Related provisions for IFPRU 4.8.27

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BIPRU 7.8.2RRP
A firm which underwrites or sub-underwrites an issue of securities must, for the purposes of calculating its market risk capital component and its concentration risk capital component:(1) identify commitments to underwrite or sub-underwrite which give rise to an underwritingposition (see BIPRU 7.8.8R);(2) identify the time of initial commitment (see BIPRU 7.8.13R); and(3) calculate the net underwriting position (set out in BIPRU 7.8.17R), reduced net underwriting position or the
BIPRU 7.8.3RRP
A firm must include the net underwriting position or reduced net underwriting position in whichever one or more of the following is or are relevant:(1) BIPRU 7.2.3R (1) where debt securities are being underwritten;(2) BIPRU 7.3.2R (1) where equities are being underwritten;(3) BIPRU 7.6.22R where warrants are being underwritten; and(4) BIPRU 7.5.3R where the equities, debt securities or warrants being underwritten are denominated in a foreign currency.
BIPRU 7.8.5GRP
Sub-underwriting is a commitment given by one firm to someone other than the issuer or seller of the securities to sub-underwrite all or part of an issue of securities.
BIPRU 7.8.6GRP
The net underwriting position calculated in BIPRU 7.8.17R will also be used in calculating the net underwriting exposure under BIPRU 7.8.34R.
BIPRU 7.8.7GRP
The net underwriting position or reduced net underwriting position arising from underwriting or sub-underwriting a rights or warrants issue should be calculated using the current market price of the underlying security for the purposes of the equity PRR or option PRR. However, the PRR will be limited to the value of the net underwriting position calculated using the initial issue price of the rights or warrants. Where there is no market price because the rights or warrants are
BIPRU 7.8.8RRP
(1) For the purpose of BIPRU 7.8.2R (1), a firm has a commitment to underwrite or sub-underwrite an issue of securities where:(a) it gives a commitment to an issuer of securities to underwrite an issue of securities; or(b) (where BIPRU 7.8.12R (2) applies) it gives a commitment to a seller of securities to underwrite a sale of those securities;(c) it gives a commitment to a person, other than the issuer of securities or, if BIPRU 7.8.12R (2) applies, the seller of the securities,
BIPRU 7.8.10RRP
(1) A firm that buys and sells securities before issue is dealing in the grey market for the purposes of BIPRU 7.8.(2) BIPRU 7.8 does not apply to a firm with respect to its dealings in the grey market unless the firm:(a) has an underwriting commitment to the issuer in respect of those securities; or(b) has a sub-underwriting commitment in respect of those securities and is using the grey market solely for the purpose of reducing that sub-underwriting commitment.(3) BIPRU 7.8
BIPRU 7.8.12RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 7.8, a firm must treat securities as being new for the purposes of the definition of underwriting if they are:(1) securities that, prior to the allotment following the underwriting, were not in issue; or(2) securities that do not fall within (1) but that have not previously been offered for sale or subscription to the public and have not been admitted to trading on a market operated by a recognised investment exchange or an overseas investment exchan
BIPRU 7.8.13RRP
Subject to BIPRU 7.8.14R, the time of initial commitment is the earlier of:(1) (in the case of underwriting) the time the firm agrees with the issuer of securities to underwrite those securities; or(2) (in the case of underwriting falling under BIPRU 7.8.12R (2)) the time the firm agrees with the seller of securities to underwrite those securities; or(3) (in the case of sub-underwriting) the time the firm agrees with the person referred to BIPRU 7.8.8R (1)(c) to sub-underwrite
BIPRU 7.8.14RRP
If a firm has an irrevocable and unfettered right to withdraw from an underwriting commitment, exercisable within a certain period, the commitment commences (and thus the time of initial commitment occurs) when that right expires.
BIPRU 7.8.15GRP
Subject to the existence of a right described in BIPRU 7.8.14R an underwriting commitment commences even if it is subject to formal, legal or other conditions that would normally be expected to be satisfied.
BIPRU 7.8.16GRP
A force majeure or material adverse change clause would not be a right of the sort referred to in BIPRU 7.8.14R.
BIPRU 7.8.17RRP
A firm must calculate a net underwriting position by adjusting the gross amount it has committed to underwrite for:(1) any sales or sub-underwriting commitments received that have been confirmed in writing at the time of initial commitment (but excluding any sales in the grey market as defined in BIPRU 7.8.10R (1));(2) any underwriting or sub-underwriting commitments obtained from others since the time of initial commitment;(3) any purchases or sales of the securities since the
BIPRU 7.8.18RRP
If the allocation of securities has not been fixed a firm must calculate the gross amount of its commitment, for the purposes of BIPRU 7.8.17R, by reference to the maximum amount it has committed to underwrite until the time the allocation is set.
BIPRU 7.8.19RRP
An underwriting commitment may only be reduced under BIPRU 7.8.17R on the basis of a formal agreement.
BIPRU 7.8.20GRP
Allocations may arise, after date of initial commitment, from the agreement to underwrite. For example obligations or rights may be allocated to or from the issuer, the underwriting group or syndicate.
BIPRU 7.8.21RRP
(1) This rule deals with the treatment of short positions that arise when a firm commits to distribute securities that it is underwriting in an amount that exceeds the allocation to the firm made by the issuer of the securities being underwritten.(2) When calculating its net underwriting position, a firm may use an over-allotment option granted to it by the issuer of the securities being underwritten to reduce the short positions in (1).(3) A firm may also use an over-allotment
BIPRU 7.8.22RRP
Except as provided in BIPRU 7.8.21R, a firm must not take into account an over-allotment option granted to it or another member of the underwriting syndicate in calculating its net underwriting position.
BIPRU 7.8.23RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 7.8working day 0 is the business day on which a firm that is underwriting or sub-underwriting becomes unconditionally committed to accepting a known quantity of securities at a specified price.
BIPRU 7.8.26GRP
For rights issues, working day 0 is the first day after the date on which the offer becomes closed to acceptances for subscription.
BIPRU 7.8.27RRP
To calculate the reduced net underwriting position a firm must apply the reduction factors in the table in BIPRU 7.8.28R to the net underwriting position (calculated under BIPRU 7.8.17R) as follows:(1) in respect of debt securities, a firm must calculate two reduced net underwriting positions; one for inclusion in the firm'sinterest rate PRRspecific risk calculation (BIPRU 7.2.43R), the other for inclusion in its interest rate PRRgeneral market risk calculation (BIPRU 7.2.52R);
BIPRU 7.8.28RRP
Table: Net underwriting position reduction factorsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.8.27RUnderwriting timelineDebtEquityGeneral market riskSpecific riskTime of initial commitment until working day 00%100%90%Working day 10%90%90%Working day 20%75%75%Working day 30%75%75%Working day 40%50%50%Working day 50%25%25%Working day 6 and onwards0%0%0%
BIPRU 7.8.30GRP
Table: Example of the reduced net underwriting position calculationThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.8.29GTimeNet underwriting position (see BIPRU 7.8.17R)Percentage reduction (see BIPRU 7.8.28R)Reduced net underwriting positionAt initial commitment 9.00am Monday£100m gross amount is reduced by £20m due to sales/sub-underwriting commitments confirmed in writing at the time of initial commitment (see BIPRU 7.8.17R (1)) and (4)).=£80m90%£8mPost initial commitment 9.02am MondayRemaining
BIPRU 7.8.32RRP
A firm must include any other exposures arising out of underwriting (including any counterparty exposures to any sub-underwriters) for the purposes of calculating the total amount of its trading bookexposures to a person for concentration risk purposes.
BIPRU 7.8.33RRP
A firm, before entering into a new underwriting commitment, must be able to recalculate the concentration risk capital component to the level of detail necessary to ensure that the firm'scapital resources requirement does not exceed the firm'scapital resources.
BIPRU 7.8.35RRP
Table: Calculation of net underwriting exposureThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.8.34RTimeReduction factor to be applied to net underwriting positionInitial commitment to working day 0100%Working day 0100%Working day 190%Working day 275%Working day 375%Working day 450%Working day 525%Working day 6 onwards0%
BIPRU 7.8.38RRP
A firm must take reasonable steps to establish and maintain such systems and controls to monitor and manage its underwriting and sub-underwriting business as are appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of its underwriting and sub-underwriting business. In particular, a firm must have systems to monitor and control its underwritingexposures between the time of the initial commitment and working day one in the light of the nature of the risks incurred in the markets in
BIPRU 7.8.39GRP
A firm should take reasonable steps to:(1) allocate responsibility for the management of its underwriting and sub-underwriting business;(2) allocate adequate resources to monitor and control its underwriting and sub-underwriting business;(3) satisfy itself that its systems to monitor exposure to counterparties will calculate, revise and update its exposure to each counterparty arising from its underwriting or sub-underwriting business;(4) satisfy itself of the suitability of each
BIPRU 7.10.38GRP
Subject to BIPRU 7.10.53R (Model standards: Materiality), a VaR model should capture and accurately reflect all material risks arising on the underlying portfolio on a continuing basis insofar as those risks are within the scope of the VaR model permission. This should encompass general market risk and, to the extent that this comes within the scope of the VaR model permission, specific risk. A firm should ensure that the VaR model has sufficient risk factor granularity to be
BIPRU 7.10.46RRP
(1) If a firm'sVaR model covers the calculation of PRR with respect to specific risk the firm must meet the VaR specific risk minimum requirements in addition to the other requirements of BIPRU 7.10.(2) The VaR model must explain the historical price variation in the portfolios concerned.(3) The VaR model must capture concentration in terms of magnitude and changes of composition of the portfolios concerned.(4) The VaR model must be robust to an adverse environment.(5) The VaR
BIPRU 7.10.47GRP
This paragraph provides guidance onBIPRU 7.10.46 R (2). Take as an example a VaR model based on a factor model or on a historical simulation model. The ability of the model to explain price variation could be demonstrated by a statistical comparison over the same period of time between actual price changes on the portfolio and the profit and loss impact of risk factors included within the model. A firm may wish to include an estimate of residual variation not explained by the
BIPRU 7.10.48RRP
(1) [deleted]33(2) A firm'sVaR model must conservatively assess the risk arising from less liquid positions and positions with limited price transparency under realistic market scenarios. In addition, the VaR model must meet minimum data standards. Proxies must be appropriately conservative and may be used only where available data is insufficient or is not reflective of the true volatility of a position or portfolio.
BIPRU 7.10.55GRP
A firm is expected ultimately to move towards full revaluation of option positions. For portfolios containing path dependent options, an instantaneous price shock applied to a static portfolio will be acceptable provided that the risks not captured by such an approach are not material. Where a risk is immaterial and does not justify further capital resources, that immaterial risk should still be documented.
BIPRU 7.10.55TRRP
3As part of its VaR model permission, the appropriate regulator may authorise a firm to use the all price risk measure to calculate an additional capital charge in relation to positions in its correlation trading portfolio if it meets the following minimum standards:(1) it adequately captures all price risks at a 99.9% confidence interval over a capital horizon of one year under the assumption of a constant level of risk, and adjusted, where appropriate, to reflect the impact
BIPRU 7.10.55URRP
3The amount of the capital charge for the correlation trading portfolio calculated in accordance with the all price risk measure must not be less than 8% of the capital charge that would result from applying BIPRU 7.2.48L R to all positions in the correlation trading portfolio subject to the all price risk measure.
BIPRU 7.10.55VRRP
3A firm may include in its all price risk measurepositions that are jointly managed with positions in the correlation trading portfolio and would otherwise be included in the incremental risk charge. In that case, the firm must exclude these positions from the calculation of its incremental risk charge.
BIPRU 7.10.55XRRP
3A firm must demonstrate through backtesting or other appropriate means that its all price risk measure can appropriately explain the historical price variation of these positions. A firm must be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator that it can identify the positions within its correlation trading portfolio, in relation to which it is authorised to use the all price risk measure, separately from those other positions in relation to which it is not authorised to do
BIPRU 7.10.55ZRRP
(1) 3For positions within its correlation trading portfolio in relation to which a firm may use the all price risk measure, a firm must regularly apply a set of specific, predetermined stress scenarios. These stress scenarios must examine the effects of stress to default rates, recovery rates, credit spreads, and correlations on the profit and loss of the correlation trading portfolio.(2) A firm must apply the stress scenarios in (1) at least weekly and report the results to the
BIPRU 7.10.56GRP
A firm with a complex portfolio is expected to demonstrate greater sophistication in its modelling and risk management than a firm with a simple portfolio. For example, a firm will be expected to consider, where necessary, varying degrees of liquidity for different risk factors, the complexity of risk modelling across time zones, product categories and risk factors. Some trade-off is permissible between the sophistication and accuracy of the model and the conservatism of underlying
BIPRU 7.10.72RRP
(1) A firm must frequently conduct a rigorous programme of stress testing. The results of these tests must be reviewed by senior management and reflected in the policies and limits the firm sets.(2) The programme must particularly address:(a) concentration risk;(b) illiquidity of markets in stressed market conditions;(c) one way markets;(d) event and jump to default risks;(e) non linearity of products;(f) deep out of the money positions;(g) positions subject to the gapping of
BIPRU 7.10.78RRP
A firm must have processes in place to ensure that its VaR model has been adequately validated by suitably qualified parties independent of the development process to ensure that it is conceptually sound and adequately captures all material risks. This validation must be conducted when the VaR model is initially developed and when any significant changes are made to the VaR model. The validation must also be conducted on a periodic basis but especially where there have been any
BIPRU 7.10.79GRP
(1) In addition to regulatory backtesting programs, testing for model validation should be carried out using additional tests which may include for example:(a) testing carried out using hypothetical changes in portfolio value that would occur were end of day positions to remain unchanged;(b) testing carried out for longer periods than required for the regular backtesting programme (for example, 3 years);(c) testing carried out using confidence intervals other than the 99 percent
BIPRU 7.10.87RRP
A firm must periodically and actively identify all the worst case scenarios that are relevant to its portfolio. Scenarios used must be appropriate to test the effect of adverse movements in market volatilities and correlations and the effect of any change in the assumptions underlying the VaR model. Scenarios involving low probability market events must nevertheless be plausible.
BIPRU 7.10.91GRP
Backtesting is the process of comparing value-at-risk risk measures to portfolio performance. It is intended to act as one of the mechanisms for the ongoing validation of a firm'sVaR model and to provide incentives for firms to improve their VaR measures.
BIPRU 7.10.93GRP
Backtesting conducted only at a whole portfolio level using a single measure of profit and loss has limited power to distinguish an accurate VaR model from an inaccurate one. Backtesting should therefore be regarded as an additional safeguard rather than a primary validation tool. Such testing does however form the basis of the appropriate regulator'splus factor system. The test has been chosen as the basis of the backtesting regime because of its simplicity. A firm will therefore
BIPRU 7.10.107RRP
If a firm'sVaR model permission covers specific risk, the firm must validate its VaR model through backtesting aimed at assessing whether specific risk is being accurately captured. This backtesting must be carried out in accordance with the provisions of its VaR model permission. If the VaR model permission provides for this backtesting to be performed on the basis of relevant sub-portfolios, these must be chosen in a consistent manner.
BIPRU 7.10.108GRP
Specific risk backtesting involves the backtesting of a standalone specific riskVaR measure against a profit and loss series determined by reference to exposure risk factors categorised as specific risk. Alternatively specific risk backtesting may take the form of regular backtesting of trading books and portfolios that are predominantly exposed to risk factors categorised as specific risk. The precise requirements for specific risk backtesting will be specified in the firm'sVaR
BIPRU 7.10.111RRP
A firm must perform backtesting against a hypothetical profit and loss figure3 with respect to each business day. A hypothetical profit and loss figure3 for a business day means the hypothetical profit and loss figure3 that would have occurred for that business day if the portfolio on which the VaR number for that business day is based remained unchanged.3333
3The all price risk measure for any business day means the all price risk measure required under the provisions in BIPRU 7.10 about specific risk for the correlation trading portfolio.
BIPRU 7.10.129RRP
A firm must, no later than the number of business days after the end of each quarter specified in the VaR model permission for this purpose, submit, in respect of that quarter, a report to the appropriate regulator about the operation of the VaR model, the systems and controls relating to it and any changes to the VaR model and those systems and controls. Each report must outline as a minimum the following information in respect of that quarter:(1) methodological changes and developments
3A firm must calculate the market risk capital requirement for securitisation positions and positions in the correlation trading portfolio in accordance with the standard market risk PRR rules, with the exception of those positions subject to the all price risk measure.
BIPRU 7.10.146RRP
A VaR model must be a value-at-risk model. It must provide an estimate of the worst expected loss on a portfolio resulting from market movements over a period of time with the specified confidence level.
PERG 2.9.3GRP
This group of exclusions applies, in specified circumstances, to the regulated activities of:(1) dealing in investments as principal;(2) arranging (bringing about) dealsininvestments and4making arrangements with a view to transactions in investments;44(2A) arranging a home finance transaction;4(3) managing investments;(4) assisting in the administration and performance of a contract of insurance;(5) safeguarding and administering investments;(6) sending dematerialised instructions;(7)
PERG 2.9.7GRP
This group of exclusions applies, in specified circumstances, to the regulated activities of:(1) dealing in investments as principal;(2) dealing in investments as agent;(3) arranging (bringing about) deals in investments and making arrangements with a view to transactions in investments;(4) managing investments;(5) safeguarding and administering investments; and(6) advising on investments.
PERG 2.9.9GRP
This group of exclusions applies, in specified circumstances, to the regulated activities of:(1) dealing in investments as principal;(2) dealing in investments as agent;(3) arranging (bringing about) deals in investments and making arrangements with a view to transactions in investments;(4) managing investments;(5) safeguarding and administering investments;(6) sending dematerialised instructions; and(7) advising on investments.
PERG 2.9.15GRP
This group of exclusions applies, in specified circumstances, to the regulated activities of:(1) dealing in investments as principal;(2) dealing in investments as agent;(3) arranging (bringing about) deals in investments and4making arrangements with a view to transactions in investments;4(3A) arranging a home finance transaction;4(3B) 5operating a multilateral trading facility;(4) advising on investments;(5) entering into a home finance transaction;44(6) administering a home finance
PERG 2.9.19GRP
The exclusions in this group apply to certain regulated activities involving certain contracts of insurance. The exclusions and the regulated activities to which they apply are as follows.(1) The first exclusion of this kind relates to certain activities carried on by a provider of non-motor goods or services related to travel in connection with general insurance contracts only. The contracts must be for five years duration or less and have an annual premium of no more than 500.
PERG 2.9.20GRP
1This group of exclusions applies, in specified circumstances, to the regulated activities of:(1) dealing in investments as agent;(2) arranging (bringing about) deals in investments and making arrangements with a view to transactions in investments;(3) managing investments;(4) safeguarding and administering investments;(4A) managing a UCITS;13(4B) managing an AIF;13(5) establishing, operating or winding up a collective investment scheme; and(6) advising on investments.
PERG 2.9.22GRP
313This exclusion applies to a person with a Part 4A permission to carry on the activity of managing an AIF or managing a UCITS. The exclusion means that activities carried on by the person in connection with, or for the purposes of, managing a UCITS or (as the case may be) managing an AIF, are excluded from being regulated activities (except the activities of managing an AIF and managing a UCITS themselves). In the FCA's view this is particularly likely to affect the following
PERG 2.9.25GRP
12This group of exclusions applies, in specified circumstances, to the regulated activities of:(1) dealing in investments as principal;(2) dealing in investments as agent;(3) arranging (bringing about) deals in investments;(4) making arrangements with a view to transactions in investments;(5) operating a multilateral trading facility;(6) managing investments;(7) assisting in the administration and performance of a contract of insurance;(8) debt adjusting;(9) debt counselling;(10)
INSPRU 3.2.5RRP
For the purpose of PRA Rulebook: Non-Solvency II firms: Insurance Company – Capital Resources 136 (Admissible assets in insurance), and also in relation to permitted links,1 a derivative or quasi-derivative is approved if:(1) it is held for the purpose of efficient portfolio management (INSPRU 3.2.6 R to INSPRU 3.2.7 R) or reduction of investment risk (INSPRU 3.2.8 R to INSPRU 3.2.13 G);(2) it is covered (INSPRU 3.2.14 R to INSPRU 3.2.33 G); and(3) it is effected or issued:(a)
INSPRU 3.2.6RRP
A derivative or quasi-derivative is held for the purpose of efficient portfolio management if the firm reasonably believes the derivative or quasi-derivative (either alone or together with any other covered transactions) enables the firm to achieve its investment objectives by one of the following (or, in relation to permitted links, in a manner which includes but is not limited to)1:(1) generating additional capital or income in one of the ways described in INSPRU 3.2.7 R; or(2)
INSPRU 3.2.8RRP
A derivative or quasi-derivative is held for the purpose of reducing investment risk if the derivative or quasi-derivative (either alone or together with other fully covered transactions) reduces any aspect of investment risk without significantly increasing any other aspect of that risk.
INSPRU 3.2.9RRP
For the purposes of INSPRU 3.2.8 R, an increase in risk from a derivative or quasi-derivative is significant unless:(1) relative to any reduction in investment risk it is both small and reasonable; or(2) the risk is remote.
INSPRU 3.2.22GRP
The second purpose of cover is that it prevents excessive gearing in the investment portfolio by the use of options and their equivalent. A firm is required to cover all obligations under an admissible transaction including obligations that would arise only at the option of the firm, e.g. the liability to pay the exercise price under a bought option.
INSPRU 3.2.31GRP
INSPRU 3.2.30 R in effect allows borrowings to be used to bridge the gap between an obligation under a transaction that might fall due at one date and cash or its equivalent that would only become due at a later date. Borrowings may not be used to gear the investment portfolio.
BIPRU 4.3.27RRP
Assignment criteria and processes must be periodically reviewed to determine whether they remain appropriate for the current portfolio and external conditions.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 3]
BIPRU 4.3.34GRP
(1) This paragraph sets out guidance on assessing the adequacy of a rating system's discriminative power (see BIPRU 4.3.30 R (3) on the meaning of discriminative power).(2) A firm should be able to explain the performance of its rating systems against its chosen measure (or measures) of discriminative power. In making this comparison a firm should rely primarily on actual historic default experience where this is available. In particular, a firm should be able to explain:(a) the
BIPRU 4.3.35RRP
A firm must also use other appropriate quantitative validation tools and comparisons with relevant external data sources. The analysis must be based on data that is appropriate to the portfolio, is updated regularly, and covers a relevant observation period. A firm's internal assessments of the performance of its rating systems must be based on as long a period as possible.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 112]
BIPRU 4.3.65GRP
In the case of a retail exposure, a value adjustment resulting from significant perceived decline in credit quality falling within BIPRU 4.3.63 R (3) need not necessarily be taken as an indication of unlikeliness to pay if a firm employs formulaic portfolio provisioning based on a number of days overdue for its retail exposures. However, if such an exposure reaches the compulsory days past due indicator for the purposes of the definition of default it should automatically be deemed
BIPRU 4.3.79GRP
While the qualitative requirements in BIPRU 4 are important for all portfolios, they are of even greater importance in those cases where a firm lacks sufficient historical data to calibrate or validate its estimates of PD, LGD or conversion factors on the basis of proven statistical significance, sometimes referred to as low default portfolios.
BIPRU 4.3.92RRP
If a firm uses data that is pooled across institutions it must be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator that:(1) the rating systems and criteria of other firms in the pool are similar to its own;(2) the pool is representative of the portfolio for which the pooled data is used; and(3) the pooled data is used consistently over time by the firm for its permanent estimates.2[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 57]
BIPRU 4.3.106GRP
A firm may combine IRB exposure classes, jurisdictions or both for the purpose of BIPRU 4.3.104 R (2)(a) if it can demonstrate that the downturn conditions to which the portfolios are subject will be similar.
IFPRU 6.3.21GRP
The firm should ensure that the sVaR period chosen is equivalent to the period that would maximise VaR, given the firm's portfolio. There is an expectation that a stressed period should be identified at each legal entity level at which capital is reported. Therefore, group level sVaR measures should be based on a period that maximises the group level VaR, whereas entity level sVaR should be based on a period that maximises VaR for that entity.
IFPRU 6.3.22GRP
The firm should consider whether the use of antithetic data in the calculation of the sVaR measure is appropriate to the firm's portfolio. A justification for using or not using antithetic data should be provided to the FCA.
IFPRU 6.3.24GRP
The following information is expected to be submitted quarterly:(1) analysis to support the equivalence of the firm's current approach to a VaR-maximising approach on an ongoing basis; (2) the rationale behind the selection of key major risk factors used to find the period of significant financial stress;(3) summary of ongoing internal monitoring of stressed period selection with respect to current portfolio; (4) analysis to support capital equivalence of upscaled 1-day VaR and
IFPRU 6.3.28GRP
To achieve a soundness standard comparable to those under the IRB approach, LGD estimates should reflect the economic cycle. Therefore, the FCA expects a firm to incorporate dependence of the recovery rate on the economic cycle into the IRC model. Should the firm use a conservative parameterisation to comply with the IRB standard of the use of downturn estimates, evidence of this should be submitted in quarterly reporting to the FCA, bearing in mind that for trading portfolios,
IFPRU 4.8.7GRP
The FCA expects firms using own estimates of EAD to have done the following in respect of EAD estimates:(1) applied EAD estimates at the level of the individual facility;(2) where there is a paucity of observations, ensured that all EAD estimates are cautious, conservative and justifiable. In accordance with article 179(1)(a) of the EU CRR, estimates must be derived using both historical experience and empirical evidence, and must not be based purely on judgemental consideration.
IFPRU 4.8.8GRP
The FCA uses a framework for assessing the conservatism of firms' wholesale EAD models for which there are a low number of defaults. This framework is set out in IFPRU 4 Annex 2G (Wholesale LGD and EAD framework). This framework is in the process of being used to assess the calibration of firms' material EAD models for low-default portfolios.
IFPRU 4.8.21GRP
The FCA expects firms to investigate the incidence of exposures existing at default that arise from products or relationships that are not intended to result in a credit exposure and, consequently, have no credit limit established against them and are not reflected in their estimates of EAD. Unless such exposures are immaterial, the FCA expects firms to estimate a Pillar 1 own funds requirement on a portfolio basis to such exposures.
BIPRU 4.7.5RRP
A firm may employ different approaches to different portfolios where the firm itself uses different approaches internally. A firm must, if it uses different approaches in accordance with the previous sentence, be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator that the choice is made consistently and is not determined by regulatory arbitrage considerations.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 17]
BIPRU 4.7.9RRP
The risk weighted exposure amounts must be calculated according to the following formula:risk-weighted exposure amounts = RW * exposure value;where:(1) risk weight (RW) = 190% for private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios;(2) risk weight (RW) = 290% for exchange traded equity exposures; and(3) risk weight (RW) = 370% for all other equity exposures.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 19]
BIPRU 4.7.12RRP
The expected loss amounts1 for equity exposures must be calculated according to the following formula:(1) expected loss amount = EL × exposure value; and(2) the EL values must be the following:(a) expected loss (EL) = 0.8% for private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios;(b) expected loss (EL) = 0.8% for exchange traded equity exposures; and(c) expected loss (EL) = 2.4% for all other equity exposures.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 32]
BIPRU 4.7.20RRP
Private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios may be assigned an LGD of 65%.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 25]
BIPRU 4.7.33RRP
A firm must make use of other quantitative validation tools and comparisons with external data sources. The analysis must be based on data that are appropriate to the portfolio, are updated regularly, and cover a relevant observation period. A firm's internal assessments of the performance of its models must be based on as long a period as possible.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 121]
COBS 16.3.1RRP
(1) If a firm is managing investments on behalf of a client, it must provide the client with a periodic statement in a durable medium unless such a statement is provided by another person.(2) If the client is a retail client, the periodic statement must include such of the periodic information (COBS 16 Annex 2R) 1as is applicable. [Note: article 41(1) and (2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 16.3.2RRP
(1) In the case of a retail client, the periodic statement must be provided once every six months, except in the following cases:(a) if the retail client so requests, the periodic statement must be provided every three months;(b) if the retail client elects to receive information about executed transactions on a transaction-by-transaction basis (COBS 16.3.3 R) and there are no transactions in derivatives or other securities giving the right to acquire or sell a transferable security
COBS 16.3.3RRP
(1) If the client elects to receive information about executed transactions on a transaction-by-transaction basis, a firmmanaging investments must provide promptly to the client, on the execution of a transaction, the essential information concerning that transaction in a durable medium.(2) If the client is a retail client, the firm must send him a notice confirming the transaction and containing such of the information identified in column (1) of the table in COBS 16 Annex 1R
COBS 16.3.6RRP
(1) If a firm:(a) manages investments for a retail client; or(b) operates a retail client account that includes an uncovered open position in a contingent liability transaction,it must report to the retail client any losses exceeding any predetermined threshold, agreed between it and the retail client.(2) The firm must report:(a) no later than the end of the business day in which the threshold is exceeded; or(b) if the threshold is exceeded on a non-business day, the close of
BIPRU 7.2.42ARRP
3A correlation trading portfolio may only consist of securitisation positions and nth-to-default credit derivatives that meet the following criteria:(1) the positions are neither resecuritisation positions, nor options on a securitisation position, nor any other derivatives of securitisationexposures that do not provide a pro-rata share in the proceeds of a securitisationtranche;(2) all reference instruments are either single-name instruments, including single-name credit derivatives,
BIPRU 7.2.42BRRP
3Positions which are not securitisation positions or nth-to-default credit derivatives may be included in the correlation trading portfolio only if they hedge other such positions in this portfolio and a liquid two-way market exists for the relevant position or its reference entities.
BIPRU 7.2.42CRRP
3For the purposes of BIPRU 7.2.42A R (2) and BIPRU 7.2.42B R, a two-way market may be deemed to exist only where there are independent, bona fide offers to buy and sell, so that a price reasonably related to the last sales price or current bona fide competitive bid and offer quotations can be determined within one business day and settled at that price within a relatively short time conforming to trade custom.
BIPRU 7.2.42DRRP
3A firm must calculate both the net long and the net short positions in the correlation trading portfolio by applying BIPRU 7.2.36 R and BIPRU 7.2.37 R or, where applicable, BIPRU 7.11.13 R to BIPRU 7.11.17 R.
BIPRU 7.2.48ARRP
(1) 3Subject to (3), a firm must calculate the specific risk portion of the interest rate PRR for each securitisation and resecuritisationposition by multiplying the market value of the individual net position (ignoring the sign) by the appropriate position risk adjustment from the table in BIPRU 7.2.48D R or BIPRU 7.2.48E R, or in accordance with BIPRU 7.2.48F R, as applicable.(2) In calculating the specific risk capital charge of an individual net securitisation or resecuritisation
BIPRU 7.2.48LRRP
(1) 3Where a firm holds a position in the correlation trading portfolio, it must calculate:(a) The total specific risk capital charges that would apply just to the net long positions of the correlation trading portfolio; and(b) The total specific risk capital charges that would apply just to the net short positions of the correlation trading portfolio.(2) The higher of (1)(a) and (1)(b) will be the specific risk capital charge for the correlation trading portfolio.(3) In calculating
SUP App 3.9.5GRP
3Table 2: MiFIDinvestment services and activitiesPart II RAO InvestmentsPart III RAO InvestmentsA MiFIDinvestment services and activities1.Reception and transmission of orders in relation to one or more financial instrumentsArticle 252Article 76-81, 83-85, 892.Execution of orders on behalf of clientsArticle 14, 21A Article 76-81, 83-85, 893.Dealing on own accountArticle 14Article 76-81, 83-85, 894.Portfolio managementArticle 37 (14, 21, 25 - see Note 1) 2Article 76-81, 83-85,
SUP App 3.9.5AGRP
Table 2ZA: AIFMD activitiesPart II RAO ActivitiesPart III RAO Investments1.AIFM management functions.Article 51ZCN/A (activity relates to property of any kind)2.Management of portfolios of investments, including those owned by pension funds and institutions for occupational retirement in accordance with article 19(1) of Directive 2003/41/EC, in accordance with mandates given by investors on a discretionary client-by-client basis (Note 2).Articles 14, 21, 25, 37, 40 (arranging
SUP App 3.9.6GRP
Table 2A: UCITS Directive activitiesPart II RAO ActivitiesPart III RAO Investments1.The management of UCITS in the form of unit trusts / common funds or of investment companies; this includes the function mentioned in Annex II of the UCITS Directive (see Note 2). Article 51ZA88 N/A (activity relates to property of any kind) (Note 3)8882.Managing portfolios of investments, including those owned by pension funds, in accordance with mandates given by investors on a discretionary,
LR 15.6.2RRP
In addition to the requirements in LR 9.8 (Annual financial report), a closed-ended investment fund must include in its annual financial report:(1) a statement (including a quantitative analysis) explaining how it has invested its assets with a view to spreading investment risk in accordance with its published investment policy; (2) a statement, set out in a prominent position, as to whether in the opinion of the directors, the continuing appointment of the investment manager
LR 15.6.3RRP
A closed-ended investment fund that, as at the end of its financial year, has invested more than 20% of its assets in property must include in its annual financial report a summary of the valuation of its portfolio, carried out in accordance with LR 15.6.4 R.
LR 15.6.4RRP
A valuation required by LR 15.6.3 R must:(1) either:(a) be made in accordance with the Appraisal and Valuation Standards (6th edition)4 issued by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors; or4(b) where the valuation does not comply in all applicable respects with the Appraisal and Valuation Standards (6th edition)4 issued by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, include a statement which sets out a full explanation of such non-compliance; and4(2) be carried out by an
PERG 2.7.4GRP
In addition, certain other activities carried on in relation to rights under contracts of insurance are regulated activities. These are where the activity is carried on in relation to:(1) life policies, where the regulated activities concerned are:(a) dealing in investments as principal (see PERG 2.7.5 G);(b) managing investments (see PERG 2.7.8 G);(c) safeguarding and administering investments (see PERG 2.7.9 G); and(d) agreeing to carry on any of those activities (see PERG 2.7.21
PERG 2.7.8GRP
The regulated activity of managing investments includes several elements.(1) First, a person must exercise discretion. Non-discretionary portfolio management (where the manager buys and sells, as principal or agent, on the instructions of some other person) is not caught by this activity, although it may be caught by a different regulated activity such as the activity of dealing in investments as principal or dealing in investments as agent. The discretion must be exercised in
PERG 2.7.9GRP
The activity of safeguarding and administering investments belonging to another is regulated, as is providing a service under which a person undertakes to arrange on a continuing basis for others actually to carry out the safeguarding and administering. In each case, both the elements of safeguarding and administering must be present before a person will be said to carry on the activity.(1) Safeguarding is acting as custodian of the property, for example, holding any documents
SUP 16.12.4RRP
Table of applicable rules containing data items4, frequency and submission periods(1)(2)(3)(4)RAGnumberRegulated ActivitiesProvisions containing:applicabledata itemsreporting frequency/ perioddue date323227121237RAG 1 • accepting deposits • meeting of repayment claims76 managing dormant account funds (including the investment of such funds)76RAG 1 firms should complete their prudential reporting requirements as set out in the PRA Rulebook.76RAG 2.1• effecting contracts of insurance•
SUP 16.12.15RRP
The applicable data items referred to in SUP 16.12.4 R are set out76 according to firm type76 in the table below: 48Description of data itemFirms' prudential category and applicable data items (note 1)IFPRU investment firms and BIPRU firmsFirms other than BIPRU firms or IFPRU investment firmsIFPRUBIPRUIPRU(INV) Chapter 3IPRU(INV) Chapter 5IPRU(INV) Chapter 9IPRU(INV) Chapter 11 (collective portfolio management firms only)IPRU(INV) Chapter 1248IPRU(INV) Chapter 1338Solvency statementNo
SUP 16.12.30RRP
(1) 2An authorised professional firm, other than one that must comply with IPRU(INV) 3, 5 or 13 in accordance with IPRU(INV) 2.1.4R,3 or one that is a CASS debt management firm or one that carries on only credit-related regulated activity as a non-mainstream regulated activity,47 must submit an annual questionnaire, contained in SUP 16 Annex 9R, unless:11(a) its only regulated activities are one or more of:(i) insurance mediation;(ii) mortgage mediation;(iii) retail investment;(iv)
SUP 16.12.31RRP
2Table of data items from an authorised professional firmReportReturn (note 1)Frequency (Note 4)24Due dateAdequate information relating to the following activities:RMAR (Note 3)Half yearly (quarterly for sections A to E for larger firms, subject to Note 3 exemptions) (note 2)For half yearly report: 30 business days after period end For quarterly report: 30 business days after quarter end(1) insurance mediation activity;(2) mortgage mediation activity;(3) retail investment activity;(4)
COLL 5.2.7CRRP
7A unit in a closed end fund shall be taken to be a transferable security for the purposes of investment by a UCITS scheme, provided it fulfils the criteria for transferable securities set out in COLL 5.2.7A R, and either:(1) where the closed end fund is constituted as an investment company or a unit trust:(a) it is subject to corporate governance mechanisms applied to companies; and(b) where another person carries out asset management activity on its behalf, that person is subject
COLL 5.2.19AGRP
(1) 7Collateralised debt obligations (CDOs) or asset-backed securities using derivatives, with or without an active management, will generally not be considered as embedding a derivative except if:(a) they are leveraged, i.e. the CDOs or asset-backed securities are not limited recourse vehicles and the investors' loss can be higher than their initial investment; or(b) they are not sufficiently diversified.(2) Where a transferable security or approved money-market instrument embedding
COLL 5.2.23RRP
A transaction in an OTC derivative under COLL 5.2.20 R (1) (b) must be:(1) with an approved counterparty; a counterparty to a transaction in derivatives is approved only if the counterparty is:(a) an eligible institution or an approved bank; or(b) a person whose permission (including any requirements or limitations), as published in the Financial Services Register, or whose Home State authorisation, permits it to enter into the transaction as principal off-exchange;(2) on approved
COLL 5.2.31RRP
(1) Notwithstanding COLL 5.2.11 R (Spread: general), a7UCITS scheme may invest up to 20% in value of the scheme property in shares and debentures which are issued by the same body where the investment policy of that scheme as stated in the most recently published prospectus is to replicate the composition of a relevant index which satisfies the criteria specified in COLL 5.2.33 R (Relevant indices).7(1A) Replication of the composition of a relevant index shall be understood to
DTR 5.4.2RRP
(1) The parent undertaking of an investment firm authorised under MiFID shall not be required to aggregate its holdings with the holdings which such investment firm manages on a client-by-client basis within the meaning of Article 4(1), point 9, of MiFID, provided that:(a) the investment firm is authorised to provide such portfolio management;(b) it may only exercise the voting rights attached to such shares under instructions given in writing or by electronic means or it ensures
DTR 5.4.9RRP
Undertakings whose registered office is in a third country which would have required authorisation in accordance with Article 6 (1)3 of the UCITS directive or with regard to portfolio management under point 4 of section A of Annex 1 to MiFID if it had its registered office or, only in the case of an investment firm, its head office within the EEA,2 shall be exempted from aggregating holdings with the holdings of its parent undertaking under this rule provided3 that they comply
FEES 6.7.6RRP
If a firm ceases to be a participant firm or carry out activities within one or more classes54 part way through a financial year4 of the compensation scheme:4(1) it will remain liable for any unpaid levies which the FSCS has already made on the firm; and41(2) the FSCS may make one or more levies4 upon it (which may be before or after the firm5 has ceased to be a participant firm or carry out activities within one or more classes5,4 but must be before it ceases to be an authorised
COBS 9.1.3RRP
This chapter applies to a firm which manages investments.
COBS 9.1.3AGRP
3This chapter does not apply to a firm which manages investments when that firm takes a decision to trade for a client and that decision relates to a P2P agreement. This is because the regulated activity of managing investments does not extend to the management of assets where those assets are P2P agreements.
COBS 9.2.1RRP
(1) A firm must take reasonable steps to ensure that a personal recommendation, or a decision to trade, is suitable for its client.(2) When making the personal recommendation or managing his investments, the firm must obtain the necessary information regarding the client's:(a) knowledge and experience in the investment field relevant to the specific type of designated investment or service;(b) financial situation; and(c) investment objectives;so as to enable the firm to make the
COBS 9.2.8RRP
(1) If a firm makes a personal recommendation or manages investments for a professional client in the course of MiFID or equivalent third country business, it is entitled to assume that, in relation to the products, transactions and services for which the professional client is so classified, the client has the necessary level of experience and knowledge for the purposes of COBS 9.2.2R (1)(c).(2) If the service consists of making a personal recommendation to a per se professional