Related provisions for IPRU-INV 5.10.1
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The capital resources requirement for a firm (other than a credit union) carrying on regulated activities, including designated investment business and to which IPRU(INV) does not apply5, is the higher of:(1) the requirement which is applied by this chapter according to the activity or activities of the firm (treating the relevant rules as applying to the firm by disregarding its designated investment business); and(2) the financial resources5 requirement which is applied by5
Table: Application of capital resources requirements
any combination of regulated activities not within rows 1 to 7.
(1) When seeking to rely on the second condition, a firm should not provide material credit enhancement in respect of the loan or plan1 unless it deducts the amount of the credit enhancement from its capital resources before meeting its capital resources requirement.(2) Credit enhancement includes:(a) any holding of subordinated loans or notes in a transferee that is a special purpose vehicle; or(b) over collateralisation by transferring loans or plans1 to a larger aggregate value
The capital resources requirement for a firm carrying on home finance administration1only, which has all or part of the home finance transactions1that it administers on its balance sheet, is:211121111112(1) in the case of a firm carrying on only home finance administration which is not connected to regulated mortgage contracts, the amount which is applied to a firm under MIPRU 4.2.12 R; or2(2) in the case of a firm carrying on any home finance administration which is connected
The conditions that an item of capital of a firm must comply with under GENPRU 2.2.62R (2)1 are as follows:(1) it is issued by the firm;(2) it is fully paid and the proceeds of issue are immediately and fully available to the firm;(3) it:(a) cannot be redeemed at all or can only be redeemed on a winding up of the firm; or(b) complies with the conditions in GENPRU 2.2.70 R (Basic requirements for redeemability)21;(4) the item of capital meets the following conditions in relation
4The purpose of GENPRU 2.2.64R (4) is to ensure that a firm retains flexibility over the payment of coupons and can preserve cash in times of financial stress. However, a firm may include, as part of the capital instrument terms, a right to make payments of a coupon mandatory if an item of capital becomes ineligible to form part of its capital resources (e.g. through a change in the relevant rules) and the firm has notified the FCA18 that the instrument is ineligible.
The FCA18 considers that dividend pushers diminish the quality of capital by breaching the principle of complete discretion over coupons set out in GENPRU 2.2.64R (4). A dividend pusher operates so that, in a given period of time, payments must be made on senior securities if payments have previously been made on junior securities or securities ranking pari passu. As such, dividend pushers may not be included in the terms of tier one capital, unless the firm has the option to
A firm may not include a capital instrument in its tier one capital resources, unless its contractual terms are such that:(1) (if it is redeemable other than in circumstances set out in GENPRU 2.2.64R (3)(a) (redemption on a winding up)) it is redeemable only at the option of the firm or, in the case of a BIPRU firm, on the date of maturity;88(2) the firm cannot exercise that redemption right:(a) before the fifth anniversary of its date of issue; and18(b) unless it has given notice
The purpose of GENPRU 2.2.71 R to GENPRU 2.2.72 R is this. In general a tier one instrument should not be redeemable by the firm before its fifth anniversary. However there may be circumstances in which it would be reasonable for the firm to redeem it before then. GENPRU 2.2.71 R allows the firm to include a right to redeem the instrument before the fifth anniversary in certain circumstances. A tax call is an example of a term that may be allowed. GENPRU 2.2.71 R says that the
8The FCA18 considers that, in order to comply with GENPRU 2.2.74 R, the firm should, at a minimum, provide the FCA18 with the following information:(1) a comprehensive explanation of the rationale for the redemption;(2) the firm's financial and solvency position before and after the redemption, in particular whether that redemption, or other foreseeable internal and external events or circumstances, may increase the risk of the firm breaching its capital resources requirement;(3)
A capital instrument must (in addition to meeting the requirements of the rules about eligibility for inclusion in tier two capital) meet the following conditions before it can be included in a firm'supper tier two capital resources:(1) it must have no fixed maturity date;(2) the terms of the instrument must provide for the firm to have the option to defer any coupon on the debt, except that the firm need not have that right in the case of a coupon payable in the form of an item
The value of general/collective provisions which a firm may include in its tier two capital resources as referred to in GENPRU 2.2.187 R may not exceed 1.25% of the sum of the following:(1) 22 the market risk capital requirement22multiplied by a factor of 12.5; and(2) the sum of risk weighted assets under the standardised approach for credit risk.
If a BIPRU firm calculates risk weighted exposure amounts under the IRB approach for the purposes of BIPRU 14 (Capital requirements for settlement and counterparty risk) it must not include valuation adjustments referred to in BIPRU 14.2.18 R (1) (Treatment of expected loss amounts) in its capital resources except in accordance with that rule.
A firm continuing to hold capital in accordance with its individual capital guidance and its ability to carry on doing so is a fundamental part of the FCA's supervision of that firm. Therefore, if a firm'sown funds have fallen, or are expected to fall, below the level advised in individual capital guidance, then, consistent with Principle 11 (Relations with regulators), a firm should inform the FCA of this fact as soon as practicable, explaining why this has happened or is expected
Consistent with Principle 11 (Relations with regulators), a firm should notify the FCA as early as possible in advance where it has identified that it would need to use its capital planning buffer. The firm's notification should at least state: (1) what adverse circumstances are likely to force the firm to draw down its capital planning buffer; (2) how the capital planning buffer will be used up in line with the firm's capital planning projections; and(3) what plan is in place
Following discussions with the firm on the items listed in IFPRU 2.3.27 G, the FCA may put in place additional reporting arrangements to monitor the firm's use of its capital planning buffer in accordance with the plan referred to in IFPRU 2.3.27 G (3). The FCA may also identify specific trigger points as the capital planning buffer is being used up by the firm, which could lead to additional supervisory actions.
Where a firm'scapital planning buffer is being drawn down due to circumstances other than those in IFPRU 2.3.26 G, such as poor planning or mismanagement, the FCA may ask the firm for more detailed plans for it to restore its capital planning buffer. In the light of the relevant circumstances, the FCA may consider taking other remedial actions, which may include using its powers under section 55L of the Act on its own initiative, to impose a requirement on a firm.11
(1) A firm may take into account factors other than those identified in the overall Pillar 2 rule when it assesses the level of capital it wishes to hold. These factors might include external rating goals, market reputation and its strategic goals. However, a firm should be able to distinguish, for the purpose of its dialogue with the FCA, between capital it holds to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule, capital it holds as a capital planning buffer and capital held
A firm'sown funds requirements, being risk-sensitive, may vary as business cycles and economic conditions fluctuate over time. Deterioration in business or economic conditions could require a firm to raise capital or, alternatively, to contract its businesses at a time when market conditions are most unfavourable to raising capital. Such an effect is known as procyclicality.
If a firm's current available own funds are less than the own funds requirements indicated by the stress test, that does not necessarily mean there is a breach of IFPRU 2.3.50 R. The firm may wish to set out any countervailing effects and off-setting actions that can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the FCA as being likely to reduce that difference. The FCA is only likely to consider a demonstration of such actions as credible if those actions are set out in a capital management
A firm may decide to hold additional capital to mitigate any weaknesses in its overall control environment. These weaknesses might be indicated by the following: (1) a failure by a firm to complete an assessment of its systems and controls to establish whether they comply with SYSC; or (2) a failure by a firm'ssenior management to approve its financial results; or(3) a failure by a firm to consider an analysis of relevant internal and external information on its business and control
MIPRU 4.2F sets out the risk weights that a firm should apply to exposures in the form of loans secured on real estate property, other loans, exposures in the form of funds, and past due items, when calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for calculating the credit risk capital requirement under MIPRU 4.2.23 R.
Where a firm is not aware of the underlying exposures of a fund, it may calculate an average risk weight for the fund in the following manner: (1) it will be assumed that the fund first invests, to the maximum extent allowed under its mandate, in the exposure classes attracting the highest capital resources requirement; and(2) then continues making investments in descending order until the maximum total investment limit is reached.
The calculation of the consolidated capital resources requirement of a firm's UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group involves taking the individual components that make up the capital resources requirement on a solo basis and applying them on a consolidated basis. Those components are the capital charge for credit risk (the credit risk capital requirement), the capital charge for market risk (the market risk capital requirement)4 and the fixed overheads requirement.
A firm may not apply the second method in BIPRU 8.7.13R (3) (accounting consolidation for the whole group) or apply accounting consolidation to parts of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group under method three as described in BIPRU 8.7.13R (4)(a) for the purposes of the calculation of the consolidated market risk requirement unless the group or sub-group and the undertakings in that group or sub-group satisfy the conditions in this rule. Instead the firm must use the
(1) This rule applies if:(a) a firm is applying an accounting consolidation approach to part of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group under method three as described in BIPRU 8.7.13R (4)(a); and(b) the part of the group in (a) constitutes the whole of a group subject to the consolidated capital requirements of a competent authority under the CRD implementation measures relating to consolidation under the Banking Consolidation Directive or the Capital Adequacy Directive.(2)
(1) 2This rule applies to a firm if:(a) an institution in its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group is subject to any of the rules or requirements of, or administered by, a third-country competent authority applicable to its financial sector that correspond to the sectoral rules applicable to that financial sector (“corresponding sectoral rules”); or(b) a part of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group constitutes the whole of a group subject to the consolidated
Underwriting agents are subject to regulation by the Society as well as by the appropriate regulator. In particular, they are subject to requirements as to their financial resources and as to making and maintaining accounting records, set by the Society. The appropriate regulator is satisfied that underwriting agents will be subject to adequate financial resource and accounting requirements as long as they remain subject to and comply with requirements at least equivalent to Lloyd's
A members' adviser is not regulated by the Society and accordingly this chapter specifies the financial resource and accounting requirements to be met. Firms which fall within the scope of this chapter will be firms with permission only to advise persons on syndicate participation at Lloyd's. The nature of that advisory business is akin to corporate finance advice and so the applicable requirements are those in IPRU-INV
Originators of the following types of securitisation are exempt from the capital requirement in BIPRU 9.13.1 R:(1) securitisations of revolving exposures whereby investors remain fully exposed to all future draws by borrowers so that the risk on the underlying facilities does not return to the originator even after an early amortisation event has occurred; and(2) securitisations where any early amortisation provision is solely triggered by events not related to the performance
For an originator subject to the capital requirement in BIPRU 9.13.1 R the total of the risk weighted exposure amounts in respect of its positions in the investors interest (as defined in BIPRU 9.13.4 R or BIPRU 9.13.6 R) and the risk weighted exposure amounts calculated under BIPRU 9.13.1 R must be no greater than the greater of:(1) the risk weighted exposure amounts calculated in respect of its positions in the investors interest (as so defined); and(2) the risk weighted exposure
Deduction of net gains, if any, arising from the capitalisation of future income required under GENPRU 2.2.90 R (Core tier one capital: profit and loss account and other reserves: Securitisation) must be treated outside the maximum amount indicated in BIPRU 9.13.9 R.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 23]
An early amortisation provision must be treated as controlled for the purposes of this section where the following conditions are met:(1) the originator has an appropriate capital/liquidity plan in place to ensure that it has sufficient capital and liquidity available in the event of an early amortisation;(2) throughout the duration of the transaction there is a pro rata sharing between the originators interest and the investors interest (as defined in BIPRU 9.13.4 R or BIPRU
A firm must disclose the following information regarding compliance with BIPRU 3, BIPRU 4, 5, BIPRU 7, 5 and the overall Pillar 2 rule:(1) a summary of the firm's approach to assessing the adequacy of its internal capital to support current and future activities;(2) for a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, 8% of the risk weighted exposure amounts for each of the standardised credit risk exposure classes;(3)
For equity exposures, the requirement under BIPRU 11.5.4 R (3) applies to:(1) each of the approaches ( the simple risk weight approach, the PD/LGD approach and the internal models approach) provided for in BIPRU 4.7.5 R to BIPRU 4.7.6 R, BIPRU 4.7.9 R to BIPRU 4.7.11 R, BIPRU 4.7.14 R to BIPRU 4.7.16 R, BIPRU 4.7.24 R to BIPRU 4.7.25 R;(2) exchange traded exposures, private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios, and other exposures;(3) exposures subject to supervisory
A firm must disclose the following information regarding its exposure to counterparty credit risk:(1) a discussion of the methodology used to assign internal capital and credit limits for counterparty credit exposures;(2) a discussion of policies for securing collateral and establishing credit reserves;(3) a discussion of policies with respect to wrong-way riskexposures;(4) a discussion of the impact of the amount of collateral the firm would have to provide given a downgrade
A firm must disclose its capital resources requirements separately for each risk referred to in (1), (2) and (3):44(1) in respect of its trading-book business, its:(a) interest rate PRR;(b) equity PRR;1(c) option PRR;(d) collective investment schemesPRR;(e) counterparty risk capital component; and(f) [deleted]6(2) in respect of all of its business activities, its:(a) commodity PRR; and(b) foreign currency PRR; and41(3) its specific interest-rate risk of securitisation positions.4[Note:
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9 or capital resource requirements according to BIPRU 7.2.48A R to BIPRU 7.2.48K R4 must disclose the following information, where relevant separately for its trading book and non-trading book:4(1) a description of the firm's objectives in relation to securitisation activity;(1A) the nature of other risks, including liquidity risk inherent in securitised assets;4(1B) the type of risks in terms of seniority
This chapter: 88(1) sets out that a firm must meet, on a continuing basis, a basic solvency requirement and a minimum capital resources requirement (see COND 2.4 (Appropriate resources)); and8(2) amplifies Principle 4 which requires a firm to maintain adequate financial resources by setting out capital requirements for a firm according to the regulated activity or regulated activities it carries on.
Capital has an important role to play in protecting consumers and complements the roles played by professional indemnity insurance and client money protection (see the client money rules). Capital provides a form of protection for situations not covered by a firm's professional indemnity insurance and it provides the funds for the firm's PII excess, which it has to pay out of its own finances (see MIPRU 3.2.11 R and MIPRU 3.2.12 R for the relationship between the firm's capital
More generally, having adequate capital gives the firm a degree of resilience and some indication to consumers of creditworthiness, substance and the commitment of its owners. It reduces the possibility of a shortfall of funds and provides a cushion against disruption if the firm ceases to trade.
There is a greater risk to consumers, and a greater adverse impact on market confidence, if a firm holding client money or other client assets fails. For this reason, the capital resources rules in this chapter clearly distinguish between firms holding client assets and those that do not.
1: The fraction is 6/52 where:(a) the firm is an authorised unit trust manager; or (aa) the firm is an authorised contractual scheme manager; or (b) the firm acts only as an authorised corporate director of an ICVC; or (c) the firm is an investment manager (including the operator of an unregulated collective investment scheme in relation to which the firm carries on the activity of an investment manager), unless paragraph 2 applies. 2: The fraction is 13/52 where the firm is an
If the calculation of the amount of an exposure or of a combination of exposures under BIPRU 13 would materially understate the amount of the counterparty credit risk the firm must increase the amount of the credit risk capital requirement by an amount sufficient to compensate for that understatement.
If a firm in relation to an exposure covered by BIPRU 13:(1) has an exposure of a non-standard type; or(2) an exposure that is part of a non-standard arrangement; or(3) has an exposure that, taken together with other exposures (whether or not they are subject to BIPRU 13), gives rise to a non-standard counterparty credit risk; or(4) is subject to the rule in BIPRU 13.2.1 R;it must notify the appropriate regulator as soon as practicable of that fact, the counterparty involved,
A firm must exclude material holdings in the notional calculation of the credit risk capital requirement for the purposes of BIPRU 8.4.13 R. A firm must identify whether it has any material holdings and the amount of them in accordance with GENPRU 2.2 (Capital resources) and GENPRU 2 Annex 4 (Capital resources table for a BIPRU 2firm deducting material holdings).
The IRB approach is an alternative to the standardised approach for calculating a firm's credit risk capital requirements. It may be applied to all a firm'sexposures or to some of them, subject to various limitations on partial use as set out in BIPRU 4.2. Under the IRB approach capital requirements are based on a firm's own estimates of certain parameters together with other parameters set out in the Banking Consolidation Directive.
An IRB permission will modify GENPRU 2.1.51 R (Calculation of the credit risk capital requirement) by amending, to the extent set out in the IRB permission, the calculation of the credit risk capital requirement in accordance with BIPRU 4 and the other provisions of the Handbook relating to the IRB approach.
A firm must calculate its credit risk capital component as the sum of:(1) (for exposures to which the standardised approach is applied) the credit risk capital component as calculated under BIPRU 3.1.5 R; and(2) (for exposures to which the IRB approach is applied to which the standardised approach would otherwise apply in accordance with BIPRU 3.1.5 R (Credit risk capital component)), 8% of the total of the firm'srisk weighted exposure amounts calculated in accordance with the
Any arrangements entered into on or after 26 April 20142 which increase the amount of a loan already advanced or change the security to a loan already advanced or change the contractual terms (other than if the firm is exercising forbearance) of a loan already advanced will be subject to the credit risk capital requirement under MIPRU 4.2A.4R (2)(a) provided that, where the arrangements only increase the amount of a loan already advanced, such requirement shall only apply to the
The arrangements excluded from the credit risk capital requirement3 include:3(1) a loan acquired by a firm on or 3after 26 April 2014 if that loan was made before 26 April 2014;(2) arrangements made as a result of forbearance procedures, including: (a) a change in the basis of interest payments from variable to fixed rate; or(b) a change from a repayment mortgage to interest only; or(c) the capitalisation of interest which increases the principal outstanding, where there is no
(1) A firm must regularly perform a credit risk stress test to assess the effect of certain specific conditions on its total capital requirements for credit risk. The test to be employed must be one chosen by the firm. The test to be employed must be meaningful and reasonably conservative. Stressed portfolios must contain the vast majority of a firm's total exposures covered by the IRB approach.(2) The stress test must be designed to assess the firm's ability to meet its capital
The requirement in BIPRU 4.3.40 R (2) is to identify, in a forward-looking manner, severe but plausible downturn conditions relevant to business lines and jurisdictions and to determine the likely impact of those conditions on a firm's credit risk regulatory capital requirements. The description of the economic recession contained in BIPRU 4.3.40 R (2) should not be taken as stipulating one approach (e.g. statistical) over other approaches (e.g. scenario analysis) in the identification
(1) This paragraph applies to the use of statistical models and/or other mechanical methods to assign exposures to obligor grades, obligor pools, facility grades or facility pools.(2) A firm must be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator that the model has good predictive power and that capital requirements are not distorted as a result of its use.(3) The input variables to the model must form a reasonable and effective basis for the resulting predictions. The model
3A firm may use an approach for incremental risk charge that does not comply with all the requirements in BIPRU 7.10.55A R to BIPRU 7.10.55P R, only if:(1) such an approach is consistent with the firm's internal methodologies for identifying, measuring, and managing risks; and(2) the firm can demonstrate that its approach results in a capital requirement that is at least as high as it would be if based on an approach in full compliance with the requirements in BIPRU 7.10.55A R
The plus factor system is designed so that the more often a VaR model has under-predicted losses in the past, the higher should be the capital requirement based on the VaR model. It is intended to provide a capital incentive for the firm to continue to improve the accuracy of its VaR model.
(1) If a firm calculates its market risk capital requirement using a combination of the standard market risk PRR rules and either the VaR model approach or the VaR model approach with the CAD 1 model approach the PRR from each method must be added together.(2) A firm must take appropriate steps to ensure that all of the approaches are applied in a consistent manner.
(1) A6firm that is significant in terms of its size, internal organisation and the nature, the scope and the complexity of its activities must establish a remuneration committee. 3(2) The remuneration committee must be constituted in a way that enables it to exercise competent and independent judgment on remuneration policies and practices and the incentives created for managing risk, capital and liquidity.(3) The chairman and the members of the remuneration committee must be
(1) A firm must ensure that any measurement of performance used to calculate variable remuneration components or pools of variable remuneration components:(a) includes adjustments for all types of current and future risks and takes into account the cost and quantity of the capital and the liquidity required; and(b) takes into account the need for consistency with the timing and likelihood of the firm receiving potential future revenues incorporated into current earnings.(2) A
A firm must ensure that any approval by the its shareholders or owners or members for the purposes of SYSC 19A.3.44AR is carried out in accordance with the following procedure:535(1) the firm must give reasonable notice to all its shareholders or owners or members of its intention to seek approval of the proposed higher ratio;55(2) the firm must make a detailed recommendation to all its shareholders or owners or members that includes:(a) the reasons for, and the scope of, the
A collective portfolio management firm that manages an AIF is an internally managed AIF or an external AIFM. If the firm is a full-scope UK AIFM this affects the firm's base capital resources requirement (see IPRU-INV 11.3.1R). An internally managed AIF that is a full-scope UK AIFM is not permitted to engage in activities other than the management of that AIF, whereas an external AIFM that is a full-scope UK AIFM may manage
(1) This chapter amplifies threshold condition 2D (Appropriate resources) by providing that a firm must meet, on a continuing basis, a minimum capital resources requirement. This chapter also amplifies Principles 3 and 4 which require a firm to take reasonable care to organise and control its affairs responsibly and effectively with adequate risk management systems, and to maintain adequate financial resources by setting out a capital resources requirement for a firm according
A firm must have in place robust strategies, policies, processes and systems that enable it to identify, measure, manage and monitor liquidity risk over the appropriate set of time horizons for its business activities, to ensure that it maintains adequate levels of liquidity resources. These strategies, policies, processes, and systems must be appropriate to the firm's business lines, currencies in which it operates, and its group companies and must include adequate allocation