Related provisions for IPRU-INV 2.2.1
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For the purpose of BIPRU 12.5.11R, a firm must assume that the second liquidity stress is characterised by:(1) uncertainty as to the accuracy of the valuation attributed to that firm's assets and those of its counterparties;(2) inability to realise, or ability to realise only at excessive cost, particular classes of assets, including those which represent claims on other participants in the financial markets or which were originated by them;(3) uncertainty as to the ability of
For the purposes of INSPRU 3.2.8 R, investment risk is the risk that the assets held by a firm:(1) (where they are admissible assets held by the firm to cover its technical provisions) might not be:(a) of a value at least equal to the amount of those technical provisions as required by PRA Rulebook: Non-Solvency II firms: Insurance Company – Technical Provisions, 46; or(b) of appropriate safety, yield and marketability as required by PRA Rulebook: Non-Solvency II firms: Insurance
In assessing whether investment risk is reduced, the impact of a transaction on both the assets and liabilities should be considered. In particular, where the amount of liabilities depends upon the fluctuations in an index or other factor, investment risk is reduced where assets whose value fluctuates in the same way match those liabilities. In appropriate circumstances this may include:(1) a derivative or quasi-derivative that is linked to the same index as the liabilities from
An obligation to pay a monetary amount (whether or not falling in INSPRU 3.2.16 R) is covered if:(1) the firm holds admissible assets or permitted links1 that are sufficient in value so that the firm reasonably believes that following reasonably foreseeable adverse variations (relying solely on cashflows from, or from realising, those assets) it could pay the monetary amount in the right currency when it falls due; or(2) the obligation to pay the monetary amount is offset by a
INSPRU 1.5.18 R, INSPRU 1.5.21 R, INSPRU 1.5.30 R and INSPRU 1.5.31 R require a firm to identify the assets attributable to the receipts of the long-term insurance business, called long-term insurance assets, and only to apply those assets for the purpose of that business. This has the effect of prohibiting a composite firm from using long-term insurance assets to meet general insurance liabilities. It also keeps long-term insurance assets separate from shareholder funds.
The overall impact of the requirements in the PRA Rulebook to hold admissible assets of a value at least equal to the amount of technical provisions, when read together with INSPRU 1.5.18R, is that any firm writing long-term insurance business must identify separately assets of a value at least equal to the amount of its long-term insurance businesstechnical provisions, including those in respect of any property-linked liabilities or index-linked liabilities, and its other long-term
(1) A firm's long-term insurance assets are the items in (2), adjusted to take account of:(a) outgo in respect of the firm'slong-term insurance business; and(b) any transfers made in accordance with INSPRU 1.5.27 R.(2) The items are:(a) the assets identified under INSPRU 1.5.18 R (including assets into which those assets have been converted) but excluding any assets identified as being held to cover liabilities in respect of subordinated debt3;(b) any other assets identified by
INSPRU 1.1.27 R provides8 further constraints on the transfer of assets out of a with-profits fund. INSPRU 1.1.27 R requires a firm to have admissible assets in each of its with-profits funds to cover the technical provisions and other long-term insurance liabilities relating to all the business in that fund. 7
Where a firm is carrying out an assessment in accordance with GENPRU 1.22 of the adequacy of its overall financial resources to cover the risk in the overall financial adequacy rule, that is, the risk of its being unable to meet its liabilities as they fall due2, the assessment of the adequacy of the firm's capital resources must:(1) reflect the firm's assets, liabilities, intra-group arrangements and future plans; (2) be consistent with the firm's management practice, systems
The assets that a firm holds will include assets to back both the liabilities and any capital requirement. These assets carry risk, both in their own right and to the extent that they do not match the liabilities that they are backing. The risk associated with these assets should be considered over the full term for which the firm expects to carry the liabilities.
INSPRU 3.1 addresses the impact of market risk on insurance business in the ways set out below:(1) Any firm that carries on long-term insurance business is required8 to hold capital to cover market risk. INSPRU 3.1.26R makes particular provision for assets invested outside the UK.82(2) Firms carrying on long-term insurance business that have property-linked liabilities or index-linked liabilities must cover these liabilities by holding appropriate assets. INSPRU 3.1.57R and INSPRU
Where the assets of a firm invested in a significant territory for the purposes of PRA Rulebook: Non-Solvency II firms: Capital Resources Requirements, 20.10,8 represent less than 0.5% of the firm'slong-term insurance assets (excluding assets held to cover index-linked liabilities or property-linked liabilities), measured by market value, the firm may assume for those assets the market risk scenario for assets of that kind invested in the United Kingdom set out in8PRA Rulebook:
A firm must cover its index-linked liabilities with:(1) either:(a) the assets which represent that index; or(b) assets of appropriate security and marketability which correspond, as closely as possible, to the assets which are comprised in, or which form, the index or other reference of value to which those liabilities are linked; or(2) a portfolio of assets whose value or yield is reasonably expected to correspond closely with the index-linked liability; or(3) an index-linked
If a firm has incurred a policy liability which cannot be exactly matched by appropriate assets (for example the Limited Price Index (LPI)), the firm should seek to match assets that at least cover the liabilities. For example, an LPI limited to 5% per annum may be matched by an RPI bond or a fixed interest investment matching cash flows increasing at 5% per annum compound. Orders made by the Department for Work and Pensions under section 148 of the Social Security Administration
4Where liabilities are linked to orders made under section 148 of the Social Security Administration Act 1992 the risks associated with the business8 may be mitigated by holding assets to cover an alternative index which is reasonably expected to at least cover the section 148 order (e.g. RPI plus a margin) over the duration of the link. The firm's exposure to an order under section 148 exceeding this index should be appropriately limited by putting a cap on the liabilities linked
The first condition is that:(1) no less than 75% of the firm's total liabilities are accounted for by retail deposits and:2(a) 2the firm's total assets do not exceed 250 million; or (b) 2the firms total assets do not exceed 1 billion and no less than 70% of those assets are accounted for by:(i) assets of the kind that fall into BIPRU 12.7.2 R and which the firm counts towards its simplified buffer requirement; and(ii) retail loans; or(c) 2no less than 70% of the firm's total assets
(1) The wholesale net cash outflow component is a firm's peak cumulative wholesale net cash outflow over the next three months where the peak is established by:(a) calculating the daily wholesale net cash flow by reference to a firm's wholesale assets maturing that day and its wholesale liabilities falling due on that day;(b) for each of the business days in the next three months, calculating the cumulative total of such daily net cash flows as at the business day in question;
(1) Subject to (3), a simplified ILAS BIPRU firm that has assets or liabilities denominated in either or both euros and United States dollars must carry out separate calculations under BIPRU 12.6.9Rin relation to its positions in each of those currencies, in addition to that which it carries out in relation to its sterling positions (if any).(2) A firm to which (1) applies must ensure that, for the purpose of meeting the simplified buffer requirement, it holds in its liquid assets
(1) This paragraph applies to a proportional ICAAP in the case of a firm that is a significant IFPRU firm (see IFPRU 1.2.3 R) whose activities are complex.(2) A proportional approach to that firm'sICAAP should cover the matters identified in IFPRU 2.3.34 G and IFPRU 2.3.35 G, but is likely also to involve the use of models, most of which will be integrated into its day-to-day management and operation.(3) Models of the kind referred to in (2) may be linked to generate an overall
(1) A firm may take into account factors other than those identified in the overall Pillar 2 rule when it assesses the level of capital it wishes to hold. These factors might include external rating goals, market reputation and its strategic goals. However, a firm should be able to distinguish, for the purpose of its dialogue with the FCA, between capital it holds to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule, capital it holds as a capital planning buffer and capital held
A firm should assess and monitor, in detail, its exposure to sectoral, geographic, liability and asset concentrations. The FCA considers that concentrations in these areas increase a firm's exposure to credit risk. Where a firm identifies such concentrations it should consider the adequacy of its own funds requirements.
Some further areas to consider in developing the liquidity risk scenario might include: (1) any mismatching between expected asset and liability cash flows;(2) the inability to sell assets quickly; (3) the extent to which a firm's assets have been pledged; and (4) the possible need to reduce large asset positions at different levels of market liquidity and the related potential costs and timing constraints.
The FCA expects an asset manager to consider the impact of economic factors on its ability to meet its liabilities as they fall due. Therefore, an asset manager should develop scenarios which relate to its strategic and business plan. An asset manager might consider: (1) the effect of a market downturn that affects both transaction volumes and the market values of assets in its funds - in assessing the impact of such a scenario, an asset manager may consider the extent to which
(1) The winding up of an ICVC may be carried out under this section instead of by the court provided the ICVC is solvent and the steps required under regulation 21 the OEIC Regulations (The Authority's approval for certain changes in respect of a company) are fulfilled. This section lays down the procedures to be followed and the obligations of the ACD and any other directors of the ICVC. (2) The termination of a sub-fund may be carried out4 under this section, instead of by the
(1) An ICVC must not be wound up except:44(a) under this section; or4(b) as an unregistered company under Part V of the Insolvency Act 1986.4(1A) 4A sub-fund must not:(a) be terminated except under this section; or(b) wound up except under Part V of the Insolvency Act 1986 (as modified by regulation 33C of the OEIC Regulations) as an unregistered company.(2) An ICVC must not be wound up or a sub-fund terminated4 under this section if there is a vacancy in the position of ACD.
(1) Except to the extent that the ACD can show that it has complied with COLL 7.3.9 R (Duty to ascertain liabilities), the ACD is personally liable to meet any liability of an ICVC or a sub-fund, of which it is the ACD, wound up or terminated under this section (whether or not the ICVC has been dissolved or, in the case of the sub-fund, termination has been completed) that was not discharged before the completion of the winding up or termination.44(2) Where winding up an ICVC,
(1) 1This section deals with the circumstances and manner in which an ACS is to be wound up or a sub-fund of a co-ownership scheme is to be terminated otherwise than by the court as an unregistered company under the Insolvency Act 1986 or the Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 1989 (further rules regarding schemes of arrangement are found in COLL 7.6 (Schemes of arrangement)).(2) An ACS may be wound up under this section only if it is solvent. Under section 261W of the Act (Requests
(1) Upon the happening of any of the matters or dates referred to in (3), and subject to the requirement of (4) being satisfied, and not otherwise:(a) COLL 6.2 (Dealing), COLL 6.3(Valuation and pricing) and COLL 5 (Investment and borrowing powers) cease to apply to the ACS or to the units and scheme property in the case of a sub-fund of a co-ownership scheme; (b) the depositary must cease to issue and cancelunits, except in respect of the final cancellation under COLL 7.4A.6R
(1) Except to the extent that the authorised contractual scheme manager can show that it has complied with COLL 7.4A.8 R (Duty to ascertain liabilities), the authorised contractual scheme manager is personally liable to meet any liability of an ACS or a sub-fund of a co-ownership scheme, of which it is the authorised contractual scheme manager, wound up or terminated under this section (whether or not the winding up of the ACS or the termination of the sub-fund has been completed)
Risks may be addressed through holding capital to absorb losses that unexpectedly materialise. The ability to pay liabilities as they fall due also requires liquidity. Therefore, in assessing the adequacy of a firm's financial resources, both capital and liquidity needs should be considered. A firm should also consider the quality of its financial resources, such as the loss-absorbency of different types of capital and the time required to liquidate different types of asset.
The focus of the risk assessment is on the firm's funding2 obligations towards the pension scheme, not of the pension scheme’s risks themselves (i.e. the scheme's segregated2 assets and liabilities). A firm should include in its estimate of financial resources both its expected obligations to the pension scheme and any increase in obligations that may arise in a stress scenario.
For the purposes of the overall liquidity adequacy rule, liquidity resources are not confined to the amount or value of a firm's marketable, or otherwise realisable, assets. Rather, in assessing the adequacy of those resources, a firm should have regard to the overall character of the resources available to it which enable it to meet its liabilities as they fall due. Therefore, for the purposes of that rule, a firm should ensure that:(1) it holds sufficient assets which are
After completing a review of the ILAA as part of the SLRP, the appropriate regulator will give a standard ILAS BIPRU firmindividual liquidity guidance, advising it of the amount and quality of liquidity resources which the appropriate regulator considers are appropriate having regard to the liquidity risk profile of the firm. In giving individual liquidity guidance, the appropriate regulator will also advise the firm of what it considers to be a prudent funding profile for the
A firm or qualifying parent undertaking must notify the FCA immediately if its management body considers that any of the following have occurred:(1) the assets of the firm or qualifying parent undertaking have become less than its liabilities; or(2) the firm or qualifying parent undertaking is unable to pay its debts or other liabilities as they fall due; or(3) there are objective reasons to support a determination that (1) or (2) will occur in the near future; or(4) extraordinary
(1) A firm may take into account factors other than those identified in the overall Pillar 2 rule when it assesses the level of capital it wishes to hold. These factors might include external rating goals, market reputation and its strategic goals. However, a firm should be able to distinguish, for the purpose of its dialogue with the appropriate regulator, between capital it holds in order to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule, capital that it holds as a capital
A firm should assess, and monitor, in detail its exposure to sectoral, geographic, liability and asset concentrations. The appropriate regulator considers that concentrations in these areas increase a firm's exposure to credit risk. Where a firm identifies such concentrations it should consider the adequacy of its CRR.
Some further areas to consider in developing the liquidity risk scenario might include:(1) any mismatching between expected asset and liability cash flows;(2) the inability to sell assets quickly;(3) the extent to which a firm's assets have been pledged; and(4) the possible need to reduce large asset positions at different levels of market liquidity and the related potential costs and timing constraints.
The issuer must send to the FCA, information relating to the asset pool, in the form set out in RCB 3 Annex 2D (asset notification form), and information relating to the regulated covered bonds issued under the programme, in the form set out in RCB 3 Annex 3 D (asset and liability profile form).1
When calculating a firm’s capital resources, the following adjustments apply to retained profits or (for sole traders or partnerships) current accounts figures:(1) a firm must deduct any unrealised gains or, where applicable, add back in any unrealised losses on cash flow hedges of financial instruments measured at cost or amortised cost;(2) a firm must de-recognise any defined benefit asset; (3) a firm may substitute for a defined benefit liability its deficit reduction amount
Where a firm is a sole trader or a partnership:(1) it can use (to the extent necessary to make up any shortfall in the required resources) any of its personal assets (not being needed to meet liabilities arising from its personal activities and any business activities not regulated by the FCA);(2) the firm's total financial resources, from whatever source, must at all times be sufficient to cover its total liabilities.
In relation to a core concentration risk group counterparty, an 2undertaking is included within the scope of consolidation of a group on a full basis if it is at the head of the group or if its assets and liabilities are taken into account in full as referred to in BIPRU 8.5.2 G (Basis of inclusion of undertakings in consolidation).22
Subject to GENPRU 1.3.9 R to GENPRU 1.3.10 R and GENPRU 1.3.36 R, except where a rule in GENPRU, BIPRU or INSPRU provides for a different method of recognition or valuation, whenever a rule in GENPRU or BIPRU14 refers to an asset, liability, exposure, equity or income statement item, a firm must, for the purpose of that rule, recognise the asset, liability, exposure, equity or income statement item and measure its value in accordance with whichever of the following are applicable:(1)
Except where a rule in GENPRU or BIPRU makes a14 different provision, GENPRU 1.3.4 R applies whenever a rule in GENPRU or BIPRU14 refers to the value or amount of an asset, liability, exposure, equity or income statement item, including:(1) whether, and when, to recognise or de-recognise an asset or liability;(2) the amount at which to value an asset, liability, exposure, equity or income statement item; and(3) which description to place on an asset, liability, exposure, equity