Related provisions for MCOB 2.3.3

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The Treasury, responding to consultation on the draft Financial Promotion Order, stated its intention that only communications containing a degree of incitement would amount to ‘inducements’ and that communications of purely factual information would not. This is provided the facts are presented in such a way that they do not also amount to an invitation or inducement. This was made clear both in the Treasury’s consultation document on financial promotion and during the passage
The FCA considers that it is appropriate to apply an objective test to decide whether a communication is an invitation or an inducement. In the FCA's view, the essential elements of an invitation or an inducement under section 21 are that it must both have the purpose or intent of leading a person to engage in investment activity and be promotional in nature. So it must seek, on its face, to persuade or incite the recipient to engage in investment activity. The objective test
An inducement may often be followed by an invitation or vice versa (in which case both communications will be subject to the restriction in section 21 of the Act). An inducement may be described as a link in a chain where the chain is intended to lead ultimately to an agreement to engage in investment activity. But this does not mean that all the links in the chain will be an inducement or that every inducement will be one to engage in investment activity. Only those that are
PERG 8.4.9 G to PERG 8.4.34 G apply the principles in PERG 8.4.4 G to PERG 8.4.7 G to communications made in certain circumstances. They do not seek to qualify those principles in any way. A common issue in these circumstances arises when contact details are given (for example, of a provider of investments or investment services). In the FCA's view, the inclusion of contact details should not in itself decide whether the item in which they appear is an inducement or, if so, is
Ordinary telephone directory entries which merely list names and contact details (for example where they are grouped together under a heading such as ‘stockbrokers’) will not be inducements. They will be sources of information. Were they to be presented in a promotional manner or accompanied by promotional material they would be capable of being inducements. Even so, they may merely be inducements to make contact with the listed person. Specialist directories such as ones providing
PERG 8.4.10GRP
Such advertisements are almost invariably intended to create awareness, hopefully generating future business. So they may or may not be inducements. This depends on the extent to which their contents seek to persuade or incite persons to contact the advertiser for details of its services or to do business with it. Merely stating past achievements with no contact details will not be enough to make such an advertisement an inducement. Providing contact details may give the advertisement
PERG 8.4.11GRP
Links on a website may take different forms. Some will be inducements. Some of these will be inducements under section 21 and others not. Links which are activated merely by clicking on a name or logo will not be inducements. The links may be accompanied by or included within a narrative or, otherwise, referred to elsewhere on the site. Whether or not such narratives or references are inducements will depend upon the extent to which they may seek to persuade or incite persons
PERG 8.4.12GRP
These are the Internet equivalent to an advertisement in a newspaper and are almost bound to be inducements. So whether they are inducements to engage in investment activity will depend upon their contents as with any other form of advertising and the comments in PERG 8.4.11 G will be relevant.
PERG 8.4.13GRP
These may or may not involve invitations or inducements. Where a person such as a newspaper publisher, broadcaster or data supplier merely presents prices of investments whether historic or live the information can be purely factual and not be an inducement. Historic prices on their own will never be invitations or inducements. Merely adding simple contact details to such prices will not make them invitations or inducements to engage in investment activity. However, any additional
PERG 8.4.14GRP
Encouraging (or discouraging) statements may be made by a company director. These will typically be made in reports or accounts or at a presentation or road show or during a briefing of analysts. Alternatively, such statements may be made on the company’s behalf by its public relations adviser. Statements of fact about a company’s performance or activities will not, themselves, be inducements to engage in investment activity even if they may lead persons to decide to buy or sell
PERG 8.4.15GRP
Journalism can take many forms. But typically a journalist may write an editorial piece on a listed company or about the investments or investment services that a particular firm provides. This may often be in response to a press release. The editorial may or may not contain details of or, on a website, a link to the site of the company or firm concerned. Such editorial may specifically recommend that readers should consider buying or sellinginvestments (whether or not particular
PERG 8.4.16GRP
League tables showing the past performance of investment products of a particular kind or investment firms of a particular class (such as investment managers) and determined by the application of pre-set criteria will not, in themselves, be inducements. The fact that such tables represent pure information could, for example, be made clear by their being accompanied by a statement to the effect that the fact of a product or firm being well placed in the tables based on past performance
PERG 8.4.18GRP
A decision tree (or flow chart) will generally be used in one of two ways. Either it will be an educational tool (for instance, where an employer wishes to help his employees understand their pension options) or a promotional tool. As an educational tool which does no more than enable a person to identify generic investment options it will not be an inducement. But if its use is intended to procure business for an investment firm then it is likely to be an inducement. For example,
PERG 8.4.19GRP
These types of agreements will only rarely be inducements or invitations. For instance, where the terms of a deal have been agreed in principle and the agreement is merely the means of giving it effect, the inducement phase has clearly passed. And an agreement or draft agreement itself may usually be seen as a document setting out the terms and conditions of a deal and not itself an inducement (or an invitation) to deal. However, an agreement or draft agreement may often be accompanied
PERG 8.4.20GRP
Activities which are purely profile raising and which do not identify and promote particular investments or investment services may not amount to either an invitation or inducement of any kind. Examples of this include where listed companies sponsor sporting events or simply put their name or logo on the side of a bus or on an umbrella. This is usually done with a view, among other things, to putting their names in the minds of potential investors or consumers. In other cases,
PERG 8.4.21GRP
These will be advertisements that contain encouragement to contact the advertiser. They are likely to be inducements to do business with him or to get more information from him. If so, they will be inducements to engage in investment activity if they seek to persuade or incite persons to buy or sell investments or to get investment services. See PERG 8.4.7 G for more guidance on preliminary communications and whether they are a significant step in the chain of events which are
PERG 8.4.22GRP
(1) Introductions may take many forms but typically involve an offer to make an introduction or action taken in response to an unsolicited request. An introduction may be an inducement if the introducer is actively seeking to persuade or incite the person he is introducing to do business with the person to whom the introduction is made. So it may fall under section 21 if its purpose is to lead to investment activity. For example, if a person answers the question ‘do you or can
PERG 8.4.24GRP
Trading methods and techniques, such as traded options training courses and software-based or manual trading tools will, in many cases, be too remote from any eventual investment dealing activities to be inducements to engage in investment activity. Promotions of such things will be inducements (or invitations) to receive training and general trading tips and techniques. However, such things may be sold on the basis that they are almost certain to produce profits from the trading
PERG 8.4.25GRP
These are clearly invitations or inducements. Whether they will involve invitations or inducements to engage in investment activity rather than to attend the meeting or receive the call or visit, will depend upon their purpose and content. PERG 8.4.7 G discusses communications which are a significant step in the chain of events leading to an agreement to engage in investment activity. The purpose of the meeting, call or visit to which the invitation or inducement relates may be
PERG 8.4.26GRP
An explanation of the terms of an agreement or of the consequences of taking a particular course of action can be merely factual information unless it includes or is accompanied by encouragement to enter into the agreement or take the course of action. The mere fact that the explanation may present the investment in a good light or otherwise influence the recipient will not make it an inducement. Where such communications are financial promotions they may fall under one of the
PERG 8.4.27GRP
A person ('A') may enquire:(1) whether another person is certified as a high net worth individual or a sophisticated investor so that A may determine whether an exemption applies; or(2) whether a person has received material sent to him; or(3) how a person might propose to react to a take-over offer. Enquiries of this or a similar kind will not amount to inducements to engage in investment activityunless they involve persuasion or incitement to do so. The enquiry may be accompanied
PERG 8.4.28GRP
Solicited or accompanying material which does not contain any invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity will not itself be a financial promotion. This is provided that the material is not part of any financial promotion which may accompany it. This is explained in greater detail in PERG 8.4.29 G to PERG 8.4.30 G.
PERG 8.4.29GRP
Persons may sometimes be asked to send material which has not been prepared for use as a financial promotion to a person who is interested in making an investment. For example, a prospective participant in a Lloyd’s syndicate may ask for a copy of the business plan or forecast prepared by the managing agent to comply with Lloyd’s requirements. As another example, a prospective purchaser of, or investor in, a company may wish to see a valuation report, a due diligence report or
PERG 8.4.30GRP
The person who responds to the request for the material in the circumstances in PERG 8.4.29 G may make a financial promotion in the form of a covering letter or oral communication ('C'). This will not mean that the material accompanying C must itself be treated as an inducement. This will depend on the circumstances. The material itself would only become an inducement if it is turned into part of the financial promotion in C. For example, C may refer to the contents or part of
PERG 8.4.31GRP
A person ('P') may be engaged, typically by investment product companies, to provide telephone services. Where such services require P to seek to persuade or incite prospective customers to receive investment literature or a personal call or visit from a representative of his principal they will frequently involve inducements to engage in investment activity. This is so whether the inducement results from P making unsolicited calls or by his raising the issue during a call made
PERG 8.4.32GRP
A personal illustration (for instance, of the costs of and benefits under a particular investment product) may or may not be an invitation or inducement. This will depend on the extent to which it seeks to persuade or incite the recipient to invest as opposed to merely providing him with information. A personal illustration may, however, be accompanied by an invitation or inducement to buy the investment in which case the exemptions for one-off financial promotions in articles
PERG 8.4.33GRP
Things such as help-lines for persons who wish to make an investment will not usually involve invitations or inducements to engage in investment activity. This is where their purpose is merely to explain or offer guidance on how to invest or to accept an offer. In such cases, the investor will already have decided to invest and there will be no element of persuasion on the part of the person giving the explanation or guidance.
PERG 8.4.34GRP
Employers and their contracted service providers 6may communicate with employees on matters which involve controlled investments. For example, work-related insurance, staff mortgages,6personal pension schemes (including stakeholder schemes) and other employee benefit schemes other than occupational pension schemes. Interests under the trusts of an occupational pension scheme are not a controlled investment (see paragraph 27 (2) of Schedule 1 to the Financial Promotion Order).In
A firm must take reasonable steps to ensure that it, and any person acting on its behalf, does not: (1) offer, give, solicit or accept an inducement; or (2) direct or refer any actual or potential business in relation to a regulated mortgage contract,3home reversion plan2 or regulated sale and rent back agreement3 to another person on its own initiative or on the instructions of an associate; 3if it is likely to conflict to a material extent with any duty that the firm owes to
The purpose of MCOB 2.3.2 R(2) is to prevent the requirement in MCOB 2.3.2 R(1) being circumvented by an inducement being given or received by an unregulated associate. There may be circumstances, however, where a firm is able to demonstrate that it could not reasonably have knowledge of an associate giving or receiving an inducement. It should not, however, direct business to another person on the instruction of an associate if this is likely to conflict with the interests of
(1) A firm must not operate a system of giving or offering inducements to a mortgage intermediary, reversion intermediary,2SRB intermediary3 or any other third party whereby the value of the inducement increases if the intermediary2 or third party, such as a packager, exceeds a target set for the amount of business referred (for example, a volume override). 2(2) A firm must not solicit or accept an inducement whereby the value of the inducement increases if the firm exceeds a
(1) A mortgage lender,3reversion provider2 or SRB agreement provider3 must quantify, in cash terms, any material inducement it offers to a mortgage intermediary, reversion intermediary,2SRB intermediary3 or a third party. 3(2) In quantifying the value of the material inducement, the firm must include any subsequent payments (such as a trail fee) made where the customer continues with the samehome finance transaction.22
(1) Quantification of any material inducement offered by the mortgage lender or reversion provider2 supports the disclosure requirements elsewhere in MCOB. Further guidance on the disclosure of any inducement in cash terms is provided in MCOB 5.6.118 G for regulated mortgage contracts other than lifetime mortgages, MCOB 9.4.124 G for lifetime mortgages and MCOB 9.4.173 G for home reversion plans.2(1A) Quantification of any material inducement offered by a SRB agreement provider
COBS 18.7.1RRP
1Only the COBS provisions in the table apply to a depositary when acting as such, when carrying on business which is not MiFID or equivalent third country business:COBSDescription2.1Acting honestly, fairly and professionally2.3Inducements, except COBS 2.3.1 R (2)(b) and COBS 2.3.2 R4Communication to clients including financial promotions, but only in relation to communicating or approving a financial promotion11.7Personal account dealing
COBS 12.2.5RRP
COBS 12.2.8GRP
COBS 2.3.13GRP
1In considering the compliance of arrangements between members of the same immediate group with the rule on inducements (COBS 2.3.1 R), firms may wish to consider the evidential provisions in COBS 2.3.10 E and COBS 2.3.12 E, to the extent that these are relevant.
In practice, the assessment of the nature of a particular body corporate will have to be made by applying the definition whenever an authorised person proposes to communicate an invitation or inducement to others for them to participate in the body corporate by buying shares or securities issued by it.
MCOB 14.1.3RRP
Subject to MCOB 14.1.5R and MCOB 14.1.7R: (1) MCD article 3(1)(b) creditors and MCD article 3(1)(b) credit intermediaries must comply with the following provisions in MCOB. These provisions apply with such changes as are necessary to apply them to MCD article 3(1)(b) credit agreements and activity undertaken in relation to those agreements (see MCOB 14.1.4G):(a) MCOB 1.2.19G (identifying MCD credit agreements);(b) MCOB 2.3 (inducements);(c) MCOB 2.5A (the customer’s best interests);(d)
MAR 8.2.8GRP
In order to identify and manage conflicts of interest as set out in MAR 8.2.7 R a benchmark submitter should:(1) establish, implement and maintain a conflicts of interest policy which(a) identifies the circumstances that constitute, or may give rise to, a conflict of interest arising from its benchmark submissions or the process of gathering information in order to make benchmark submissions; and(b) sets out the approach to managing such conflicts;(2) establish effective controls
SYSC 10.1.4RRP
For the purposes of identifying the types of conflict of interest that arise, or may arise, in the course of providing a service and whose existence may 9damage the interests of a client, 9a management company5 must take into account, as a minimum, whether the firm or a relevant person, or a person directly or indirectly linked by control to the firm:(1) is likely to make a financial gain, or avoid a financial loss, at the expense of the client;(2) has an interest in the outcome
PERG 8.14.24GRP
A person seeking to make a financial promotion to another person may wish to make enquiries of that person to establish whether he is certified. Unless another exemption applies or the financial promotion is approved by an authorised person, such enquiries will not be possible if the enquiry communication is an inducement or invitation to engage in investment activity. In the FCA's8 view, a communication which is merely an enquiry seeking to establish that a person holds a current