Related provisions for BIPRU 3.5.6

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BIPRU 4.5.1RRP
BIPRU 4.5 applies with respect to the exposures referred to in BIPRU 4.5.3 R.
BIPRU 4.5.3RRP
Within the corporate exposureIRB exposure class, a firm must separately identify as specialised lending exposures, exposures which possess the following characteristics:(1) the exposure is to an entity which was created specifically to finance and/or operate physical assets;(2) the contractual arrangements give the lender a substantial degree of control over the assets and the income that they generate; and(3) the primary source of repayment of the obligation is the income generated
BIPRU 4.5.4RRP
If a firm is using or is applying to use the advanced IRB approach for some or all of its exposures in the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class, then specialised lending exposures treated under BIPRU 4.5.8 R (Slotting) must be treated as being dealt with under the advanced IRB approach for the purposes of the calculations in BIPRU 4.2.30 R and BIPRU 4.2.31 R. If a firm is not using or applying to use the advanced IRB approach for any of its exposures in the
BIPRU 4.5.5RRP
A firm using the methods set out in BIPRU 4.5.8 R (Slotting) for assigning risk weights for specialised lending exposures is exempt from the requirement to have an obligor rating scale which reflects exclusively quantification of the risk of obligor default for these exposures. Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.4.7 R (Seven grades for exposures to sovereigns, institutions and corporates), a firm must have for these exposures four grades for non-defaulted obligors and one grade for defaulted
BIPRU 4.5.6RRP
(1) A firm using the methods set out in BIPRU 4.5.8 R (Slotting) for assigning risk weights for specialised lending exposures must assign each of these exposures to a grade in accordance with BIPRU 4 Annex 1 R, taking into account the following factors:(a) financial strength;(b) political and legal environment;(c) transaction and/or asset characteristics;(d) strength of the sponsor and developer including any public private partnership income stream; and(e) security package.(2)
BIPRU 4.5.7RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.3.5 R (Use of relevant parameters for calculating risk weighted exposure amounts), the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for credit risk for specialised lending exposures may be calculated in accordance with BIPRU 4.5.8 R.[Note:BCD Article 87(5)]
BIPRU 4.5.8RRP
For specialised lending exposures in respect of which a firm cannot demonstrate that its PD estimates meet the minimum IRB standards it must assign risk weights to these exposures according to the table in BIPRU 4.5.9 R.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 6 (part)]
BIPRU 4.5.10RRP
A firm may generally assign preferential risk weights of 50% to exposures in category 1, and a 70% risk weight to exposures in category 2 if:(1) its IRB permission allows this; and(2) the firm's underwriting characteristics and other risk characteristics are substantially strong for the relevant category.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 6 (part)]
BIPRU 4.5.12RRP
The EL values for specialised lending exposures where a firm uses the methods set out in BIPRU 4.5.8 R for assigning risk weights must be assigned according to the table in BIPRU 4.5.13 R.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 31 (part)]
BIPRU 4.5.14RRP
Where a firm'sIRB permission authorises it generally to assign preferential risk weights as outlined in BIPRU 4.5.10 R of 50% to exposures in category 1, and 70% to exposures in category 2, the EL value for exposures in category 1 must be 0%, and for exposures in category 2 must be 0.4%.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 31 (part)]
BIPRU 9.4.1RRP
The originator of a traditional securitisation may exclude securitisedexposures1 from the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts if significant credit risk associated with the securitised exposures has been transferred to third parties and the transfer complies with the conditions in BIPRU 9.4.2 RBIPRU 9.4.10 R.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 2 point 1 (part)]
BIPRU 9.4.3RRP
The securitised exposures must be put beyond the reach of the originator and its creditors, including in bankruptcy and receivership. This must be supported by the opinion of qualified legal counsel.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 2 point 1 (part)]
BIPRU 9.4.7RRP
The originator must not maintain effective or indirect control over the transferred exposures.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 2 point 1 (part)]
BIPRU 9.4.8RRP
Where there is a clean-up call option, the following conditions must be satisfied:(1) the clean-up call option is exercisable at the discretion of the originator;(2) the clean-up call option may only be exercised when 10% or less of the original value of the exposuressecuritised remains unamortised; and(3) the clean-up call option is not structured to avoid allocating losses to credit enhancement positions or other positions held by investors and is not otherwise structured to
BIPRU 9.4.9RRP
The securitisation documentation must not contain clauses that:(1) other than in the case of early amortisation provisions, require positions in the securitisation to be improved by the originator including but not limited to altering the underlying credit exposures or increasing the yield payable to investors in response to a deterioration in the credit quality of the securitised exposures; or(2) increase the yield payable to holders of positions in the securitisation in response
BIPRU 9.4.10RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 9.4.7 R, an originator will be considered to have maintained effective control over the transferred exposures if it has the right to repurchase from the transferee the previously transferred exposures in order to realise their benefits or if it is obligated to re-assume transferred risk. The originator's retention of servicing rights or obligations in respect of the exposures does not of itself constitute indirect control of the exposures.[Note:BCD Annex
BIPRU 9.5.1RRP
(1) An originator of a synthetic securitisation may calculate risk weighted exposure amount, and, as relevant, expected loss amounts, for the securitised exposures in accordance with BIPRU 9.5.3 R and BIPRU 9.5.4 R, if significant credit risk has been transferred to third parties, either through funded or unfunded credit protection, and the transfer complies with the conditions in (2)-(5).(2) The securitisation documentation must reflect the economic substance of the transaction.(3)
BIPRU 9.5.2RRP
BIPRU 9.5.3 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R apply to the calculation by an originator of risk weighted exposure amounts for exposuressecuritised in a synthetic securitisation.
BIPRU 9.5.3RRP
(1) In calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for the securitised exposures, where the conditions in BIPRU 9.5.1 R are met, the originator of a synthetic securitisation must, subject to the treatment of maturity mismatches set out in BIPRU 9.5.6 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R, use the relevant calculation methodologies set out in BIPRU 9.9-BIPRU 9.14and not those set out in BIPRU 3 (Standardised credit risk) or BIPRU 4 (IRB approach).(2) For firms calculating risk weighted exposure amounts
BIPRU 9.5.4RRP
Subject to the treatment of maturity mismatches set out in BIPRU 9.5.6 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R, the originator must calculate risk weighted exposure amounts in respect of all tranches in the securitisation in accordance with the provisions of BIPRU 9.9-BIPRU 9.14. For example, where a tranche is transferred by means of unfunded credit protection to a third party, the risk weight of that third party must be applied to the tranche in the calculation of the originatorsrisk weighted exposure
BIPRU 9.5.6RRP
For the purposes of calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9.5.3 R, any maturity mismatch between the credit protection by which the tranching is achieved and the securitised exposures must be taken into consideration in accordance with BIPRU 9.5.7 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 2 point 5]
BIPRU 9.5.7RRP
The maturity of the securitised exposures must be taken to be the longest maturity of any of those exposures subject to a maximum of five years. The maturity of the credit protection must be determined in accordance with BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation) and, so far as relevant, BIPRU 4.10 (Credit risk mitigation under the IRB approach).[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 2 point 6]
BIPRU 9.5.8RRP
(1) An originator must ignore any maturity mismatch in calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for tranches appearing pursuant to BIPRU 9.9-BIPRU 9.14 with a risk weight of 1250%. For all other tranches the maturity mismatch treatment prescribed in BIPRU 5.8 (Maturity mismatches) must be applied in accordance with the following formula:RW* is [RW(SP) x (t-t*)/(T-t*)] + [RW(Ass) x (T-t)/(T-t*)](2) The following apply for the purposes of the formula in (1):(a) RW* is risk weighted
BIPRU 11.5.4RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding compliance with BIPRU 3, BIPRU 4, BIPRU 6, BIPRU 7, BIPRU 10 and the overall Pillar 2 rule:(1) a summary of the firm's approach to assessing the adequacy of its internal capital to support current and future activities;(2) for a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, 8% of the risk weighted exposure amounts for each of the standardised credit risk exposure
BIPRU 11.5.5RRP
For retail exposures, the requirement under BIPRU 11.5.4 R (3) applies to each of the following categories:(1) exposures to retail SMEs;(2) retail exposures secured by real estate collateral;(3) qualifying revolving retail exposures; and(4) other retail exposures.[Note: BCD Annex XII Part 2 point 4(part)]
BIPRU 11.5.6RRP
For equity exposures, the requirement under BIPRU 11.5.4 R (3) applies to:(1) each of the approaches ( the simple risk weight approach, the PD/LGD approach and the internal models approach) provided for in BIPRU 4.7.5 R to BIPRU 4.7.6 R, BIPRU 4.7.9 R to BIPRU 4.7.11 R, BIPRU 4.7.14 R to BIPRU 4.7.16 R, BIPRU 4.7.24 R to BIPRU 4.7.25 R;(2) exchange traded exposures, private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios, and other exposures;(3) exposures subject to supervisory
BIPRU 11.5.7RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding its exposure to counterparty credit risk:(1) a discussion of the methodology used to assign internal capital and credit limits for counterparty credit exposures;(2) a discussion of policies for securing collateral and establishing credit reserves;(3) a discussion of policies with respect to wrong-way riskexposures;(4) a discussion of the impact of the amount of collateral the firm would have to provide given a downgrade
BIPRU 11.5.8RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding its exposure to credit risk and dilution risk:(1) the definitions for accounting purposes of past due and impaired;(2) a description of the approaches and methods adopted for determining value adjustments and provisions;(3) the total amount of exposures after accounting offsets and without taking into account the effects of credit risk mitigation, and the average amount of the exposures over the period broken down by different
BIPRU 11.5.9RRP
The information to be disclosed under BIPRU 11.5.8 R (9) must comprise:(1) a description of the type of value adjustments and provisions;(2) the opening balances;(3) the amounts taken against the provisions during the period;(4) the amounts set aside or reversed for estimated probable losses on exposures during the period, any other adjustments including those determined by exchange rate differences, business combinations, acquisitions and disposals of subsidiary undertakings,
BIPRU 11.5.10RRP
For a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, the following information must be disclosed for each of the standardised credit risk exposure classes;(1) the names of the nominated ECAIs and export credit agencies and the reasons for any changes;(2) the standardised credit risk exposure classes for which each ECAI or export credit agency is used;(3) a description of the process used to transfer the issuer and issue
BIPRU 11.5.11RRP
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for specialised lending exposures in accordance with BIPRU 4.5.8 R to BIPRU 4.5.10 R or equity exposures in accordance with BIPRU 4.7.9 R to BIPRU 4.7.10 R (the simple risk weight approach) must disclose the exposures assigned:(1) to each category of the table in BIPRU 4.5.9 R; or(2) to each risk weight mentioned in BIPRU 4.7.9 R to BIPRU 4.7.10 R.[Note: BCD Annex XII Part 2 point 8]
BIPRU 11.5.15RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding the exposures in equities not included in the trading book:(1) the differentiation between exposures based on their objectives, including for capital gains relationship and strategic reasons, and an overview of the accounting techniques and valuation methodologies used, including key assumptions and practices affecting valuation and any significant changes in these practices;(2) the balance sheet value, the fair value and,
BIPRU 11.5.16RRP
A firm must disclose the following information on its exposure to interest rate risk on positions not included in the trading book:(1) the nature of the interest rate risk and the key assumptions (including assumptions regarding loan prepayments and behaviour of non-maturity deposits), and frequency of measurement of the interest rate risk; and(2) the variation in earnings, economic value or other relevant measure used by the management for upward and downward rate shocks according
BIPRU 11.5.17RRP
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9 must disclose the following information:(1) a description of the firm's objectives in relation to securitisation activity;(2) the roles played by the firm in the securitisation process;(3) an indication of the extent of the firm's involvement in each of them;(4) the approaches to calculating risk weighted exposure amounts that the firm follows for its securitisation activities;(5) a summary of the firm's
BIPRU 5.2.1RRP
A firm using the standardised approach may recognise credit risk mitigation in accordance with BIPRU 5 in the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for the purposes of the calculation of the credit risk capital component.[Note: BCD Article 91]
BIPRU 5.2.5RRP
In the case of funded credit protection:(1) to be eligible for recognition the assets relied upon must be sufficiently liquid and their value over time sufficiently stable to provide appropriate certainty as to the credit protection achieved having regard to the approach used to calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and to the degree of recognition allowed; eligibility is limited to the assets set out in the CRM eligibility conditions; and(2) the lending firm must have the
BIPRU 5.2.7RRP
In the case of unfunded credit protection:(1) to be eligible for recognition the party giving the undertaking must be sufficiently reliable, and the protection agreement legally effective and enforceable in the relevant jurisdictions, to provide appropriate certainty as to the credit protection achieved having regard to the approach used to calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and to the degree of recognition allowed; and(2) eligibility is limited to the protection providers
BIPRU 5.2.10RRP
Notwithstanding the presence of credit risk mitigation taken into account for the purposes of calculating risk weighted exposure amounts and as relevant expected loss amounts, a firm must continue to undertake full credit risk assessment of the underlying exposure and must be in a position to demonstrate to the FSA the fulfilment of this requirement. In the case of repurchase transactions and/or securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions the underlying exposure
BIPRU 5.2.11RRP
Where the requirements of BIPRU 5.2.2 R to BIPRU 5.2.8 R are met the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts, may be modified in accordance with BIPRU 5.[Note: BCD Article 93(1)]
BIPRU 5.2.12RRP
No exposure in respect of which credit risk mitigation is obtained may produce a higher risk weighted exposure amount than an otherwise identical exposure in respect of which there is no credit risk mitigation.[Note: BCD Article 93(2)]
BIPRU 5.2.13RRP
Where the risk weighted exposure amount already takes account of credit protection under the standardised approach the calculation of the credit protection must not be further recognised under BIPRU 5.[Note: BCD Article 93(3)]
BIPRU 5.2.14RRP
Subject to BIPRU 5.8, BIPRU 5.9 and BIPRU 5.7.27 R to BIPRU 5.7.28 R, where the CRM eligibility conditions and the CRM minimum requirements are satisfied, the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts under the standardised approach may be modified in accordance with the provisions of BIPRU 5.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 1]
BIPRU 3.6.5RRP
A firm which decides to use the credit assessments produced by an eligible ECAI for a certain class of items must use those credit assessments consistently for all exposures belonging to that class.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 3 point 2]
BIPRU 3.6.11RRP
(1) If a firm has decided to make use of the credit assessments of export credit agencies, when risk weightingexposures to central governments or central banks, if two or more credit assessments are available to a firm from export credit agencies or if credit assessments are available to a firm from both nominated ECAIs and export credit agencies, the firm must adopt the approach in this rule.(2) If two credit assessments are available and correspond to different risk weights
BIPRU 3.6.12RRP
Where a credit assessment exists for a specific issuing program or facility to which the item constituting the exposure belongs, this credit assessment must be used to determine the risk weight to be assigned to that item.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 3 point 8]
BIPRU 3.6.13RRP
Where no directly applicable credit assessment exists for a certain item, but a credit assessment exists for a specific issuing program or facility to which the item constituting the exposure does not belong or a general credit assessment exists for the issuer, then that credit assessment must be used if it produces a higher risk weight than would otherwise be the case or if it produces a lower risk weight and the exposure in question ranks pari passu or senior in all respects
BIPRU 3.6.16RRP
Short-term credit assessments may only be used for short-term asset and off-balance sheet items constituting exposures to institutions and corporates.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 3 point 12]
BIPRU 3.6.18RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 3.6.17 R, if a short-term rated facility is assigned a 150% risk weight, then all unrated unsecured exposures on that obligor whether short-term or long-term must also be assigned a 150% risk weight.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 3 point 14]
BIPRU 3.6.19RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 3.6.17 R, if a short-term rated facility is assigned a 50% risk weight, no unrated short-term exposure may be assigned a risk weight lower than 100%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 3 point 15]
BIPRU 3.6.20RRP
A credit assessment that refers to an item denominated in the obligor's domestic currency cannot be used to derive a risk weight for another exposure on that same obligor that is denominated in a foreign currency.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 3 point 16]
BIPRU 3.6.21RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 3.6.20 R, when an exposure arises through a firm's participation in a loan that has been extended by a multilateral development bank whose preferred creditor status is recognised in the market, the credit assessment on the obligors' domestic currency item may be used for risk weighting purposes.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 3 point 17]
BIPRU 13.4.3RRP
A firm must obtain a figure for potential future credit exposure by multiplying the notional principal amounts or underlying values by the percentages in the table in BIPRU 13.4.5 R.[Note: BCD Annex III Part 3, Step (b) (part)]
BIPRU 13.4.8RRP
For contracts that are structured to settle outstanding exposure following specified payment dates and where the terms are reset such that the market value of the contract is zero on these specified dates, a firm must treat the residual maturity as equal to the time until the next reset date.[Note: BCD Annex III Part 3, Table 1 footnote 27 (part)]
BIPRU 13.4.10RRP
For the purpose of calculating the potential future credit exposure in accordance with BIPRU 13.4.3 R a firm may apply the percentages in the table in BIPRU 13.4.11 R instead of those prescribed in the table in BIPRU 13.4.5 R provided that it makes use of the commodity extended maturity ladder approach for contracts relating to commodities other than gold.
BIPRU 13.4.11RRP
This table belongs to BIPRU 13.4.10 RResidual maturityPrecious metals (except gold)Base metalsAgricultural products (softs)Other, including energy productsOne year or less2%2,5%3%4%Over one year, not exceeding five years5%4%5%6%Over five years7.5%8%9%10%[Note: BCD Annex III Part 3, Table 2]
BIPRU 13.4.12RRP
A firm must calculate the exposure value as the sum of:(1) the current replacement cost calculated under BIPRU 13.4.2 R; and(2) the potential future credit exposure calculated under BIPRU 13.4.3 R.[Note: BCD Annex III Part 3, Step (c)]
BIPRU 13.4.14GRP
For the purposes of calculating the replacement cost, where an exposure relates to collateral posted to cover a negative mark to market position on a derivative contract, the negative mark to market exposure may be offset against the collateral exposure if the requirements in BIPRU 5 are met.
BIPRU 13.4.17RRP
In application of the CCR mark to market method:(1) in BIPRU 13.4.2 R a firm may obtain the current replacement cost for the contracts included in a netting agreement by taking account of the actual hypothetical net replacement cost which results from the agreement; in the case where netting leads to a net obligation for the firm calculating the net replacement cost, the current replacement cost is calculated as "0"; and(2) in BIPRU 13.4.3 R a firm may reduce the figure for potential
BIPRU 13.4.18RRP
For the calculation of the potential future credit exposure according to the formula in BIPRU 13.4.17 R perfectly matching contracts included in the netting agreement may be taken into account as a single contract with a notional principal equivalent to the net receipts.[Note: BCD Annex III Part 7 point c(ii) (part)]
BIPRU 7.8.6GRP
The net underwriting position calculated in BIPRU 7.8.17R will also be used in calculating the net underwriting exposure under BIPRU 7.8.34R.
BIPRU 7.8.31RRP
For the purposes of calculating the total amount of its trading bookexposures to a person for concentration risk purposes, a firm must include net underwriting exposure to that person.
BIPRU 7.8.32RRP
A firm must include any other exposures arising out of underwriting (including any counterparty exposures to any sub-underwriters) for the purposes of calculating the total amount of its trading bookexposures to a person for concentration risk purposes.
BIPRU 7.8.34RRP
Except where otherwise specified by a requirement on its Part IV permission, a firm must calculate the net underwriting exposure to an issuer by applying the relevant reduction factors in the table in BIPRU 7.8.35R to its net underwriting position calculated under BIPRU 7.8.17R.
BIPRU 7.8.35RRP
Table: Calculation of net underwriting exposureThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.8.34RTimeReduction factor to be applied to net underwriting positionInitial commitment to working day 0100%Working day 0100%Working day 190%Working day 275%Working day 375%Working day 450%Working day 525%Working day 6 onwards0%
BIPRU 7.8.36GRP
The effect of BIPRU 7.8.34R is that there is no concentration limit for net underwriting exposures between initial commitment and the end of working day 0, except where specified by a requirement on a firm'sPart IV permission.
BIPRU 7.8.37RRP
For the purposes of concentration risk monitoring only, a firm must report its net underwriting exposure both before and after the application of the reduction factors in the table in BIPRU 7.8.35R.
BIPRU 7.8.38RRP
A firm must take reasonable steps to establish and maintain such systems and controls to monitor and manage its underwriting and sub-underwriting business as are appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of its underwriting and sub-underwriting business. In particular, a firm must have systems to monitor and control its underwritingexposures between the time of the initial commitment and working day one in the light of the nature of the risks incurred in the markets in
BIPRU 7.8.39GRP
A firm should take reasonable steps to:(1) allocate responsibility for the management of its underwriting and sub-underwriting business;(2) allocate adequate resources to monitor and control its underwriting and sub-underwriting business;(3) satisfy itself that its systems to monitor exposure to counterparties will calculate, revise and update its exposure to each counterparty arising from its underwriting or sub-underwriting business;(4) satisfy itself of the suitability of each
BIPRU 5.6.4RRP
BIPRU 5.6.5 R to BIPRU 5.6.11 R set out the calculation of the fully adjusted exposure value under the supervisory volatility adjustments approach and the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach.
BIPRU 5.6.5RRP
In calculating the 'fully adjusted exposure value' (E*) for the exposures subject to an eligible master netting agreement covering repurchase transactions and/or securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions and/or other capital market-driven transactions, a firm must calculate the volatility adjustments to be applied in the manner set out in BIPRU 5.6.6 R to BIPRU 5.6.11 R either using the supervisory volatility adjustments approach or the own estimates of volatility
BIPRU 5.6.11RRP
E* must be calculated according to the following formula:E* = max {0, [(∑(E) -∑ (C)) + ∑ (|net position in each security| x Hsec) + (∑|Efx| x Hfx)]}where:(1) (where risk weighted exposure amounts are calculated under the standardised approach) E is the exposure value for each separate exposure under the agreement that would apply in the absence of the credit protection;(2) C is the value of the securities or commodities borrowed, purchased or received or the cash borrowed or received
BIPRU 5.6.16RRP
The master netting agreement internal models approach1 is an alternative to using the supervisory volatility adjustments approach or the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach in calculating volatility adjustments for the purpose of calculating the 'fully adjusted exposure value' (E*) resulting from the application of an eligible master netting agreement covering repurchase transactions, securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions and/or other capital
BIPRU 5.6.18RRP
A firm may use the master netting agreement internal models approach independently of the choice it has made between the standardised approach and the IRB approach for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts. However, if a firm uses the master netting agreement internal models approach, it must do so for all counterparties and securities, excluding immaterial portfolios where it may use the supervisory volatility adjustments approach or the own estimates of volatility
BIPRU 5.6.19RRP
(1) A firm must be able to satisfy the FSA that the firm's risk management system for managing the risks arising on the transactions covered by the master netting agreement is conceptually sound and implemented with integrity and that, in particular, the minimum qualitative standards in (2) - (11) are met.(2) The internal risk-measurement model used for calculation of potential price volatility for the transactions is closely integrated into the daily risk-management process of
BIPRU 5.6.24RRP
The fully adjusted exposure value (E*) for a firm using the master netting agreement internal models approach must be calculated according to the following formula:E* = max {0, [(∑E -∑C) + (VaR output of the internal models)]}where(1) (where risk weighted exposure amounts are calculated under the standardised approach) E is the exposure value for each separate exposure under the agreement that would apply in the absence of the credit protection;(2) C is the value of the securities
BIPRU 13.8.2RRP
Subject to BIPRU 13.8.3 R, in respect of a securities financing transaction, if a firm:(1) has a CCR internal model method permission which covers the transaction; or(2) has a master netting agreement internal models approach permission which covers the transaction;then the firm must use the CCR internal model method approach or the master netting agreement internal models approach, as applicable, to calculate the exposure value for that transaction unless an exception in BIPRU
BIPRU 13.8.3RRP
If a firm has a CCR internal model method permission and a master netting agreement internal models approach permission, and both cover a securities financing transaction, then the firm may choose which of those approaches it wishes to use to calculate the exposure value for that transaction.
BIPRU 13.8.4RRP
Where BIPRU 13.8.2 R does not apply, a firm must use one of the following approaches to determine the exposure value of a securities financing transaction, as appropriate:(1) if the transaction is covered by a master netting agreement which satisfies the requirements for recognition set out in BIPRU 5.6.1 R to BIPRU 5.6.3 R, a firm may calculate the exposure value under the master netting agreement method set out in BIPRU 5.6.5 R to BIPRU 5.6.11 R (Calculation of the fully adjusted
BIPRU 13.8.5GRP
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts under the standardised approach to credit risk will not be eligible to use the approach in BIPRU 13.8.4 R (1) if it is using the financial collateral simple method to determine the effects of credit risk mitigation, as set out in BIPRU 5.4.16 R.
BIPRU 13.8.6GRP
If a firm calculates the exposure value of a securities financing transaction as its on-balance sheet value, in accordance with BIPRU 13.8.4 R (2), it may recognise the effects of financial collateral in the same way as for its other exposures, for example by using either the financial collateral simple method or the financial collateral comprehensive method. However firms should note that the financial collateral simple method is not available:(1) to a firm using the IRB approach
BIPRU 13.8.7RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 13.8.2 R, a firm must determine the exposure value of a credit risk exposure outstanding with a central counterparty in accordance with BIPRU 13.8.8 R1, provided that the central counterparty'scounterparty credit riskexposures with all participants in its arrangements are fully collateralised on a daily basis.[Note: BCD Article 78(4) in respect of SFTs]
BIPRU 13.8.8RRP
A firm may attribute an exposure value of zero for CCR to a securities financing transaction or to any other exposures in respect of that transaction (but excluding an exposure arising from collateral held to mitigate losses in the event of the default of other participants in the central counterparty's arrangements) which is outstanding with a central counterparty and has not been rejected by the central counterparty.[Note: BCD Annex III Part 2 point 6 in respect of SFTs]
BIPRU 9.9.1RRP
To calculate the risk weighted exposure amount of a securitisation position, the relevant risk weight must be assigned to the exposure value of the position in accordance with BIPRU 9.9 - BIPRU 9.14 based on the credit quality of the position.[Note:BCD Article 96(1) (part) and Annex IX1, Part 4 point 1]
BIPRU 9.9.3RRP
(1) Where there is an exposure to different tranches in a securitisation, the exposure to each tranche must be considered a separate securitisation position.(2) The providers of credit protection to securitisation positions must be treated as holding positions in the securitisation.(3) securitisation positions include exposures to a securitisation arising from interest rate or currency derivative contracts.[Note:BCD Article 96(2)]
BIPRU 9.9.4RRP
Subject to BIPRU 9.9.5 R,(1) where a firm calculates risk weighted exposure amounts under the standardised approach to securitisations outlined in BIPRU 9.11, the exposure value of an on-balance sheet securitisation position must be its balance sheet value;(2) where a firm calculates risk weighted exposure amounts under the IRB approach to securitisations outlined in BIPRU 9.12, the exposure value of an on-balance sheet securitisation position must be measured gross of value adjustments;(3)
BIPRU 9.9.5RRP
The exposure value of a securitisation position arising from a financial derivative instrument must be determined in accordance with BIPRU 13 (Treatment of derivative instruments).[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 3]
BIPRU 9.9.6RRP
Where a securitisation position is subject to funded credit protection, the exposure value of that position may be modified in accordance with and subject to the requirements of BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation) as further specified in BIPRU 9.11.13 R and BIPRU 9.14.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 4]
BIPRU 9.9.8RRP
(1) Where a firm has two or more overlapping positions in a securitisation the firm must, to the extent that the positions overlap, include in its calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts only the position, or portion of a position, producing the higher risk weighted exposure amounts.(2) For the purposes of (1), overlapping means that the positions, wholly or partially, represent an exposure to the same risk such that to the extent of the overlap there is a single exposure.[Note:BCD
BIPRU 9.9.9RRP
Subject to the provisions of GENPRU that deal with the deduction of securitisation positions at stage M in the relevant capital resources table, the risk weighted exposure amount must be included in the firm's total of risk weighted exposure amounts for the purposes of the calculation of its credit risk capital requirement.[Note:BCD Article 96(4)]
BIPRU 13.2.1RRP
If the calculation of the amount of an exposure or of a combination of exposures under BIPRU 13 would materially understate the amount of the counterparty credit risk the firm must increase the amount of the credit risk capital requirement by an amount sufficient to compensate for that understatement.
BIPRU 13.2.2RRP
If a firm in relation to an exposure covered by BIPRU 13:(1) has an exposure of a non-standard type; or(2) an exposure that is part of a non-standard arrangement; or(3) has an exposure that, taken together with other exposures (whether or not they are subject to BIPRU 13), gives rise to a non-standard counterparty credit risk; or(4) is subject to the rule in BIPRU 13.2.1 R;it must notify the FSA as soon as practicable of that fact, the counterparty involved, the nature of the
BIPRU 13.2.3RRP
BIPRU 13.2.2 R does not apply to exposures which are within the scope of a firm'sCCR internal model method permission.
BIPRU 13.2.4RRP
A firm must judge the question of what is non-standard for the purposes of BIPRU 13.2.2 R by reference to the standards:(1) prevailing at the time the rule is being applied; and(2) of firms generally who carry on business which might give rise to exposures covered by BIPRU 13 rather than merely by reference to the firm's own business.
BIPRU 9.3.1RRP
(1) Where significant credit risk associated with securitised exposures has been transferred from the originator in accordance with the terms of BIPRU 9.4 or BIPRU 9.5, that originator may:(a) in the case of a traditional securitisation, exclude from its calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and, as relevant, expected loss amounts, the exposures which it has securitised; and(b) in the case of a synthetic securitisation, calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and, as
BIPRU 3.7.1RRP
In accordance with BIPRU 3.2.1 R (2) and BIPRU 3.2.2 R, a firm must:(1) assign an off-balance sheet item listed in the table in BIPRU 3.7.2 R to the risk category indicated in column 1 of that table; and(2) determine the exposure value of that item as the percentage of its value for the appropriate risk category as set out in column 3 of the table in BIPRU 3.7.2 R.
BIPRU 3.7.2RRP
This table belongs to BIPRU 3.7.1 R[Note: BCD Annex II]CategoryItemPercentageFull riskGuarantees having the character of credit substitutesCredit derivativesAcceptancesEndorsements on bills not bearing the name of another credit institutionTransactions with recourseIrrevocable standby letters of credit having the character of credit substitutesAssets purchased under outright forward purchase agreementsForward depositsThe unpaid portion of partly-paid shares and securitiesAsset
BIPRU 14.4.3RRP
Table: Capital treatment for free deliveriesThis table belongs to BIPRU 14.4.2 R.Transaction TypeUp to first contractual payment leg or delivery legFrom first contractual payment leg or delivery leg up to four days after second contractual payment leg or delivery legFrom 5 business days post second contractual payment leg or delivery leg until extinction of the transactionFree deliveryNo capital charge in the trading bookTreat as an exposureDeduct value transferred plus current
BIPRU 14.4.4RRP
(1) In the case of the non-trading book, a firm must treat an exposure falling into columns 2 and 3 of the table in BIPRU 14.4.3 R in accordance with the relevant provisions of the standardised approach to credit risk or the IRB approach, as the case may be.(2) In the case of the trading book, a firm must apply the treatment set out in BIPRU 14.4.5 R.[Note: CAD Annex II point 3 (part)]
BIPRU 14.4.5RRP
(1) In applying a risk weight to free deliveryexposures treated according to column 3 of the table in BIPRU 14.4.3 R, a firm using the IRB approach may assign PD to counterparties, for which they have no other non-trading bookexposure, on the basis of the counterparty's external rating.(2) A firm using own estimates of LGDs may apply the LGD set out in BIPRU 4.4.34 R to BIPRU 4.4.35 RBIPRU 4.4.35 R (IRB foundation approach: LGDs) to free deliveryexposures treated according to
BIPRU 14.4.6RRP
If the amount of positive exposure resulting from free delivery transactions is not material, a firm may apply a risk weight of 100% to these exposures.
BIPRU 3.5.1GRP
This section (BIPRU 3.5) sets out a simplified approach to calculating risk weights. This approach is only relevant to an exposure class for which risk weights are determined by the ratings of a nominated ECAI or an export credit agency. For other exposure classes a firm should use the normal approach under the standardised approach.
BIPRU 3.5.2GRP
The approach in this section is only likely to be relevant for a limited licence firm or a limited activity firm that has only incidental credit exposures and for whom it would be prohibitively costly to establish the systems needed to include the credit assessments of ECAIs and export credit agencies in its regulatory capital calculations. However the approach may be used by other firms if appropriate. A firm should notify the FSA if it adopts the approach in this section.
BIPRU 3.5.3GRP
Rather than risk weightingexposures individually, a firm eligible to apply the simplified approach should apply a single risk weight to all exposures in each exposure class. The simplified risk weight for exposures in a particular class will be the risk weighting for unrated entities for each exposure class in which the external credit assessments influence risk weights.
BIPRU 3.5.5GRP
Table : Simplified method of calculating risk weightsThis table belongs to BIPRU 3.5.4 G.Exposure classExposure sub-classRisk weightsCommentsCentral governmentExposures to United Kingdom government or Bank of England in sterling0%Exposures to United Kingdom government or Bank of England in the currency of another EEA State0%See Note 2.Exposures to EEA State's central government or central bank in currency of that state0%Exposures to EEA State's central government or central bank
BIPRU 3.5.7GRP
If an exposure is collateralised and if under BIPRU 5 the firm may recognise the collateral, the simplified approach may be used to determine the risk weight to be applied to the collateralised exposure. The key provisions are BIPRU 5.4.18 R to BIPRU 5.4.21 R.
BIPRU 5.8.1RRP
For the purposes of calculating risk weighted exposure amounts, a maturity mismatch occurs when the residual maturity of the credit protection is less than that of the protected exposure. Protection of less than three months residual maturity, the maturity of which is less than the maturity of the underlying exposure, must not be recognised.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 4 point 1]
BIPRU 5.8.7RRP
Where there is a mismatch between the maturity of the exposure and the maturity of the protection, the collateral must not be recognised.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 4 point 6]
BIPRU 5.8.9RRP
(1) The maturity of the credit protection and that of the exposure must be reflected in the adjusted value of the collateral according to the following formula:CVAM = CVA x (t-t*)/(T-t*)where:(a) CVA is the volatility adjusted value of the collateral as specified in BIPRU 5.4.28 R or the amount of the exposure, whichever is the lowest;(b) t is the number of years remaining to the maturity date of the credit protection calculated in accordance with BIPRU 5.8.3 R to BIPRU 5.8.5
BIPRU 5.8.11RRP
(1) The maturity of the credit protection and that of the exposure must be reflected in the adjusted value of the credit protection according to the following formula:GA = G* x (t-t*)/(T-t*)where:(a) G* is the amount of the protection adjusted for any currency mismatch;(b) GA is G* adjusted for any maturity mismatch;(c) t is the number of years remaining to the maturity date of the credit protection calculated in accordance with BIPRU 5.8.3 R to BIPRU 5.8.5 R, or the value of
BIPRU 9.1.3RRP
A firm must calculate the risk weighted exposure amount for securitisation positions in accordance with BIPRU 9.
BIPRU 9.1.4GRP
A firm should apply the securitisation framework set out in this chapter for determining regulatory capital requirements on exposures arising from traditional securitisations and from synthetic securitisations and from structures that contain features of both.
BIPRU 9.1.8GRP
The FSA expects an originator to continue to monitor any risks that it may be subject to when it has excluded the securitised exposures from its calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts. The originator should consider capital planning implications where risks may return and the impact that securitisation has on the quality of the remaining exposures held by the originator.
BIPRU 9.1.9GRP
BIPRU 9 deals with:(1) requirements for originators and sponsors of securitisations of non-trading bookexposures; and(2) the calculation of risk weighted exposure amount for securitisation positions for the purposes of calculating either the credit risk capital component or the counterparty risk capital component.
BIPRU 9.10.2RRP
In respect of a securitisation position in respect of which a 1250% risk weight is assigned, a firm may, as an alternative to including the position in its calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts, deduct from its capital resources the exposure value of the position. For these purposes, the calculation of the exposure value may reflect eligible funded protection in a manner consistent with BIPRU 9.14.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 points 35, 74 and 75(b)]
BIPRU 9.10.3RRP
Where a firm applies BIPRU 9.10.2 R, 12.5 times the amount deducted in accordance with that paragraph must, for the purposes of BIPRU 9.11.5 R and BIPRU 9.12.8 R, be subtracted from the amount specified in whichever of those rules applies as the maximum risk weighted exposure amount to be calculated by a firm to which one of those rules applies.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 36 and point 76]
BIPRU 9.10.4RRP
The risk weighted exposure amount of a securitisation position to which a 1250% risk weight is assigned may be reduced by 12.5 times the amount of any value adjustments made by the firm in respect of the securitised exposures.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 72 (part)]
BIPRU 9.10.6RRP
The risk weighted exposure amount of a securitisation position may be reduced by 12.5 times the amount of any value adjustments made by the firm in respect of the position.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 73]
BIPRU 9.10.7RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 9.10.2 R (as it applies to the IRB approach):(1) the exposure value of the position may be derived from the risk weighted exposure amounts taking into account any reductions made in accordance with BIPRU 9.10.4 RBIPRU 9.10.6 R;(2) where the supervisory formula method is used to calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and L KIRBR and [L+T] > KIRBR the position may be treated as two positions with L equal to KIRBR for the more senior of the positions.[Note:BCD
GENPRU 2.2.127RRP
The SPV referred to in GENPRU 2.2.124R (2)(a) must satisfy the following conditions:(1) it is controlled by the firm and may not operate independently of the firm;(2) the rights of investors in the SPV who do not belong to the group of the BIPRU firm in question are not such as to affect the ability of the firm to control the SPV; and(3) all or virtually all of its exposures (calculated by reference to the amount) consist of exposures to the firm or to that firm'sgroup.
GENPRU 2.2.189RRP
Where a firm is unable to determine whether collective/general provisions relate only to exposures on either the standardised approach or the IRB approach, that firm must allocate them on a basis which is reasonable and consistent.
GENPRU 2.2.191RRP
A BIPRU firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts under the IRB approach may not include in its capital resources value adjustments and provisions included in the calculation in BIPRU 4.3.8 R (Treatment of expected loss amounts under the IRB approach for trading bookexposures) or value adjustments and provisions for exposures that would otherwise have been eligible for inclusion in general/collective provisions other than in accordance with GENPRU 2.2.190 R.
GENPRU 2.2.193RRP
If a BIPRU firm calculates risk weighted exposure amounts under the IRB approach for the purposes of BIPRU 14 (Capital requirements for settlement and counterparty risk) it must not include valuation adjustments referred to in BIPRU 14.2.18 R (1) (Treatment of expected loss amounts) in its capital resources except in accordance with that rule.
GENPRU 2.2.209RRP
A material holding is:(1) a BIPRU firm's holdings of shares and any other interest in the capital of an individual credit institution or financial institution (held in the non-trading book or the trading book or both) exceeding 10% of the share capital of the issuer, and, where this is the case, any holdings of subordinated debt of the same issuer are also included as a material holding; the full amount of the holding is a material holding; or(2) a BIPRU firm's holdings of shares,
GENPRU 2.2.225RRP
For the purpose of GENPRU 2.2.224 R, in relation to a person ("P") to which a bank has an exposure when P is acting on his own behalf and also an exposure to P when P acts in his capacity as a trustee, custodian or general partner of an investment trust, unit trust, venture capital or other investment fund, pension fund or similar fund (a "fund") the bank may choose to treat this latter exposure as an exposure to the fund, unless such treatment would be misleading.
GENPRU 2.2.236RRP
A BIPRU firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts under the IRB approach must deduct:(1) any negative amounts arising from the calculation in BIPRU 4.3.8 R (Treatment of expected loss amounts); and(2) any expected loss amounts2 calculated in accordance with BIPRU 4.7.12 R (Expected loss amounts under the simple risk weight approach to calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for exposures belonging to the equity exposureIRB exposure class) or BIPRU 4.7.17 R (Expected loss
GENPRU 2.2.237RRP
A BIPRU firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts under the IRB approach or the standardised approach to credit risk must deduct from its capital resources the exposure amount of securitisation positions which receive a risk weight of 1250% under BIPRU 9 (Securitisation), unless the firm includes the securitisation positions in its calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts (see BIPRU 9.10 (Reduction in risk-weighted exposure amounts)).