Related provisions for MIPRU 4.2C.20

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BIPRU 5.4.1RRP
(1) Where the credit risk mitigation used relies on the right of a firm to liquidate or retain assets, eligibility depends upon whether risk weighted exposure amounts, and, as relevant, expected loss amounts, are calculated under the standardised approach or the IRB approach.(2) Eligibility further depends upon whether the financial collateral simple method is used or the financial collateral comprehensive method.(3) In relation to repurchase transactions and securities or commodities
BIPRU 5.4.2RRP
The following financial items may be recognised as eligible collateral under all approaches and methods:(1) cash on deposit with, or cash assimilated instruments held by, the lending firm;(2) debt securities issued by central governments or central banks which securities have a credit assessment by an eligible ECAI or export credit agency recognised as eligible for the purposes of the standardised approach, which is associated with credit quality step 4 or above under the rules
BIPRU 5.4.3RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 5.4.2 R (2), 'debt securities issued by central governments or central banks' include -(1) debt securities issued by regional governments or local authorities exposures to which are treated as exposures to the central government in whose jurisdiction they are established under the standardised approach;(2) debt securities issued by public sector entities which are treated as exposures to central governments in accordance with BIPRU 3.4.24 R;(3) debt securities
BIPRU 5.4.4RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 5.4.2 R (3), 'debt securities issued by institutions' include:(1) debt securities issued by regional governments or local authorities other than those exposures to which are treated as exposures to the central government in whose jurisdiction they are established under the standardised approach;(2) debt securities issued by public sector entities, exposures to which are treated as exposures to a credit institution under the standardised approach;(3) debt
BIPRU 5.4.5RRP
Debt securities issued by institutions which securities do not have a credit assessment by an eligible ECAI may be recognised as eligible collateral if they fulfil the following criteria:(1) they are listed on a recognised investment exchange or a designated investment exchange;(2) they qualify as senior debt;(3) all other rated issues by the issuing institution of the same seniority have a credit assessment by an eligible ECAI associated with credit quality step 3 or above under
BIPRU 5.4.8RRP
(1) In addition to the collateral set out in BIPRU 5.4.2 R to BIPRU 5.4.7 R, where a firm uses the financial collateral comprehensive method, the following financial items may be recognised as eligible collateral:(a) equities or convertible bonds not included in a main index but traded on a recognised investment exchange or a designated investment exchange;(b) units in CIUs if the following conditions are met:(i) they have a daily public price quote; and(ii) the CIU is limited
BIPRU 5.4.13RRP
In addition to the requirements set out in BIPRU 5.4.9 R, for the recognition of financial collateral under the financial collateral simple method the residual maturity of the protection must be at least as long as the residual maturity of the exposure.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 2 point 7]
BIPRU 5.4.14RRP
BIPRU 5.4.17 R - BIPRU 5.4.22 R set out the calculation of the effects of credit risk mitigation under the financial collateral simple method.
BIPRU 5.4.15RRP
The financial collateral simple method is available only where risk weighted exposure amounts are calculated under the standardised approach to credit risk.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 24 (part)]
BIPRU 5.4.16RRP
A firm must not use both the financial collateral simple method and the financial collateral comprehensive method, unless such use is for the purposes of BIPRU 4.2.17 R to BIPRU 4.2.19 R and BIPRU 4.2.26 R, and such use is provided for by the firm'sIRB permission. A firm must demonstrate to the appropriate regulator that this exceptional application of both methods is not used selectively with the purpose of achieving reduced minimum capital requirements and does not lead to regulatory
BIPRU 5.4.20RRP
A risk weight of 0% must, to the extent of the collateralisation, be assigned to the exposure values determined under BIPRU 13 for financial derivative instruments and subject to daily marking-to-market, collateralised by cash or cash assimilated instruments where there is no currency mismatch. A risk weight of 10% must be assigned to the extent of the collateralisation to the exposure values of such transactions collateralised by debt securities issued by central governments
BIPRU 5.4.21RRP
A 0% risk weight may be assigned where the exposure and the collateral are denominated in the same currency, and either:(1) the collateral is cash on deposit or a cash assimilated instrument; or(2) the collateral is in the form of debt securities issued by central governments or central banks eligible for a 0% risk weight under the standardised approach, and its market value has been discounted by 20%.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 29]
BIPRU 5.4.22RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 5.4.20 R and BIPRU 5.4.21 R 'debt securities issued by central governments or central banks' must include:(1) debt securities issued by regional governments or local authorities exposures to which are treated as exposures to the central government in whose jurisdiction they are established under the standardised approach;(2) debt securities issued by multilateral development banks to which a 0% risk weight is assigned under or by virtue of the standardised
BIPRU 5.4.23RRP
BIPRU 5.4.24 R - BIPRU 5.4.66 R set out the calculation of the effects of credit risk mitigation under the financial collateral comprehensive method.
BIPRU 5.4.24RRP
In valuing financial collateral for the purposes of the financial collateral comprehensive method, volatility adjustments must be applied to the market value of collateral, as set out in BIPRU 5.4.30 R to BIPRU 5.4.65 R, in order to take account of price volatility.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 30]
BIPRU 5.4.27RRP
In the case of a firm using the financial collateral comprehensive method, where an exposure takes the form of securities or commodities sold, posted or lent under a repurchase transaction or under a securities or commodities lending or borrowing transaction, and margin lending transactions the exposure value must be increased by the volatility adjustment appropriate to such securities or commodities as prescribed in BIPRU 5.4.30 R to BIPRU 5.4.65 R.[Note: BCD Article 78(1), third
BIPRU 5.4.28RRP
(1) The volatility-adjusted value of the collateral to be taken into account is calculated as follows in the case of all transactions except those transactions subject to recognised master netting agreements to which the provisions set out in BIPRU 5.6.5 R to BIPRU 5.6.29 R are to be applied:CVA = C x (1-HC-HFX)(2) The volatility-adjusted value of the exposure to be taken into account is calculated as follows:EVA = E x (1+HE), and in the case of financial derivative instruments
BIPRU 5.4.30RRP
Volatility adjustments may be calculated in two ways: the supervisory volatility adjustments approach and the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 34]
BIPRU 5.4.31RRP
A firm may choose to use the supervisory volatility adjustments approach or the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach independently of the choice it has made between the standardised approach and the IRB approach for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts. However, if a firm seeks to use the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach, it must do so for the full range of instrument types, excluding immaterial portfolios where it may use the supervisory
BIPRU 5.4.34RRP
The volatility adjustments to be applied under the supervisory volatility adjustments approach (assuming daily revaluation) are those set out in the tables in BIPRU 5.4.35 R - BIPRU 5.4.38 R.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 36]
BIPRU 5.4.38RRP
This table belongs to BIPRU 5.4.34 R.Volatility adjustment for currency mismatch20 day liquidation period (%)10 day liquidation period (%)5 day liquidation period (%)11.31485.657
BIPRU 5.4.44RRP
BIPRU 5.4.45 R - BIPRU 5.4.60 R deal with the calculation of volatility adjustments under the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach.
BIPRU 5.4.45RRP
A firm complying with the requirements set out in BIPRU 5.4.50 R to BIPRU 5.4.60 R may use the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach for calculating the volatility adjustments to be applied to collateral and exposures.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 42]
BIPRU 5.4.49RRP
A firm using the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach must estimate volatility of the collateral or foreign exchange mismatch without taking into account any correlations between the unsecured exposure, collateral and/or exchange rates.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 46]
BIPRU 5.4.50RRP
In calculating the volatility adjustments, a 99th percentile one-tailed confidence interval must be used.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 47]
BIPRU 5.4.52RRP
A firm may use volatility adjustment numbers calculated according to shorter or longer liquidation periods, scaled up or down to the liquidation period set out in BIPRU 5.4.51 R for the type of transaction in question, using the square root of time formula:(HM = HN )√TM/TN)where:(1) TM is the relevant liquidation period;(2) HM is the volatility adjustment under TM ; and(3) HN is the volatility adjustment based on the liquidation period TN.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 49]
BIPRU 5.4.54RRP
The historical observation period (sample period) for calculating volatility adjustments must be a minimum length of one year. For a firm that uses a weighting scheme or other methods for the historical observation period, the effective observation period must be at least one year (that is, the weighted average time lag of the individual observations must not be less than 6 months).[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 51]
BIPRU 5.4.55GRP
The appropriate regulator may also require a firm to calculate its volatility adjustments using a shorter observation period if, in the appropriate regulator's judgement, this is justified by a significant upsurge in price volatility.
BIPRU 5.4.62RRP
In relation to repurchase transaction and securities lending or borrowing transactions, where a firm uses the supervisory volatility adjustments approach or the own estimates of volatility adjustments approach and where the conditions set out in (1) - (8) are satisfied, a firm may, instead of applying the volatility adjustments calculated under BIPRU 5.4.30 R to BIPRU 5.4.61 R, apply a 0% volatility adjustment:(1) both the exposure and the collateral are cash or debt securities
MIPRU 4.2C.1RRP
This section applies to a firm carrying on any home financing connected to regulated mortgage contracts or home financing and home financing administration connected to regulated mortgage contracts see 1MIPRU 4.2.23 R where it applies credit risk mitigation1 to the calculation of its risk weighted exposure amounts under MIPRU 4.2A (Credit risk capital requirement)1.11
MIPRU 4.2C.5RRP
1A firm may recognise credit risk mitigation under this section in calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for calculating the credit risk capital requirement.
MIPRU 4.2C.6RRP
(1) 1If a firm transfers part of the risk of a loan in one or more tranches, MIPRU 4.2BA (Securitisation) applies. (2) Materiality thresholds below which no payment shall be made by the provider of credit protection in the event of loss are considered to be equivalent to retained first-loss positions and to give rise to a tranched transfer of risk.
MIPRU 4.2C.7RRP
1The technique used to provide credit protection, together with the actions and steps taken and procedures and policies implemented by a firm, must result in credit protection arrangements which are legally effective and enforceable in all relevant jurisdictions.
MIPRU 4.2C.8RRP
(1) 1A firm must not recognise credit protection as eligible until it has conducted an adequate legal review confirming that the credit protection arrangements are legally effective and enforceable in all relevant jurisdictions, in accordance with MIPRU 4.2C.7 R.(2) A firm must conduct further legal reviews as necessary, to ensure continuing enforceability and effectiveness.
MIPRU 4.2C.9RRP
1A firm must take steps to ensure the effectiveness of the credit protection arrangement and to address related risks.
MIPRU 4.2C.10RRP
(1) 1A firm must satisfy the FCA that it has adequate risk management processes to control the risks to which it may be exposed as a result of carrying out credit risk mitigation.(2) These processes must include appropriate stress tests and scenario analyses relating to those risks, including residual risk and the risks relating to the intrinsic value of the credit risk mitigation.
MIPRU 4.2C.12RRP
1Even where a firm recognises credit risk mitigation when calculating risk weighted exposure amounts, it must: (1) continue to undertake full credit-risk assessment of the underlying exposure; and(2) demonstrate to the FCA the fulfilment of the requirement in (1).
MIPRU 4.2C.13RRP
1For credit protection to be recognised, the following conditions must be met: (1) it must be direct; (2) the extent of the credit protection must be clearly defined and incontrovertible;(3) the credit protection contract must not contain any clause which is outside the direct control of the lender to fulfil and which: (a) would allow the protection provider unilaterally to cancel the protection; or(b) would increase the effective cost of protection as a result of deteriorating
MIPRU 4.2C.16RRP
1For unfunded credit protection:(1) to be eligible for recognition:(a) the party giving the undertaking must be sufficiently reliable; and(b) the protection agreement must be legally effective and enforceable in the relevant jurisdictions, to provide appropriate certainty as to the credit protection achieved, having regard to the approach used to calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and to the degree of recognition allowed; and(2) protection must be provided by central governments
MIPRU 4.2C.18RRP
1No exposure for which credit risk mitigation is obtained may produce a higher risk weighted exposure amount than an otherwise identical exposure for which there is no credit risk mitigation.
MIPRU 4.2C.21RRP
1Where unfunded credit protection is denominated in a currency different from that in which the exposure is denominated (a currency mismatch) the value of the credit protection must be reduced by the application of a volatility adjustment HFX as follows:G* = G x (1-HFX)where: (1) G is the nominal amount of the credit protection;(2) G* is G adjusted for any foreign currency risk; and (3) HFX is the volatility adjustment for any currency mismatch between the credit protection and
MIPRU 4.2C.29RRP
1Under MIPRU 4.2A.9 R, MIPRU 4.2A.12 R, MIPRU 4.2A.17A R and MIPRU 4.2A.17B R, g is the risk weight to be assigned to an exposure, the exposure value (E) of which is fully protected by unfunded credit protection (GA), where: (1) g is the risk weight of exposures to the protection provider; (2) GA is the value of G* as calculated under MIPRU 4.2C.22 R further adjusted for any maturity mismatch under MIPRU 4.2C.24 R to MIPRU 4.2C.28 R; and(3) E is the exposure value according to
MIPRU 4.2C.33RRP
1Where a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts has more than one form of credit risk mitigation covering a single exposure: (1) it must divide the exposure into parts covered by each type of credit risk mitigation; and(2) the risk weighted exposure amount for each portion must be calculated separately in accordance with MIPRU 4.2A (Credit risk capital requirement).
MIPRU 4.2C.34RRP
1When credit protection provided by a single protection provider has differing maturities, a similar approach to that described in MIPRU 4.2C.33 R must be applied.
BIPRU 5.2.1RRP
A firm using the standardised approach may recognise credit risk mitigation in accordance with BIPRU 5 in the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for the purposes of the calculation of the credit risk capital component.[Note: BCD Article 91]
BIPRU 5.2.2RRP
The technique used to provide the credit protection together with the actions and steps taken and procedures and policies implemented by a lending firm must be such as to result in credit protection arrangements which are legally effective and enforceable in all relevant jurisdictions.[Note: BCD Article 92(1)]
BIPRU 5.2.3RRP
(1) A firm must not recognise credit protection as eligible until it has conducted sufficient legal review confirming that the credit protection arrangements are legally effective and enforceable in all relevant jurisdictions in accordance with BIPRU 5.2.2 R.(2) A firm must re-conduct legal reviews as necessary to ensure continuing enforceability and effectiveness.
BIPRU 5.2.4RRP
A lending firm must take all appropriate steps to ensure the effectiveness of the credit protection arrangement and to address related risks.[Note: BCD Article 92(2)]
BIPRU 5.2.5RRP
In the case of funded credit protection:(1) to be eligible for recognition the assets relied upon must be sufficiently liquid and their value over time sufficiently stable to provide appropriate certainty as to the credit protection achieved having regard to the approach used to calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and to the degree of recognition allowed; eligibility is limited to the assets set out in the CRM eligibility conditions; and(2) the lending firm must have the
BIPRU 5.2.6GRP
A credit linked note should be treated, to the extent of its cash funding, as funded credit protection. Therefore the conditions in BIPRU 5 regulating the eligibility of protection providers for unfunded credit protection do not apply. However the other provisions about the requirements for the recognition of unfunded credit protection do apply.
BIPRU 5.2.7RRP
In the case of unfunded credit protection:(1) to be eligible for recognition the party giving the undertaking must be sufficiently reliable, and the protection agreement legally effective and enforceable in the relevant jurisdictions, to provide appropriate certainty as to the credit protection achieved having regard to the approach used to calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and to the degree of recognition allowed; and(2) eligibility is limited to the protection providers
BIPRU 5.2.9RRP
A firm must be able to satisfy the appropriate regulator that it has adequate risk management processes to control the 1risks to which the firm may be exposed as a result of carrying out credit risk mitigation. Those processes must include appropriate stress tests and scenario analyses relating to those risks, including residual risk and the risks relating to the intrinsic value of the credit risk mitigation1.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 2 point 1]1
BIPRU 5.2.10RRP
Notwithstanding the presence of credit risk mitigation taken into account for the purposes of calculating risk weighted exposure amounts and as relevant expected loss amounts, a firm must continue to undertake full credit risk assessment of the underlying exposure and must be in a position to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator the fulfilment of this requirement. In the case of repurchase transactions and/or securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions the
BIPRU 5.2.11RRP
Where the requirements of BIPRU 5.2.2 R to BIPRU 5.2.8 R are met the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts, may be modified in accordance with BIPRU 5.[Note: BCD Article 93(1)]
BIPRU 5.2.12RRP
No exposure in respect of which credit risk mitigation is obtained may produce a higher risk weighted exposure amount than an otherwise identical exposure in respect of which there is no credit risk mitigation.[Note: BCD Article 93(2)]
BIPRU 5.2.13RRP
Where the risk weighted exposure amount already takes account of credit protection under the standardised approach the calculation of the credit protection must not be further recognised under BIPRU 5.[Note: BCD Article 93(3)]
BIPRU 5.2.14RRP
Subject to BIPRU 5.8, BIPRU 5.9 and BIPRU 5.7.27 R to BIPRU 5.7.28 R, where the CRM eligibility conditions and the CRM minimum requirements are satisfied, the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts under the standardised approach may be modified in accordance with the provisions of BIPRU 5.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 1]
BIPRU 9.14.1RRP
This section applies to credit risk mitigation in relation to a securitisation position for a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts using the IRB approach.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 37 (part)]
BIPRU 9.14.2RRP
Where a firm uses the ratings based method to calculate the risk weighted exposure amounts of securitisation positions, the firm may recognise credit risk mitigation in accordance with BIPRU 9.14.4 R to BIPRU 9.14.6 R.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 51]
BIPRU 9.14.3RRP
Where a firm uses the supervisory formula method to calculate the risk weighted exposure amounts of securitisation positions, the firm may recognise credit risk mitigation in accordance with BIPRU 9.14.4 R to BIPRU 9.14.5 R and BIPRU 9.14.7 R to BIPRU 9.14.13 R.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 54]
BIPRU 9.14.5RRP
Eligible unfunded credit protection and unfunded protection providers are limited to those which are eligible under BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation) and BIPRU 4.10 (Credit risk mitigation under the IRB approach) and recognition is subject to compliance with the relevant minimum requirements laid down under those provisions.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 61]
BIPRU 9.14.6RRP
Where risk weighted exposure amounts are calculated using the ratings based method, the exposure value and/or the risk weighted exposure amount for a securitisation position in respect of which credit protection has been obtained may be modified in accordance with the provisions of BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation) as they apply for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts under the standardised approach set out in BIPRU 3.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 62]
BIPRU 9.14.7RRP
BIPRU 9.14.8 RBIPRU 9.14.10 R apply where risk weighted exposure amounts are calculated using the supervisory formula method where there is full credit protection.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 63 (part)]
BIPRU 9.14.10RRP
In the case of unfunded credit protection, the risk weighted exposure amount of the securitisation position must be calculated by multiplying GA (the amount of the protection adjusted for any currency mismatch and maturity mismatch in accordance BIPRU 5.7.23 R (2)) by the risk weight of the protection provider; and adding this to the amount arrived at by multiplying the amount of the securitisation position minus GA by the effective risk weight.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point
BIPRU 9.14.11RRP
BIPRU 9.14.12 RBIPRU 9.14.13 R apply where risk weighted exposure amounts are calculated using the supervisory formula method where there is partial protection.
BIPRU 9.14.12RRP
If the credit risk mitigation covers the first loss or losses on a proportional basis on the securitisation position, a firm may apply BIPRU 9.14.7 R to BIPRU 9.14.10 R.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 66]
BIPRU 9.14.13RRP
In other cases the firm must treat the securitisation position as two or more positions with the uncovered portion being the position with the lower credit quality. For the purposes of calculating the risk weighted exposure amount for this position, the provisions in BIPRU 9.12.22 R to BIPRU 9.12.24 G apply subject to the modifications that T is adjusted to e* in the case of funded credit protection; and to T-g in the case of unfunded credit protection, where e* denotes the ratio
BIPRU 5.6.1RRP
(1) For a firm adopting the financial collateral comprehensive method, the effects of bilateral netting contracts covering repurchase transactions, securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions, and/or other capital market-driven transactions with a counterparty may be recognised.(2) Without prejudice to BIPRU 14 to be recognised the collateral taken and securities or commodities borrowed within such agreements must comply with the eligibility requirements for collateral
BIPRU 5.6.12RRP
BIPRU 5.6.16 R to BIPRU 5.6.28 G apply to a firm that has a master netting agreement internal models approach permission and set out the calculation of the effects of credit risk mitigation under the master netting agreement internal models approach.
BIPRU 5.6.13GRP
A firm that wishes to use the master netting agreement internal models approach will need to apply to the appropriate regulator for a master netting agreement internal models approach permission. BIPRU 1.3 sets out the requirements and procedures relating to those applications.
BIPRU 5.6.14GRP
A master netting agreement internal models approach permission will amend, to the extent set out in the master netting agreement internal models approach permission, BIPRU 5.6.1 R so as to provide that, with the exceptions provided in BIPRU 5.6, a firm must use the master netting agreement internal models approach for the purposes of the calculations specified in BIPRU 5.6.
BIPRU 5.6.15GRP
A firm which has been granted a VaR modelwaiver will still need to make an application to the appropriate regulator for a master netting agreement internal models approach permission. However, the application should generally be straightforward as a firm which is able to satisfy the requirements for a VaR modelwaiver should usually also be able to satisfy the requirements for a master netting agreement internal models approach permission.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 14]
BIPRU 5.6.17RRP
A firm may also use the internal model used for the master netting agreement internal models approach1 for margin lending transactions if the transactions are covered under the firm'smaster netting agreement internal models approach permission and the transactions are covered by a bilateral master netting agreement that meets the requirements set out in BIPRU 13.7.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 12 (part)]
BIPRU 5.6.24RRP
The fully adjusted exposure value (E*) for a firm using the master netting agreement internal models approach must be calculated according to the following formula:E* = max {0, [(∑E -∑C) + (VaR output of the internal models)]}where(1) (where risk weighted exposure amounts are calculated under the standardised approach) E is the exposure value for each separate exposure under the agreement that would apply in the absence of the credit protection;(2) C is the value of the securities
BIPRU 5.6.26GRP
No changes should be made to the internal model used for the master netting agreement internal models approach1 unless the change is not material. Material changes to such a model will require a variation of the master netting agreement internal models approach permission. Materiality is measured against the model as it was at the time that the master netting agreement internal models approach permission was originally granted or, any later date set out in the master netting agreement
BIPRU 5.6.27GRP
If a firm ceases to meet the requirements of BIPRU 5 in relation to the master netting agreement internal models approach, the firm should notify the appropriate regulator at once.
BIPRU 4.10.3RRP
A firm using the IRB approach, but not using its own estimates of LGD and conversion factors, may recognise credit risk mitigation in accordance with BIPRU 5 as modified by BIPRU 4.10 in the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for the purposes of the calculation of the credit risk capital component or as relevant expected loss amounts for the purposes of the calculation in GENPRU 2.2.191 R to GENPRU 2.2.193 R or GENPRU 2.2.236 R.[Note: BCD Article 91 (as it applies to
BIPRU 4.10.4RRP
(1) Where the requirements of BIPRU 5.2.2 R - BIPRU 5.2.8 R are met the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts, and, as relevant, expected loss amounts, may be modified in accordance with BIPRU 5 as modified by BIPRU 4.10.(2) No exposure in respect of which credit risk mitigation is obtained must produce a higher risk weighted exposure amount or expected loss amount than an otherwise identical exposure in respect of which there is no credit risk mitigation.(3) Where the
BIPRU 4.10.19RRP
(1) Where the requirements set out in this paragraph are met, exposures arising from transactions whereby a firm leases property to a third party must be treated the same as loans collateralised by the type of property leased.(2) For the exposures arising from leasing transactions to be treated as collateralised by the type of property leased, the following conditions must be met:(a) the conditions set out or referred to in BIPRU 4.10.13 R or BIPRU 4.10.18 R as appropriate for
BIPRU 4.10.21RRP
The value of receivables for the purpose of calculating the effect of credit risk mitigation must be the amount receivable.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 66]
BIPRU 4.10.22RRP
Physical collateral recognised as eligible as described in BIPRU 4.10.16 R must be valued for the purpose of calculating the effect of credit risk mitigation at its market value. Market value is the estimated amount for which the property would exchange on the date of valuation between a willing buyer and a willing seller in an arm's-length transaction.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 67]
BIPRU 4.10.29RRP
(1) A firm may apply the treatment in paragraph 74 of Part 3 of Annex VIII of the Banking Consolidation Directive (50% risk weight for exposures secured by real estate) in respect of exposures collateralised by:(a) residential real estate property; or(b) commercial real estate property;located in the territory of another EEA State.(2) However (1)(a) or (1)(b) only applies if the CRD implementing measures for that EEA State with respect to the IRB approach have implemented the
BIPRU 4.10.36RRP
(1) This rule sets out the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts2 and expected loss2 amounts under the financial collateral comprehensive method2 for a firm using the IRB approach.222(2) LGD* (the effective loss given default) calculated as set out in this paragraph must be taken as the LGD for the purposes of BIPRU 4.(3) LGD* = LGD x (E*/E) where:(a) LGD is the loss given default that would apply to the exposure under the IRB approach if the exposure was not collateralised;(b)
BIPRU 4.10.38RRP
(1) In the case of a firm using the IRB approach in calculating risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts, the persons in (2) are added to the list in BIPRU 5.7.1 R (List of eligible providers of unfunded credit protection).(2) The persons referred to in (1) are other corporate entities, including parent undertakings, subsidiary undertakings and affiliate corporate entities of the firm, that do not have a credit assessment by an eligible ECAI and are internally
BIPRU 4.10.49RRP
(1) This rule relates to the calculation of risk-weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts in the case of unfunded credit protection.(2) BIPRU 5.7.21 R (Tranching) applies for the purpose in (1).(3) The provisions in (4) replace those in BIPRU 5.7.22 R to BIPRU 5.7.25 R (Calculating risk weighted exposure amounts under the standardised approach in the case of unfunded credit protection).(4) For the covered portion of the exposure value E3 (based on the adjusted value
BIPRU 4.4.34RRP
A firm must use the following LGD values:(1) senior exposures without eligible collateral, 45%;(2) subordinated exposures without eligible collateral, 75%;(3) a firm may recognise funded and unfunded credit protection in the LGD in accordance with BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation), as modified by BIPRU 4.10;(4) covered bonds may be assigned an LGD value of 11.257%; and7(5) for certain senior corporate exposure purchased receivables, for certain subordinated corporate exposure purchased
BIPRU 4.4.42RRP
1A firm using own LGD estimates under the advanced IRB approach may recognise unfunded credit protection by adjusting PDs subject to BIPRU 4.4.43 R.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 6]
BIPRU 4.4.43RRP
1Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.4.34 R and BIPRU 4.8.25 R, if a firm'sIRB permission permits it to use own LGD estimates under the advanced IRB approach for exposures to which BIPRU 4 applies and permits it to use the approach in this rule, unfunded credit protection may be recognised by adjusting PD and/or LGD estimates subject to the minimum IRB standards. A firm must not assign guaranteed exposures an adjusted PD or LGD such that the adjusted risk weight would be lower than that of
BIPRU 4.4.44GRP
1A firm using the advanced IRB approach may only recognise unfunded credit protection in accordance with BIPRU 4.4.43 R. The other methods for recognising unfunded credit risk mitigation under the standardised approach and foundation IRB approach are not available to a firm on the advanced IRB approach.
BIPRU 4.4.53RRP
1As well as complying with BIPRU 4.3.54 R and BIPRU 4.4.21 R (Data maintenance), a firm using own estimates of LGDs and/or conversion factors under the advanced IRB approach must collect and store:(1) complete histories of data on the facility ratings and LGD and conversion factor estimates associated with each rating scale3;(2) the dates the ratings were assigned and the estimates were done;(3) the key data and methodology used to derive the facility ratings and LGD and conversion
BIPRU 4.4.66RRP
Subject to BIPRU 4.4.42 R (Advanced IRB approach: LGDs and PDs) a firm may recognise unfunded credit protection in the PD in accordance with the provisions of BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation), as modified by BIPRU 4.10. For dilution risk, however, a firm may also recognise unfunded credit protection providers which are specified in its IRB permission in addition to those indicated in the CRM eligibility conditions.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 5]
BIPRU 4.4.74RRP
For on-balance sheet netting of loans and deposits a firm must apply for the calculation of the exposure value the methods set out in BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation), as modified by BIPRU 4.10.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 3 point 3]
BIPRU 4.4.75RRP
The exposure value for leases must be the discounted minimum lease payments. Minimum lease payments are the payments over the lease term that the lessee is or can be required to make and any bargain option (i.e. option the exercise of which is reasonably certain). Any guaranteed residual value fulfilling the set of conditions in BIPRU 5.7.1 R (Eligibility), as modified by BIPRU 4.10.38 R and BIPRU 4.10.39 R (Unfunded credit protection: Eligibility of providers) regarding the eligibility
BIPRU 4.4.76RRP
Where an exposure takes the form of securities or commodities sold, posted or lent under repurchase transactions or securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions, long settlement transactions and margin lending transactions, the exposure value must be the value of the securities or commodities determined in accordance with GENPRU 1.3 (Valuation). Where the financial collateral comprehensive method is used, the exposure value must be increased by the volatility adjustment
BIPRU 4.4.83RRP
An institution, an insurance undertaking (including an insurance undertaking that carries out reinsurance) or an export credit agency which fulfils the following conditions may be recognised as an eligible provider of unfunded credit protection which qualifies for the treatment set out in BIPRU 4.4.79 R:(1) the protection provider has sufficient expertise in providing unfunded credit protection;(2) the protection provider is regulated in a manner equivalent to the rules laid down
BIPRU 5.1.3GRP
BIPRU 5 sets out the principles for the recognition of credit risk mitigation in the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for the purposes of the calculation of the credit risk capital component.
BIPRU 5.1.4GRP
BIPRU 4.10 implements those parts of Articles 91 to 93 and Annex VIII of the Banking Consolidation Directive which are specific to the recognition of credit risk mitigation by firms using the IRB approach, and modifies the application of the provisions in BIPRU 5 to those firms.
BIPRU 5.1.5GRP
In certain cases provisions specific to the IRB approach have been kept in BIPRU 5 in order to reduce duplication. The main examples are certain references to expected loss and references in the IRB approach in the provisions in BIPRU 5.7 about basket CRM techniques.
BIPRU 5.7.4RRP
When a firm conducts an internal hedge using a credit derivative - i.e. hedges the credit risk of an exposure in the non-trading book with a credit derivative booked in the trading book - in order for the protection to be recognised as eligible for the purposes of BIPRU 4.10 or BIPRU 5 the credit risk transferred to the trading book must be transferred out to a third party or parties. In such circumstances, subject to the compliance of such transfer with the requirements for the
BIPRU 5.7.22RRP
BIPRU 5.7.23 R to BIPRU 5.7.25 R set out the provisions applying to the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts under the standardised approach in the case of unfunded credit protection.
BIPRU 5.7.23RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 3.2.20 R to BIPRU 3.2.26 R, g shall be the risk weight to be assigned to an exposure, the exposure value (E) of1 which is fully protected by unfunded credit protection (GA), where:(1) g is the risk weight of exposures to the protection provider as specified under the standardised approach; 1(2) GA is the value of G* as calculated under BIPRU 5.7.17 R further adjusted for any maturity mismatch as laid down in BIPRU 5.8; and1(3) 1E is the exposure value
BIPRU 5.7.26RRP
BIPRU 5.7.27 R to BIPRU 5.7.28 R set out the provisions applying to the calculation of risk weighted exposure amount and expected loss amounts where basket credit risk mitigation techniques are used.
BIPRU 11.6.1RRP
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the IRB approach must disclose the following information:(1) the scope of the firm'sIRB permission;(2) an explanation and review of:(a) the structure of internal rating systems and relation between internal and external ratings;(b) the use of internal estimates other than for calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the IRB approach;(c) the process for managing and recognising credit risk
BIPRU 11.6.5RRP
A firm applying credit risk mitigation techniques must disclose the following information:(1) the policies and processes for, and an indication of the extent to which the firm makes use of, on- and off-balance sheet netting;(2) the policies and processes for collateral valuation and management;(3) a description of the main types of collateral taken by the firm;(4) the main types of guarantor and credit derivative counterparty and their creditworthiness;(5) information about market
BIPRU 5.5.1RRP
Cash on deposit with, or cash assimilated instruments held by, a third party institution in a non-custodial arrangement and pledged to a lending firm may be recognised as eligible credit protection.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 1 point 23]
BIPRU 5.5.3RRP
Where the conditions set out in BIPRU 5.5.2 R are satisfied, credit protection falling within the terms of BIPRU 5.5.1 R may be treated as a guarantee by the third party institution.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 79]
BIPRU 4.7.11RRP
A firm may recognise unfunded credit protection obtained on an equity exposure in accordance with the methods set out in BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation), as modified by BIPRU 4.10.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 21]
BIPRU 4.7.16RRP
A firm may recognise unfunded credit protection obtained on an equity exposure in accordance with the methods set out in BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation) as modified by BIPRU 4.10. This must be subject to an LGD of 90% on the exposure to the provider of the hedge. For private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios an LGD of 65% may be used.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 24]
BIPRU 4.7.25RRP
A firm may recognise unfunded credit protection obtained on an equityposition.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 26]
MIPRU 4.2A.3GRP
A firm may use credit risk mitigation to reduce the credit risk associated with an exposure. The firm 3should refer to MIPRU 4.2C3 to determine the effect of credit risk mitigation on its 3risk weighted exposure amounts.33
MIPRU 4.2A.17BRRP
3Where an exposure is subject to credit risk mitigation, the risk weighted exposure amount applicable to that item may be modified in accordance with MIPRU 4.2C (Credit risk mitigation).
IFPRU 2.2.7RRP
A firm must have in place sound, effective and comprehensive strategies, processes and systems:(1) to assess and maintain, on an ongoing basis, the amounts, types and distribution of financial resources, own funds and internal capital that it considers adequate to cover:(a) the nature and level of the risks to which it is, or might be, exposed;(b) the risk in the overall financial adequacy rule;(c) the risk that the firm might not be able to meet the obligations in Part Three
IFPRU 2.2.8RRP
(1) This rule defines some of the terms used in the overall Pillar 2 rule. (2) Residual risk means the risk that credit risk mitigation techniques used by the firm prove less effective than expected.(3) Securitisation risk includes the risk that the own funds held by a firm for assets which it has securitised are inadequate having regard to the economic substance of the transaction, including the degree of risk transfer achieved.(4) Business risk means any risk to a firm arising
IFPRU 2.2.22RRP
A firm must address and control, by means which include written policies and procedures, the concentration risk arising from:(1) exposures to each counterparty, including central counterparties, groups of connected counterparties and counterparties in the same economic sector, geographic region or from the same activity or commodity;(2) the application of credit risk mitigation techniques; and(3) risks associated with large indirect credit exposures, such as a single collateral
IFPRU 4.1.2GRP
This chapter:(1) implements article 78 of CRD;(2) contains the rules that exercise the discretion afforded to the FCA as competent authority under articles 115, 119(5), 124(2), 125(3), 126(2), 178(1)(b), 243(2), 244(2), 286(2), 298(4) and 380 of the EU CRR; and(3) contains the guidance in relation to the IRB approach, securitisation, counterparty credit risk and credit risk mitigation.
IFPRU 4.15.1GRP
For purposes of repurchase transactions and securities lending or borrowing transactions, the FCA does not consider that there are any core market participants apart from those entities listed in article 227(3) of the EU CRR.
BIPRU 5.9.1RRP
In the case where a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts under the standardised approach has more than one form of credit risk mitigation covering a single exposure (e.g. a firm has both collateral and a guarantee partially covering an exposure), the firm must subdivide the exposure into parts covered by each type of credit risk mitigation tool (e.g. a part covered by collateral and a portion covered by guarantee) and the risk weighted exposure amount for each portion
BIPRU 11.5.8RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding its exposure to credit risk and dilution risk:(1) the definitions for accounting purposes of past due and impaired;(2) a description of the approaches and methods adopted for determining value adjustments and provisions;(3) the total amount of exposures after accounting offsets and without taking into account the effects of credit risk mitigation, and the average amount of the exposures over the period broken down by different
BIPRU 11.5.10RRP
For a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, the following information must be disclosed for each of the standardised credit risk exposure classes;(1) the names of the nominated ECAIs and export credit agencies and the reasons for any changes;(2) the standardised credit risk exposure classes for which each ECAI or export credit agency is used;(3) a description of the process used to transfer the issuer and issue
MIPRU 4.2F.52GRP
A firm may treat the secured part of an exposure covered by a mortgage indemnity product that meets the relevant eligibility criteria for credit risk mitigation as secured for the purposes of MIPRU 4.2F.51 R.
MIPRU 4.2F.53RRP
For the purpose of defining the secured part of a past due item other than exposures secured on residential property, credit protection must be eligible for credit risk mitigation purposes under MIPRU 4.2C (Credit risk mitigation).
BIPRU 4.1.17GRP
For exposures covered by an IRB permission, BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation) is modified by BIPRU 4.10.
BIPRU 4.1.23RRP
If a provision of the Handbook relating to the IRB approach says that a firm may do something if its IRB permission allows it, a firm may do that thing unless its IRB permission expressly says that it may not do so except that:(1) BIPRU 4.2.18 R - BIPRU 4.2.19 R (Sequential implementation of IRB approach) and BIPRU 4.2.26 R (1)-BIPRU 4.2.26R (5) (Combined use of standardised approach with IRB approach) only apply if expressly permitted by a firm'sIRB permission;(2) a firm may