that transaction or by other
COBS 11.7.5RRP
This section does not apply to the following kinds of personal transaction:(1) personal transactions effected under a discretionary portfolio management service where there is no prior communication in connection with the transaction between the portfolio manager and the relevant person or other person for whose account the transaction is executed;(2) personal transactions in units or shares in collective undertakings that comply with the conditions necessary to enjoy the rights
COBS 11.7.6RRP
For the purposes of this section, a person who is not:(1) a director, partner or equivalent, manager or appointed representative (or, where applicable, a tied agent) of the firm; or(2) a director, partner or equivalent, or manager of any appointed representative (or where applicable, a tied agent) of the firm;will only be a relevant person to the extent that they are involved in the provision of designated investment business or collective portfolio management services.2
COBS 11.7.7RRP
Where successive personal transactions are carried out on behalf of a person in accordance with prior instructions given by that person, the obligations under this section do not apply:(1) separately to each successive transaction if those instructions remain in force and unchanged; or(2) to the termination or withdrawal of such instructions, provided that any financial instruments which had previously been acquired pursuant to the instructions are not disposed of at the same
COBS 3.7.1RRP
A firm must allow a professional client or an eligible counterparty to request re-categorisation as a client that benefits from a higher degree of protection. [Note: second paragraph of article 24(2) of, and the second paragraph of section I of annex II to, MiFID and the second paragraph of article 50(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 3.7.2GRP
It is the responsibility of a professional client or eligible counterparty to ask for a higher level of protection when it deems it is unable to properly assess or manage the risks involved. [Note: third paragraph of section I and fourth paragraph of section II.2 of annex II to MiFID and second paragraph of article 50(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 3.7.3RRP
A firm may, either on its own initiative or at the request of the client concerned:(1) treat as a professional client or a retail client a client that might otherwise be categorised as a per se eligible counterparty;(2) treat as a retail client a client that might otherwise be categorised as a per se professional client;and if it does so, the client will be re-categorised accordingly. Where applicable, this re-categorisation is subject to the requirement for a written agreement
COBS 3.7.4RRP
If a per se eligible counterparty requests treatment as a client whose business with the firm is subject to conduct of business protections, but does not expressly request treatment as a retail client and the firm agrees to that request, the firm must treat that eligible counterparty as a professional client. [Note: first paragraph of article 50(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 3.7.5RRP
(1) If, in relation to MiFID or equivalent third country business a per se professional client or a per se eligible counterparty requests treatment as a retail client, the client will be classified as a retail client if it enters into a written agreement with the firm to the effect that it will not be treated as a professional client or eligible counterparty for the purposes of the applicable conduct of business regime.(2) This agreement must specify the scope of the re-categorisation,
COBS 3.7.6GRP
(1) In accordance with Principle 7 (communications with clients) if a firm at its own initiative re-categorises a client in accordance with this section, it should notify that client of its new category under this section.(2) If the firm already has an agreement with the client, it should also consider any contractual requirements concerning the amendment of that agreement.
COBS 3.7.7GRP
The ways in which a client may be provided with additional protections under this section include re-categorisation:(1) on a general basis; or(2) on a trade by trade basis; or(3) in respect of one or more specified rules; or(4) in respect of one or more particular services or transactions; or(5) in respect of one or more types of product or transaction. [Note: second paragraph of article 24(2) of MiFID]
COBS 3.7.8GRP
Re-categorising a client as a retail client under this section does not necessarily mean it will become an eligible complainant under DISP.
COBS 3.5.1RRP
A professional client is a client that is either a per se professional client or an elective professional client. [Note: article 4(1)(11) of MiFID]
COBS 3.5.2RRP
Each of the following is a per se professional client unless and to the extent it is an eligible counterparty or is given a different categorisation under this chapter:(1) an entity required to be authorised or regulated to operate in the financial markets. The following list includes all authorised entities carrying out the characteristic activities of the entities mentioned, whether authorised by an EEA State or a third country and whether or not authorised by reference to a
COBS 3.5.2ARRP
1In relation to MiFID or equivalent third country business a local authority or a public authority is not likely to be a regional government for the purposes of COBS 3.5.2 R (4). 2In the FCA's opinion, a local authority may be a per se professional client for those purposes if it meets the test for large undertakings in COBS 3.5.2 R (2)2.22
COBS 3.5.3RRP
A firm may treat a client as an elective professional client if it complies with (1) and (3) and, where applicable, (2):(1) the firm undertakes an adequate assessment of the expertise, experience and knowledge of the client that gives reasonable assurance, in light of the nature of the transactions or services envisaged, that the client is capable of making his own investment decisions and understanding the risks involved (the "qualitative test");(2) in relation to MiFID or equivalent
COBS 3.5.4RRP
If the client is an entity, the qualitative test should be performed in relation to the person authorised to carry out transactions on its behalf. [Note: fourth paragraph of section II.1 of annex II to MiFID]
COBS 3.5.5GRP
The fitness test applied to managers and directors of entities licensed under directives in the financial field is an example of the assessment of expertise and knowledge involved in the qualitative test. [Note: fourth paragraph of section II.1 of annex II to MiFID]
COBS 3.5.6RRP
Before deciding to accept a request for re-categorisation as an elective professional client a firm must take all reasonable steps to ensure that the client requesting to be treated as an elective professional client satisfies the qualitative test and, where applicable, the quantitative test. [Note: second paragraph of section II.2 of annex II to MiFID]
COBS 3.5.7GRP
An elective professional client should not be presumed to possess market knowledge and experience comparable to a per se professional client [Note: second paragraph of section II.1 of annex II to MiFID]
COBS 3.5.8GRP
Professional client are responsible for keeping the firm informed about any change that could affect their current categorisation. [Note: fourth paragraph of section II.2 of annex II to MiFID]
COBS 3.5.9RRP
(1) If a firm becomes aware that a client no longer fulfils the initial conditions that made it eligible for categorisation as an elective professional client, the firm must take the appropriate action.(2) Where the appropriate action involves re-categorising that client as a retail client, the firm must notify that client of its new categorisation. [Note: fourth paragraph of section II.2 of annex II to MiFID and article 28(1) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 11.1.1RRP
1This chapter3 applies 3to a firm.3(1) [deleted]3(2) [deleted]3
COBS 11.1.2RRP
In this chapter, provisions marked "EU" apply to a firm which is not a MiFID investment firm3 as if they were rules.
COBS 11.1.3RRP
2The section on the use of dealing commission applies to a firm that acts as an investment manager.
COBS 11.1.4RRP
The section on personal account dealing applies to the designated investment business of a firm in relation to activities carried on from an establishment in the United Kingdom.
COBS 11.1.5GRP
The EEA territorial scope rule modifies the default territorial scope of the section on personal account dealing (see COBS 11.7) to the extent necessary to be compatible with European law (see paragraph 1.1G5 of Part 3 of COBS 1 Annex 1). This means that the section on personal account dealing also applies to passported activities carried on by a UK MiFID investment firm or a UK UCITS management company5 from a branch in another EEA state, but does not apply to the UKbranch of
COBS 11.1.6RRP
3The section on best execution (COBS 11.2) does not apply to a firm when:(1) executing orders: or(2) placing orders with other entities for execution: or(3) transmitting orders to other entities for execution;in relation to a spread-bet which is not a financial instrument, where the firm has not made a personal recommendation in relation to that spread-bet.
COBS 11.1.7RRP
4The section on best execution (COBS 11.2) does not apply to a firm when, acting in the capacity of operator of a regulated collective investment scheme, it purchases or sells units in that scheme.