Related provisions for MIPRU 4.2E.10
1 - 20 of 73 items.
An export credit agency credit assessment may be recognised by a firm for the purpose of determining the risk weight to be applied to an exposure under the standardised approach if either of the following conditions is met:(1) the credit assessment is a consensus risk score from export credit agencies participating in the OECD "Arrangement on Guidelines for Officially Supported Export Credits"; or(2) the export credit agency publishes its credit assessments, and the export credit
If there is a short-term credit assessment as set out in BIPRU 3.4.112 R and such an assessment determines the application of a more favourable or identical risk weight than the use of the general preferential treatment for short-term exposures, as specified in BIPRU 3.4.37 R, then the short-term assessment and risk weighting specified in BIPRU 3.4.112 R must be used for that specific exposure only. Other short-term exposures must follow the general preferential treatment for
If there is a short-term credit assessment as set out in BIPRU 3.4.112 R and such an assessment determines a less favourable risk weight than the use of the general preferential treatment for short-term exposures, as specified in BIPRU 3.4.37 R, then the general preferential treatment for short-term exposures must not be used and all unrated short-term claims must be assigned the same risk weight as that applied by the specific short-term assessment.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1
For the purposes of BIPRU 3.4.56 R or BIPRU 3.4.58 R, a firm may only treat an exposure as fully and completely secured by residential property situated in the territory of a third-country competent authority that is listed as equivalent for credit risk in BIPRU 8 Annex 6 R3 if it would be treated as fully and completely secured under the applicable requirements of that third-country competent authority (including any applicable loan-to-value ceiling).3
For the purposes of BIPRU 3.4.56 R or BIPRU 3.4.58 R, where the residential property in question is situated in the territory of a third-country competent authority that is not listed as equivalent for credit risk in BIPRU 8 Annex 3 R:(1) a firm must not treat an exposure as fully and completely secured by the residential property in question unless the value of the property exceeds the exposures by a substantial margin, which must be at least 20%;(2) the firm must apply a risk
Exposures or any part of an exposure secured by mortgages on offices or other commercial premises which cannot properly be considered to fall within any other standardised credit risk exposure class or to qualify for a lower risk weight under BIPRU 3 must be assigned a risk weight of 100%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 51]
Where a firm is not aware of the underlying exposures of a CIU, it may calculate an average risk weight for the CIU in accordance with the standardised approach subject to the following rules: it will be assumed that the CIU first invests, to the maximum extent allowed under its mandate, in the standardised credit risk exposure classes attracting the highest capital requirement, and then continues making investments in descending order until the maximum total investment limit
MIPRU 4.2F sets out the risk weights that a firm should apply to exposures in the form of loans secured on real estate property, other loans, exposures in the form of funds, and past due items, when calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for calculating the credit risk capital requirement under MIPRU 4.2.23 R.
Without prejudice to MIPRU 4.2F.36 R, an exposure or any part of an exposure must be assigned a risk weight of 35% where: (1) the exposure is fully and completely secured, to the satisfaction of the firm, by mortgages on residential property; and(2) the residential property is, or will be, occupied or let by the owner or the beneficial owner in the case of personal investment companies.
Without prejudice to MIPRU 4.2F.36 R, an exposure, or any part of an exposure, must be assigned a risk weight of 75% where: (1) the exposure arises from a mortgage on residential property up to a limit of 100% of the value of the property which is not fully and completely secured, to the satisfaction of the firm, by that mortgage; and(2) the residential property is, or will be, occupied or let by the owner or the beneficial owner in the case of personal investment companies.
(1) A firm must not treat a lifetime mortgage as an exposure fully and completely secured on residential property for the purposes of MIPRU 4.2F.4 R unless the amount of the exposure is calculated according to the following formula:where:(a) P is the current outstanding balance on the lifetime mortgage;(b) i is the interest rate charged on the lifetime mortgage, which for the purposes of this calculation must not be lower than the discount rate referred to in (c);(c) d is the
Without prejudice to MIPRU 4.2F.36 R, an exposure, or any part of an exposure, to a tenant under a property leasing transaction must be assigned a risk weight of 35% where: (1) the transaction concerns residential property; (2) under the transaction, the firm is the lessor and the tenant has an option to purchase; and(3) the firm is satisfied that the exposure is fully and completely secured by its ownership of the property.
If a firm has an exposure arising through a second-charge mortgage secured on the same property as a first-charge loan from a different firm, the exposure, taking into account the first-charge mortgage, must be split into the following components and risk weighted as follows, after taking into account the seniority of the first-charge loan:(1) the amount of the exposure or any part of the exposure, up to a limit of 80% of the value of the residential property, must be assigned
(1) The application of MIPRU 4.2F.33 R may be illustrated by an example. Where a first-charge mortgage exposure of £50,000 from another lender is secured on residential property in the United Kingdom that satisfies the criteria in MIPRU 4.2F.4 R to MIPRU 4.2F.29 R and the value of that property is £100,000, then a firm with a second-charge mortgage of £60,000 on the same property may treat £30,000 of that exposure as fully and completely secured and risk weight it at 35%, treat
Exposures, or any part of an exposure, secured by mortgages on offices or other commercial premises must be assigned a risk weight of 100% where the exposure:(1) cannot properly be considered to fall within any other standardised credit risk exposure class specified in MIPRU 4.2A.6A R (Exposure classes); or (2) does not qualify for a lower risk weight under this section.
Exposures in the form of funds for which a credit assessment by a nominated ECAI is available must be assigned a risk weight using:(1) the table in MIPRU 4.2E.14 R to determine the credit quality step associated with that credit assessment; and(2) the table in MIPRU 4.2F.41 R to determine the risk weight to be applied to the rated position, based on the associated credit quality step.
(1) Credit-granting: a firm must apply the same sound and well-defined criteria used under SYSC 7.1.9 R for credit-granting in respect of exposures held on the balance sheet to exposures to be securitised.(2) These criteria must include the processes for approving and, where relevant, amending, renewing and re-financing credits.
A clean-up call option must satisfy all of the following conditions:(1) it must be exercisable at the discretion of the firm;(2) it must only be exercised when 10% or less of the original value of the exposures securitised remains unamortised; (3) it must not be structured so that allocating losses to credit enhancement positions or other positions held by investors can be avoided; and (4) it must not otherwise be structured to provide credit enhancement.
The credit enhancement documentation must not contain clauses that require securitisation positions to be improved by the firm in response to a deterioration in the credit quality of the securitised exposures, including: (1) altering the credit quality of the underlying exposures; or(2) increasing the yield payable to investors in the securitisation positions.
The use of the concentration ratio approach for unrated securitisation positions is only permitted where all the following conditions are met:(1) the concentration ratio is equal to the sum of the nominal amounts of all the tranches divided by the sum of the nominal amounts of the tranches junior to, or equal to, the tranche in which the position is held, including that tranche itself;(2) where the resulting risk weight for a securitisation position is lower than any risk weight
(1) A conversion factor of 100% must be applied to the nominal amount of unrated liquidity facilities unless the conditions in MIPRU 4.2BA.51 R or MIPRU 4.2BA.53 R for a conversion factor of 50% or 0% are met. (2) The risk weight to be applied is the highest risk weight that would be applied to any of the securitised exposures by a firm holding those exposures.
(1) 1In calculating risk weighted exposure amounts, a maturity mismatch occurs where the residual maturity of the credit protection is less than that of the protected exposure.(2) Protection of less than three months residual maturity, the maturity of which is less than the maturity of the underlying exposure, must not be recognised.
(1) 1Subject to a maximum of five years, the effective maturity of the underlying exposure is the longest possible remaining time before the borrower is scheduled to fulfil its obligations.(2) Unless MIPRU 4.2C.27 R applies, the maturity of the credit protection is the length of time to the earliest date at which the protection may terminate or be terminated.
(1) 1The maturity of the credit protection and that of the exposure must be reflected in the adjusted value of the credit protection according to the following formula: GA = G* x (t-t*)/(T-t*) where:(a) G* is the amount of the protection adjusted for any currency mismatch;(b) GA is G* adjusted for any maturity mismatch;(c) t is the number of years remaining to the maturity date of the credit protection calculated in accordance with MIPRU 4.2C.27 R to MIPRU 4.2C.28 R, or the value
(1) 1Proportional regulatory capital relief is afforded if:(a) the protected amount is less than the exposure value; and(b) the protected and unprotected portions are of equal seniority, i.e. the firm and the protection provider share losses on a pro-rata basis.(2) Under MIPRU 4.2A.9 R, MIPRU 4.2A.12 R, MIPRU 4.2A.17A R and MIPRU 4.2A.17B R, risk weighted exposure amounts must be calculated in accordance with the following formula:(E-GA) x r + GA x gwhere:(a) E is the exposure
The risk weighted exposure amounts for credit risk for exposures belonging to one of the exposure classes referred to in (1) to (4) must, unless deducted from capital resources, be calculated in accordance with the following provisions:(1) for exposures in the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class, BIPRU 4.4.57 R to BIPRU 4.4.60 R, BIPRU 4.4.79 R, BIPRU 4.5.8 R to BIPRU 4.5.10 R (for specialised lending exposures), BIPRU 4.9.3 R and BIPRU 4.8.16 R to BIPRU 4.8.17
The calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for credit risk and dilution risk must be based on the relevant parameters associated with the exposure in question. These include probability of default (PD), loss given default (LGD), maturity (M) and the exposure value of the exposure. PD and LGD may be considered separately or jointly, in accordance with the provisions relating to PD and LGD in BIPRU 4.4, BIPRU 4.6, BIPRU 4.7 and BIPRU 4.8 at:(1) for exposures in the sovereign,
The credit risk control unit must be independent from the personnel and management functions responsible for originating or renewing exposures and report directly to senior management. The unit must be responsible for the design or selection, implementation, oversight and performance of the rating systems. It must regularly produce and analyse reports on the output of the rating systems.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 128]
A rating system comprises all of the methods, processes, controls, data collection and IT systems that support the assessment of credit risk, the assignment of exposures to grades or pools (rating), and the quantification of default and loss estimates for a certain type of exposure.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 1]
(1) A firm must regularly perform a credit risk stress test to assess the effect of certain specific conditions on its total capital requirements for credit risk. The test to be employed must be one chosen by the firm. The test to be employed must be meaningful and reasonably conservative. Stressed portfolios must contain the vast majority of a firm's total exposures covered by the IRB approach.(2) The stress test must be designed to assess the firm's ability to meet its capital
The credit risk capital requirement3of a firm is 8% of the total of its risk weighted exposure amounts for exposures that:3(1) are on its balance sheet; and(2) derive from: (a) a loan entered into; or(b) a securitisation position originated; or(c) a fund3position entered into;3on or after 26 April 2014; and (3) have not been deducted from the firm'scapital resources under MIPRU 4.4.4 R or MIPRU 4.2BA;calculated in accordance with MIPRU 4.2A.
(1) For the recognition of receivables as collateral the requirements in this paragraph must be met.(2) The legal mechanism by which the collateral is provided must be robust and effective and ensure that the lender has clear rights over the proceeds.(3) A firm must take all steps necessary to fulfil local requirements in respect of the enforceability of security interests. There must be a framework which allows the lender to have a first priority claim over the collateral subject
(1) Where:(a) risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts are calculated under the IRB approach; and(b) an exposure is collateralised by both financial collateral and other eligible collateral;LGD* to be taken as the LGD for the purposes of the IRB approach must be calculated in accordance with this rule.(2) A firm must subdivide the volatility-adjusted value of the exposure (i.e. the value after the application of the volatility adjustment as set out in BIPRU 5.4.28
(1) In the case of a firm using the IRB approach to calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts, the persons in (2) are added to the list in BIPRU 5.4.64 R (Definition of core market participant).(2) The persons referred to in (1) are other financial companies (including insurance companies) exposures to which do not have a credit assessment by an eligible ECAI and are internally rated as having a probability of default equivalent to that associated with
A firm must have clearly specified criteria for adjusting grades, pools or LGD estimates, and in the case of retail exposures and eligible purchased receivables, the process of allocating exposures to grades or pools, to reflect the impact of guarantees for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts. These criteria must comply with the minimum requirements referred to in BIPRU 4.10.43 R.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 101]
(1) A firm must notify the FCA that it is relying on the deemed transfer of significant credit risk under article 244(2)2 of the EU CRR (Traditional securitisation) or article 245(2)2 of the EU CRR (Synthetic securitisation), including when this is for the purposes of article 337(5) of the EU CRR, no later than one month after the date of the transfer.(2) The notification in (1) must include sufficient information to allow the FCA to assess whether the possible reduction in risk-weighted
An originator of securitisations is able to use the securitisation risk weights (and not calculate own funds requirements on the assets underlying its securitisation) in either of the following cases:(1) the firm transfers significant credit risk associated with the securitisedexposures to third parties; or(2) the firm deducts from common equity tier 1 capital or applies a 1250% risk weight to all positions it holds in the securitisation.
The significant risk transfer requirements in articles 2442 (Traditional securitisation) or 2452 (Synthetic securitisation) of the EU CRR provide three options for a firm to demonstrate how it transfers significant credit risk for any given transaction:(1) the originator does not retain more than 50% of the risk-weighted exposure amounts of mezzanine securitisation positions (as defined in article 242(18) of the EU CRR)2, where these are:(a) securitisation positions to which
Where the FCA considers that the possible reduction in risk-weighted exposure amounts (RWEA) achieved via the securitisation is not justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties, significant risk transfer will be considered to not have been achieved. Consequently, a firm will not be able to recognise any reduction in RWEA due to the transaction.
Notification under IFPRU 4.12.1 G should include sufficient information to enable the FCA to assess whether the possible reduction in RWEA which would be achieved by the securitisation is justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties. The FCA expects this to include the following:(1) details of the securitisation positions, including rating, exposure value and RWEA broken down by securitisation positions sold and retained;(2) key transaction documentation
The FCA's review will focus on the proportion of credit risk transferred, compared to the proportion by which RWEA are reduced in the transaction. Where the FCA judges that the reduction in RWEA is not justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties, it will inform the firm that significant risk transfer has not been achieved by this transaction. Otherwise, the FCA will inform the firm that it does not object to the transaction.
The FCA intends to apply two materiality limits to the proportion of risk-weighted exposure amount (RWEA) relief that can be taken under any permission covering multiple transactions:(1) transaction level limit any transaction that would, in principle, be within the scope of the permission, but that resulted in an RWEA reduction exceeding 1% of the firm's credit risk-related RWEAs as at the date of the firm's most recent regulatory return, will fall outside the scope of a multiple
Given that significant risk transfer should be met on a continuing basis, permissions will typically include a requirement to notify the FCA of any change in circumstances from those under which the permission was granted (eg, where the amount of credit risk transfer had changed materially). Any reduction in credit risk transfer subsequent to the permission being granted will require the firm to take a commensurate reduction in RWEA relief. If a firm does not effect a commensurate
An originator must transfer a significant amount of credit risk associated with securitisedexposures to third parties to be able to apply the securitisation risk weights set out in Part Three, Title II, Chapter 5 of the EU CRR (Securitisation), and any associated reduction in own funds requirements must be matched by a commensurate transfer of risk to third parties.
Where a firm achieves significant risk transfer for a particular transaction, the FCA expects it to continue to monitor risks related to the transaction to which it may still be exposed. The firm should consider capital planning implications of securitised assets returning to its balance sheet. The EU CRR requires a firm to conduct regular stress testing of its securitisation activities and off-balance sheet exposures. The stress tests should consider the firm-wide impact of stressed
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.3.5 R (Relevant parameters), the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for credit risk for all exposures belonging to the equity exposureIRB exposure class must be calculated in accordance with one of the following ways:(1) the simple risk weight approach (see BIPRU 4.7.8 R;(2) the PD/LGD approach (see BIPRU 4.7.13 R); and(3) the internal models approach (see BIPRU 4.7.23 R);in accordance with BIPRU 4.7 and subject to the firm'sIRB permission.[Note:BCD
The risk weighted exposure amounts must be calculated according to the following formula:risk-weighted exposure amounts = RW * exposure value;where:(1) risk weight (RW) = 190% for private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios;(2) risk weight (RW) = 290% for exchange traded equity exposures; and(3) risk weight (RW) = 370% for all other equity exposures.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 19]
Short cash positions and derivative instruments held in the non-trading book are permitted to offset long positions in the same individual stocks provided that these instruments have been explicitly designated as hedges of specific equity exposures and that they provide a hedge for at least another year. Other short positions must be treated as if they are long positions with the relevant risk weight assigned to the absolute value of each position. In the context of maturity mismatched
The risk weighted exposure amounts must be calculated according to the formulas in BIPRU 4.4.58 R (Risk weighted exposure amounts for sovereigns, institutions and corporates). If a firm does not have sufficient information to use the definition of default a scaling factor of 1.5 must be assigned to the risk weights.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 22]
The risk weighted exposure amount is the potential loss on the firm'sequity exposures as derived using internal value-at-risk models subject to the 99th percentile, one-tailed confidence interval of the difference between quarterly returns and an appropriate risk-free rate computed over a long-term sample period, multiplied by 12.5. The risk weighted exposure amounts at the equity exposure portfolio2 level must not be less than the total of the sums2 of the minimum risk weighted
(1) This section applies with respect to the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class.(2) The sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class includes specialised lending exposures.(3) Both BIPRU 4.4 and BIPRU 4.5 (Specialised lending exposures) apply to specialised lending exposures. A firm may calculate risk weighted exposure amounts for a specialised lending exposure either:(a) (if it is able to do so) in accordance with BIPRU 4.4; or(b) in accordance
(1) The exposure value for the items set out in this rule must be calculated as the committed but undrawn amount multiplied by the applicable conversion factor set out in this rule.(2) For credit lines which are uncommitted, that are unconditionally cancellable at any time by the firm without prior notice, or that effectively provide for automatic cancellation due to deterioration in a borrower's credit worthiness, a conversion factor of 0 % applies. To apply a conversion factor
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.4.76 R, the exposure value of credit risk exposures outstanding, as determined by the firm, with a central counterparty must be determined in accordance with BIPRU 13.3.3 R and BIPRU 13.8.8 R (Exposure to central counterparty), provided that the central counterparty'sCCRexposures with all participants in its arrangements are fully collateralised on a daily basis.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 3 point 8]
The risk weighted exposure amount for each exposure which meets the requirements set out in BIPRU 5.7.2 R and BIPRU 4.4.83 R (Double default) may be adjusted according to the following formula:(1) Risk weighted exposure amount = RW *exposure value * (0.15 + 160*PDpp)](2) PDpp = PD of the protection provider(3) RW must be calculated using the relevant risk weight formula set out in BIPRU 4.4.57 R for the exposure, the PD of the obligor and the LGD of a comparable direct exposure
To be eligible for the treatment set out in BIPRU 4.4.79 R, credit protection deriving from a guarantee or credit derivative must meet the following conditions:(1) the underlying obligation must be to:(a) a corporate exposure, excluding an exposure to an insurance undertaking (including an insurance undertaking that carries out reinsurance); or(b) an exposure to a regional government, local authority or public sector entity which is not treated as an exposure to a central government
(1) To calculate risk weighted exposure amounts, risk weights must be applied to all exposures, unless deducted from capital resources, in accordance with the provisions of BIPRU 3.4.(2) The application of risk weights must be based on the standardised credit risk exposure class to which the exposure is assigned and, to the extent specified in BIPRU 3.4, its credit quality.(3) Credit quality may be determined by reference to:(a) the credit assessments of eligible ECAIs in accordance
(1) Subject to BIPRU 3.2.35 R, and with the exception of exposures giving rise to liabilities in the form of the items referred to in BIPRU 3.2.26 R, a firm is not required to comply with BIPRU 3.2.20 R (Calculation of risk weighted exposures amounts under the standardised approach) in the case of the exposures of the firm to a counterparty which is its parent undertaking, its subsidiary undertaking or a subsidiary undertaking of its parent undertaking provided that the following
(1) The firm must have a control unit that is responsible for the design and implementation of its CCR management system, including the initial and on-going validation of the model.(2) This unit must control input data integrity and produce and analyse reports on the output of the firm's risk measurement model, including an evaluation of the relationship between measures of risk exposure and credit and trading limits.(3) This unit must be:(a) independent from units responsible
(1) A firm must stress test its CCRexposures, including jointly stressing market risk and credit risk factors.(2) In its stress tests of CCR, a firm must consider concentration risk (to a single counterparty or groups of counterparties), correlation risk across market risk and credit risk, and the risk that liquidating the counterparty's positions could move the market.(3) In its stress tests a firm must also consider the impact on its own positions of such market moves and integrate
(1) A firm'sCCR internal model method model must meet the validation requirements in (2) to (8).(2) The qualitative validation requirements set out in BIPRU 7.10 must be met.(3) Interest rates, foreign currency rates, equity prices, commodities, and other market risk factors must be forecast over long time horizons for measuring CCRexposure. The performance of the forecasting model for market risk factors must be validated over a long time horizon.(4) The pricing models used to
The originator of a traditional securitisation may exclude securitised exposures from the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts if either of the following conditions is fulfilled:(1) 2significant credit risk associated with the securitised exposures is considered to have been transferred to third parties; or(2) 2the originator applies a 1250% risk weight to all securitisation positions it holds in the securitisation or deducts these securitisation
2Significant credit risk will be considered to be transferred for an originator in the following cases:(1) 2the risk weighted exposure amounts of the mezzanine securitisation positions held by the originator in the securitisation do not exceed 50% of the risk weighted exposure amounts of all mezzanine securitisation positions existing in this securitisation;(2) 2where there are no mezzanine securitisation positions in a given securitisation and the originator can demonstrate that
2An originator must notify the appropriate regulator that it is relying on the deemed transfer of significant credit risk under BIPRU 9.4.11R within a reasonable period before or after a relevant transfer, not being later than one month after the date of the transfer. The notification must include the following information:(1) 2the risk weighted exposure amount of the securitised exposures and retained securitisation positions; (2) 2the exposure value of the securitised exposures
2In the event that the appropriate regulator decides that the possible reduction in risk weighted exposure amounts which the originator would achieve by the securitisation referred to in BIPRU 9.4.11R is not justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties, it will use its powers under section 55J (Variation etc on the Authority's own initiative) of the Act to require the firm to increase its risk weight exposure amount to an amount commensurate with the appropriate
A firm must disclose the following information regarding compliance with BIPRU 3, BIPRU 4, 5, BIPRU 7, 5 and the overall Pillar 2 rule:(1) a summary of the firm's approach to assessing the adequacy of its internal capital to support current and future activities;(2) for a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, 8% of the risk weighted exposure amounts for each of the standardised credit risk exposure classes;(3)
A firm must disclose the following information regarding its exposure to counterparty credit risk:(1) a discussion of the methodology used to assign internal capital and credit limits for counterparty credit exposures;(2) a discussion of policies for securing collateral and establishing credit reserves;(3) a discussion of policies with respect to wrong-way riskexposures;(4) a discussion of the impact of the amount of collateral the firm would have to provide given a downgrade
A firm must disclose the following information regarding its exposure to credit risk and dilution risk:(1) the definitions for accounting purposes of past due and impaired;(2) a description of the approaches and methods adopted for determining value adjustments and provisions;(3) the total amount of exposures after accounting offsets and without taking into account the effects of credit risk mitigation, and the average amount of the exposures over the period broken down by different
For a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, the following information must be disclosed for each of the standardised credit risk exposure classes;(1) the names of the nominated ECAIs and export credit agencies and the reasons for any changes;(2) the standardised credit risk exposure classes for which each ECAI or export credit agency is used;(3) a description of the process used to transfer the issuer and issue
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9 or capital resource requirements according to BIPRU 7.2.48A R to BIPRU 7.2.48K R4 must disclose the following information, where relevant separately for its trading book and non-trading book:4(1) a description of the firm's objectives in relation to securitisation activity;(1A) the nature of other risks, including liquidity risk inherent in securitised assets;4(1B) the type of risks in terms of seniority
(1) An originator of a synthetic securitisation may calculate risk weighted exposure amounts1, and, as relevant, expected loss amounts, for the securitised exposures in accordance with BIPRU 9.5.3 R and BIPRU 9.5.4 R, if either of the following conditions is fulfilled:1(a) 1significant credit risk is considered to have been transferred to third parties, either through funded or unfunded credit protection; or(b) 1the originator applies a 1250% risk weight to all securitisation
1In the event that the appropriate regulator decides that the possible reduction in risk weighted exposure amounts which the originatorcredit institution would achieve by the securitisation referred to in BIPRU 9.5.1R (6) is not justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties, it will use its powers under section 55J (Variation etc on the Authority's own initiative) of the Act to require the firm to increase its risk weight exposure amount to an amount commensurate
(1) In calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for the securitised exposures, where the conditions in BIPRU 9.5.1 R are met, the originator of a synthetic securitisation must, subject to the treatment of maturity mismatches set out in BIPRU 9.5.6 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R, use the relevant calculation methodologies set out in BIPRU 9.9-BIPRU 9.14and not those set out in BIPRU 3 (Standardised credit risk) or BIPRU 4 (IRB approach).(2) For firms calculating risk weighted exposure amounts
Subject to the treatment of maturity mismatches set out in BIPRU 9.5.6 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R, the originator must calculate risk weighted exposure amounts in respect of all tranches in the securitisation in accordance with the provisions of BIPRU 9.9-BIPRU 9.14. For example, where a tranche is transferred by means of unfunded credit protection to a third party, the risk weight of that third party must be applied to the tranche in the calculation of the originatorsrisk weighted exposure
For the purposes of calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9.5.3 R, any maturity mismatch between the credit protection by which the tranching is achieved and the securitised exposures must be taken into consideration in accordance with BIPRU 9.5.7 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 2 point 5]
(1) An originator must ignore any maturity mismatch in calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for tranches appearing pursuant to BIPRU 9.9-BIPRU 9.14 with a risk weight of 1250%. For all other tranches the maturity mismatch treatment prescribed in BIPRU 5.8 (Maturity mismatches) must be applied in accordance with the following formula:RW* is [RW(SP) x (t-t*)/(T-t*)] + [RW(Ass) x (T-t)/(T-t*)](2) The following apply for the purposes of the formula in (1):(a) RW* is risk weighted
The IRB approach is an alternative to the standardised approach for calculating a firm's credit risk capital requirements. It may be applied to all a firm'sexposures or to some of them, subject to various limitations on partial use as set out in BIPRU 4.2. Under the IRB approach capital requirements are based on a firm's own estimates of certain parameters together with other parameters set out in the Banking Consolidation Directive.
(1) The appropriate regulator will only grant an IRB permission if it is satisfied that the firm's systems for the management and rating of credit risk exposures are sound and implemented with integrity and, in particular, that they meet the standards in BIPRU 4.2.2 R in accordance with the minimum IRB standards.(2) Under BIPRU 4.2.11 R, a firm applying for an IRB permission is required to demonstrate that it has been using for the IRB exposure classes in question rating systems
A firm must calculate its credit risk capital component as the sum of:(1) (for exposures to which the standardised approach is applied) the credit risk capital component as calculated under BIPRU 3.1.5 R; and(2) (for exposures to which the IRB approach is applied to which the standardised approach would otherwise apply in accordance with BIPRU 3.1.5 R (Credit risk capital component)), 8% of the total of the firm'srisk weighted exposure amounts calculated in accordance with the
The following parties may be recognised as eligible providers of unfunded credit protection:(1) central governments and central banks;(2) regional governments or local authorities;(3) multilateral development banks;(4) international organisationsexposures which are assigned a 0% risk weight under the standardised approach;(5) public sector entities, claims on which are treated as claims on institutions or central governments under the standardised approach;(6) institutions;(7)
When a firm conducts an internal hedge using a credit derivative - i.e. hedges the credit risk of an exposure in the non-trading book with a credit derivative booked in the trading book - in order for the protection to be recognised as eligible for the purposes of BIPRU 4.10 or BIPRU 5 the credit risk transferred to the trading book must be transferred out to a third party or parties. In such circumstances, subject to the compliance of such transfer with the requirements for the
Where an exposure is protected by a guarantee which is counter-guaranteed by a central government or central bank, a regional government or local authority or a public sector entity claims on which are treated as claims on the central government in whose jurisdiction they are established under the standardised approach, a multilateral development bank or an international organisation,1to which a 0% risk weight is assigned under or by virtue of the standardised approach, or a public
Where the protected amount is less than the exposure value and the protected and unprotected portions are of equal seniority - i.e.1 the firm and the protection provider share losses on a pro-rata basis, proportional regulatory capital relief is afforded. For the purposes of BIPRU 3.2.20 R to BIPRU 3.2.26 Rrisk weighted exposure amounts must be calculated in accordance with the following formula:(E-GA) x r + GA x gwhere:1(1) E is the exposure value; according to BIPRU 3.2.1 R
Where a firm obtains credit protection for a number of exposures under terms that the first default among the exposures will trigger payment and that this credit event will terminate the contract, the firm may modify the calculation of the risk weighted exposure amount and, as relevant, the expected loss amount of the exposure which would in the absence of the credit protection produce the lowest risk weighted exposure amount under the standardised approach or the IRB approach
Where the nth default among the exposures triggers payment under the credit protection provided by a credit derivative, a firm purchasing the protection may only recognise the protection for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and, as relevant, expected loss amounts if protection has also been obtained for defaults 1 to n-1 or when n-1 defaults have already occurred. In such cases the methodology must follow that set out in BIPRU 5.7.27 R for first-to-default derivatives
The risk weight that would be assigned under the standardised approach to credit risk if the lending firm had a direct exposure to the collateral instrument must be assigned to those portions of exposure values4 collateralised by the market value of recognised collateral. For this purpose, the exposure value of an off-balance sheet item listed in BIPRU 3.7.2 R must be 100% of its value rather than the exposure value indicated in BIPRU 3.2.1 R.4 The risk weight of the collateralised
Core market participant means the following entities:(1) the entities mentioned in BIPRU 5.4.2 R (2)exposures to which are assigned a 0% risk weight under the standardised approach to credit risk;(2) institutions;(3) other financial companies (including insurance companies) exposures which are assigned a 20% risk weight under the standardised approach;(4) regulated CIUs that are subject to capital or leverage requirements;(5) regulated pension funds; and(6) a recognised clearing
A firm's systems for the management and rating of credit risk exposures must be sound and implemented with integrity and, in particular, they must meet the following standards in accordance with the minimum IRB standards:(1) the firm'srating systems provide for a meaningful assessment of obligor and transaction characteristics, a meaningful differentiation of risk and accurate and consistent quantitative estimates of risk;(2) internal ratings and default and loss estimates used
(1) This rule sets out what must be treated as being non-significant business or immaterial for the purposes of BIPRU 4.2.26 R (4), for exposures that do not fall within the equity exposureIRB exposure class.(2) A firm may elect permanently to exclude exposures from the IRB approach and apply the standardised approach. However a firm may only make use of this exemption to the extent that:(a) the consolidated credit risk requirement (adjusted under (6)) so far as it is attributable