Related provisions for GENPRU 1.3.21

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GENPRU 1.3.6GRP
In particular, unless an exception applies, GENPRU 1.3.4 R should be applied for the purposes of GENPRU, BIPRU or INSPRU to determine how to account for:(1) netting of amounts due to or from the firm;(2) the securitisation of assets and liabilities (see also GENPRU 1.3.7 G);(3) leased tangible assets;(4) assets transferred or received under a sale and repurchase3 or stock lending transaction; and(5) assets transferred or received by way of initial or variation margin under a derivative
GENPRU 1.3.9RRP
For the purposes of GENPRU, BIPRU or INSPRU, except where a rule in GENPRU, BIPRU or INSPRU provides for a different method of recognition or valuation:(1) when a firm, upon initial recognition, designates its liabilities as at fair value through profit or loss, it must always adjust any value calculated in accordance with GENPRU 1.3.4 R by subtracting any unrealised gains or adding back in any unrealised losses which are not attributable to changes in a benchmark interest rate;(2)
GENPRU 1.3.13RRP
(1) Except to the extent that GENPRU, BIPRU or INSPRU provide for another method of valuation, GENPRU 1.3.14 R to GENPRU 1.3.34 R (Marking to market, Marking to model, Independent price verification, Adjustments or reserves) apply:(a) for the purposes set out in GENPRU 1.3.41 R;(b) for the purposes set out in GENPRU 1.3.39 R; and(c) to any balance sheet position measured at market value or fair value.(2) A firm must establish and maintain systems and controls sufficient to provide
GENPRU 1.3.17RRP
Where marking to market is not possible, a firm must use mark to model in order to measure the value of the investments and positions to which this rule applies under GENPRU 1.3.13 R and GENPRU 1.3.38 R to GENPRU 1.3.41 R. Marking to model is any valuation which has to be benchmarked, extrapolated or otherwise calculated from a market input. GENPRU 1.3.18 R to GENPRU 1.3.25 R apply when marking to model.
GENPRU 1.3.20RRP
A firm must source market inputs in line with market prices so far as possible and assess the appropriateness of the market inputs for the position being valued and the parameters of the model on a frequent basis.
GENPRU 1.3.22RRP
A firm must establish formal change control procedures, hold a secure copy of the model, and periodically use that model to check valuations.
GENPRU 1.3.23RRP
A firm must ensure that its risk management functions are aware of the weaknesses of the models used and how best to reflect those in the valuation output.
GENPRU 1.3.26RRP
In addition to marking to market or marking to model, a firm must perform independent price verification. This is the process by which market prices or model inputs are regularly verified for accuracy and independence.
GENPRU 1.3.29RRP
The recognition of any gains or losses arising from valuations subject to GENPRU 1.3.13 R and GENPRU 1.3.38 R to GENPRU 1.3.41 R must be recognised for the purpose of calculating capital resources in accordance with GENPRU 1.3.14 R to GENPRU 1.3.34 R (Marking to market, Marking to model, Independent price verification, Adjustments or reserves). However if GENPRU, BIPRU or INSPRU provide for another treatment of such gains or losses, that other treatment must be applied.
GENPRU 1.3.31RRP
A firm using third-party valuations, or marking to model, must consider whether valuation adjustments are necessary.
GENPRU 1.3.32RRP
A firm must consider the need for establishing reserves for less liquid positions and, on an ongoing basis, review their continued appropriateness in accordance with the requirements set out in GENPRU 1.3.33 R. Less liquid positions could arise from both market events and institution-related situations e.g. concentration positions and/or stale positions.
GENPRU 1.3.33RRP
(1) This paragraph sets out the requirements referred to in GENPRU 1.3.30 R and GENPRU 1.3.32 R.(2) A firm must consider the following adjustments or reserves: unearned credit spreads, close-out costs, operational risks, early termination, investing and funding costs, future administrative costs and, where appropriate, model risk.(3) A firm must consider several factors when determining whether a valuation reserve is necessary for less liquid positions. These factors include the
BIPRU 3.4.60RRP
(1) In the exercise of its judgement for the purposes of BIPRU 3.4.56 R to BIPRU 3.4.58 R, a firm may be satisfied only if the conditions in (2) to (6) are met.(2) The value of the property does not materially depend upon the credit quality of the obligor. This requirement does not preclude situations where purely macroeconomic factors affect both the value of the property and the performance of the borrower.(3) The risk of the borrower does not materially depend upon the performance
BIPRU 3.4.66RRP
(1) The requirements about monitoring of property values referred to in BIPRU 3.4.60 R (4)(b) are as follows:(a) the value of the property must be monitored on a frequent basis and at a minimum once every three years for residential real estate;(b) more frequent monitoring must be carried out where the market is subject to significant changes in conditions;(c) statistical methods may be used to monitor the value of the property and to identify property that needs revaluation;(d)
BIPRU 3.4.67GRP
A property will need to be revalued over time to ensure that the original purchase price does not overstate the degree of security provided by the property. Ijara providers should undertake revaluations in the same way as providers of conventional mortgages.
BIPRU 3.4.68GRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 3.4.66 R (1)(a), the monitoring of property values should be an inherent part of risk managing and tracking the portfolio. The requirement to monitor property values does not include the physical assessment of each property in the portfolio.
BIPRU 3.4.69GRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 3.4.66 R (1)(d) and (e), the review of a property valuation is more in-depth than the normal monitoring process required by BIPRU 3.4.66 R (1)(a). This requirement is likely to include a review of the property value on an individual exposure basis. Where an exposure is secured by multiple properties, the review can be undertaken at the level of the exposure, rather than at the level of each individual property.
BIPRU 3.4.70GRP
The review of property values required by BIPRU 3.4.66 R (1)(e) may lead to an amendment of the value assigned to the property under by BIPRU 3.4.80 R.
BIPRU 3.4.77RRP
The property must be valued by an independent valuer at or less than the market value. In those EEA States that have laid down rigorous criteria for the assessment of the mortgage lending value in statutory or regulatory provisions the property may instead be valued by an independent valuer at or less than the mortgage lending value.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 62]
BIPRU 3.4.79RRP
Mortgage lending value means the value of the property as determined by a prudent assessment of the future marketability of the property taking into account long-term sustainable aspects of the property, the normal and local market conditions, the current use and alternative appropriate uses of the property. Speculative elements must not be taken into account in the assessment of the mortgage lending value. The mortgage lending value must be documented in a transparent and clear
MCOB 5.9.1BRRP
2Where the potential SRB agreement seller has not commissioned his own valuation of the property, a firm must ensure that he realises that there are other possible sources of information on the property's value that are available to him, including local estate agents, local newspapers which carry advertisements for the sale of residential property in the customer's locality and on-line sites where details of recent property sales in the locality may be accessed.
MCOB 5.9.1CRRP
2A firm must ensure that the SRB agreement seller realises that there are other possible sources of information on the appropriate rental value for the property available to him, including local estate agents, local newspapers and on-line sites which carry advertisements for the rental of residential property in the customer's locality.
MCOB 5.9.1DGRP
2There is no requirement for the property to be valued before making the pre-sale disclosures. However, MCOB 6.9.2 R requires that an independent valuation of the property be carried out before the provider supplies the customer with the written pre-offer document at Stage One (see MCOB 6.9.3 R).
MCOB 5.9.1GGRP
2What constitutes "materially altered" requires consideration of the facts of each individual case. For example, a change in the proposed purchase or valuation price of the property should normally be regarded as material, as would the introduction of an additional charge applying to the regulated sale and rent back agreement when it did not previously.
INSPRU 7.1.36GRP
The valuation of the assets and of the liabilities should reflect their economic substance. A realistic valuation basis should be used for assets and liabilities taking into account the actual amounts and timings of cash flows under any projections used in the assessment.
INSPRU 7.1.38GRP
The methods and assumptions used in valuing the liabilities should contain no explicit margins for risk, nor should the approach be optimistic. The valuation of liabilities should be consistent with the valuation of assets. To the extent the market price includes an implicit allowance for risk, this should be included within the valuation.
INSPRU 7.1.39GRP
The methodology used to place a value on an asset or a liability following a risk event should be consistent with the methodology used prior to the risk event.
INSPRU 7.1.40GRP
Approximate valuation methods may be used by the firm for minor lines of business or to capture less material types of risk. However, the firm should avoid methods which under-estimate the risk in aggregate.
INSPRU 7.1.49RRP
The written record of a firm'sindividual capital assessments carried out in accordance with INSPRU 7.1.15 R submitted by the firm to the FSA must:(1) in relation to the assessment comparable to a 99.5% confidence level over a one year timeframe that the value of assets exceeds the value of liabilities, document the reasoning and judgements underlying that assessment and, in particular, justify:(a) the assumptions used;(b) the appropriateness of the methodology used; and(c) the
GENPRU 2.2.91GRP
Profit and loss account and other reserves should be valued in accordance with the rules in GENPRU 1.3 (Valuation).
GENPRU 2.2.203RRP
A qualifying holding is a direct or indirect holding of a bank or building society in a non-financial undertaking which represents 10% or more of the capital or of the voting rights or which makes it possible to exercise a significant influence over the management of that undertaking.
GENPRU 2.2.215RRP
For the purpose of the definition of a material holding, holdings must be valued using the valuation method which the holder uses for its external financial reporting purposes.
GENPRU 2.2.216GRP
(1) This paragraph gives guidance on how the calculation under GENPRU 2.2.214R (1) should be carried out where an insurance undertaking is accounted for using the embedded value method.(2) On acquisition, any "goodwill" element (that is, the difference between the acquisition value according to the embedded value method and the actual investment) should be deducted from tier one capital resources.(3) The embedded value should be deducted from the total of tier one capital resources
BIPRU 5.7.3RRP
Where a firm buys credit protection through a total return swap and records the net payments received on the swap as net income, but does not record offsetting deterioration in the value of the asset that is protected (either through reductions in fair value or by an addition to reserves), the credit protection must not be recognised as eligible.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 1 point 31]
BIPRU 5.7.13RRP
For a credit derivative to be met the following conditions must also be met.(1) Subject to (2), the credit events specified under the credit derivative must at a minimum include:(a) the failure to pay the amounts due under the terms of the underlying obligation that are in effect at the time of such failure (with a grace period that is closely in line with or shorter than the grace period in the underlying obligation);(b) the bankruptcy, insolvency or inability of the obligor
BIPRU 1.2.24RRP
Systems and controls must include at least the following elements:(1) documented policies and procedures for the process of valuation (including clearly defined responsibilities of the various areas involved in the determination of the valuation, sources of market information and review of their appropriateness, frequency of independent valuation, timing of closing prices, procedures for adjusting valuations, month end and ad-hoc verification procedures); and(2) reporting lines
BIPRU 1.2.27RRP
A firm must have clearly defined policies and procedures for overall management of the trading book. At a minimum these policies and procedures must address:(1) the activities the firm considers to be trading and as constituting part of the trading book for capital requirement purposes;(2) the extent to which a position can be marked-to-market daily by reference to an active, liquid two-way market;(3) for positions that are marked-to-model, the extent to which the firm can:(a)
MCOB 2.6A.12ARRP
4A firm must ensure that any valuation for the purposes of a regulated sale and rent back agreement is carried out by a valuer who owes a duty of care to the customer in valuing the property.
MCOB 2.6A.13ERP
(1) A valuer may be considered competent if he is a suitably qualified member of a professional body.(2) A valuer may be considered independent if:(a) the customer can choose the valuer subject to the firm objecting on reasonable grounds and to the valuer being competent;(b) he owes a duty of care to the customer in valuing the property; and(c) the customer has an appropriate remedy against him under a complaints procedure which allows the complaint to be referred to an independent
FEES 4.4.1RRP
A firm (other than the Society ) must notify to the FSA the value (as at the valuation date specified in Part 3 of FEES 4 Annex 1) of each element of business on which the periodic fee payable by the firm is to be calculated.
FEES 4.4.7DRP
3An authorised payment institution, the Post Office Limited, government departments and local authorities or an EEA authorised payment institution must notify to the FSA the value (as at the valuation date specified in Part 4 of FEES 4 Annex 11) of each element of business on which the periodic fee payable by the firm is to be calculated, including any payment services carried on by its agents from an establishment in the United Kingdom.
INSPRU 1.2.10RRP
In the actuarial valuation under INSPRU 1.2.7 R, a firm must use methods and prudent assumptions which:(1) are appropriate to the business of the firm;(2) are consistent from year to year without arbitrary changes (see INSPRU 1.2.11 G);(3) are consistent with the method of valuing assets (see GENPRU 1.3);(4) include appropriate margins for adverse deviation of relevant factors (see INSPRU 1.2.12 G);(5) recognise the distribution of profits (that is, emerging surplus) in an appropriate
INSPRU 1.2.28RRP
In a prospective valuation, a firm must:(1) include in the cash flows to be valued the following:(a) future premiums (see INSPRU 1.2.35 G to INSPRU 1.2.47 G);(b) expenses, including commissions (see INSPRU 1.2.50 R to INSPRU 1.2.58 G);(c) benefits payable (see INSPRU 1.2.29 R); and(d) subject to (2), amounts to be received or paid in respect of the long-term insurance contracts under contracts of reinsurance or analogous non-reinsurance financing agreements (see INSPRU 1.2.77A
LR 13.4.5RRP
If a listed company makes significant reference to the value of a property in a class 1 circular, the class 1 circular must include a property valuation report.
BIPRU 3.2.1RRP
Subject to BIPRU 13:(1) the exposure value of an asset item must be its balance-sheet value, subject to any value adjustments required by GENPRU 1.3; and(2) the exposure value of an off-balance sheet item listed in the table in BIPRU 3.7.2 R must be the percentage of its value set out in that table.[Note: BCD Article 78(1) part]
BIPRU 11.5.17RRP
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9 must disclose the following information:(1) a description of the firm's objectives in relation to securitisation activity;(2) the roles played by the firm in the securitisation process;(3) an indication of the extent of the firm's involvement in each of them;(4) the approaches to calculating risk weighted exposure amounts that the firm follows for its securitisation activities;(5) a summary of the firm's
LR 13.6.1RRP
A related party circular must also include:(1) in all cases the following information referred to in the PD Regulation relating to the company:Paragraph of Annex 1 of the PD Regulation;(a) Annex 1 item 5.1.1 – Issuer name;(b) Annex 1 item 5.1.4 – Issuer address;(c) Annex 1 item 18.1 – Major shareholders;(d) Annex 1 item 20.9 – Significant changes;(e) Annex 1 item 22 – Material contracts (if it is information which shareholders of the company would reasonably require to make a
BIPRU 5.6.20RRP
The calculation of the potential change in value must be subject to the following minimum standards:(1) at least daily calculation of the potential change in value;(2) a 99th percentile, one-tailed confidence interval;(3) a 5-day equivalent liquidation period, except in the case of transactions other than securities repurchase transaction or securities lending or borrowing transactions where a 10-day equivalent liquidation period should be used;(4) an effective historical observation
DISP 2.7.3RRP
An eligible complainant must be a person that is:123(1) a consumer3; 3(2) a micro-enterprise3 ;3(a) 3in relation to a complaint relating wholly or partly to payment services, either at the time of the conclusion of the payment service contract or at the time the complainant refers the complaint to the respondent; or(b) otherwise, at the time the complainant refers the complaint to the respondent; (3) a charity which has an annual income of less than £1 million at the time the
COLL 6.3.6GRP

Table: This table belongs to COLL 6.3.2 G (2) (a) and COLL 6.3.3 R (Valuation)1.

Valuation and pricing

1

The valuation of scheme property

(1)

Where possible, investments should be valued using a reputable source. The reliability of the source of prices should be kept under regular review.

(2)

For some or all of the investments comprising the scheme property, different prices may quoted according to whether they are being bought (offer prices) or sold (bid prices). The valuation of a single-priced authorised fund should reflect the mid-market value of such investments. In the case of a dual-priced authorised fund, the issue basis of the valuation will be carried out by reference to the offer prices of investments and the cancellation basis by reference to the bid prices of those same investments. The prospectus should explain how investments will be valued for which a single price is quoted for both buying and selling.1

1

3(2A)

Schemes investing in approved money-market instruments5should value such instruments on an amortised cost basis on condition that:5

55

[Note:CESR's UCITS eligible assets guidelines with respect to article 4(2) of the UCITS eligible assets Directive]

(3)

Any part of the scheme property of an authorised fund that is not an investment should be valued at a fair value, but for immovables this is subject to COLL 5.6.20 R (3) (f) (Standing independent valuer and valuation).

(4)

For the purposes of (2) and (3), any fiscal charges, commissions, professional fees or other charges that were paid, or would be payable on acquiring or disposing of the investment or other part of the scheme property should, in the case of a single-priced authorised fund,2 be excluded from the value of an investment or other part of the scheme property. In the case of a dual-priced authorised fund, any such payments should be added to the issue basis of the valuation, or subtracted from the cancellation basis of the valuation, as appropriate. Alternatively, the prospectus of a dual-priced authorised fund may prescribe any other method of calculating unitprices that ensures an equivalent treatment of the effect of these payments.2

(5)

Where the authorised fund manager has reasonable grounds to believe that:

it should value an investment at a price which, in its opinion, reflects a fair and reasonable price for that investment (the fair value price);

(6)

The circumstances which may give rise to a fair value price being used include:

  • no recent trade in the security concerned; or
  • the occurrence of a significant event since the most recent closure of the market where the price of the security is taken.
In (b), a significant event is one that means the most recent price of a security or a basket of securities is materially different to the price that it is reasonably believed would exist at the valuation point had the relevant market been open.

(7)

In determining whether to use such a fair value price , the authorised fund manager should include in his consideration:

4(7A)

Where the authorised fund manager, the depositary or the standing independent valuer have reasonable grounds to believe that the most recent valuation of an immovable does not reflect the current value of that immovable, the authorised fund manager should consult and agree with the standing independent valuer a fair and reasonable value for the immovable.

(8)

The authorised fund manager should document the basis of valuation (including any fair value pricing policy) and, where appropriate, the basis of any methodology and ensure that the procedures are applied consistently and fairly.

(9)

Where a unit price is determined using properly applied fair value prices in accordance with policies in (8), subsequent information that indicates the price should have been different from that calculated will not normally give rise to an instance of incorrect pricing.

2

The pricing controls of the authorised fund manager

(1)

An authorised fund manager needs to be able to demonstrate that it has effective controls over its calculations of unit prices.

(2)

The controls referred to in (1) should ensure that:

  • asset prices are accurate and up to date;
  • investment 1transactions are accurately and promptly reflected in valuations;
  • the components of the valuation (including stock, cash, and units in issue1), are regularly reconciled to their source or prime records and any reconciling items resolved promptly and debtors reviewed for recoverability;
  • the sources of prices not obtained from the main pricing source are recorded and regularly reviewed;
  • compliance with the investment and borrowing powers is regularly reviewed;
  • dividends are accounted for as soon as securities1 are quoted ex-dividend (unless it is prudent to account for them on receipt):
  • fixed interest dividends, interest and expenses are accrued at each valuation point1;
  • tax positions are regularly reviewed and adjusted, if necessary;
  • reasonable tolerances are set for movements in the key elements of a valuation and movements outside these tolerances are investigated;5
  • the fund manager regularly reviews the portfolio valuation for accuracy5; and5
  • the valuation of OTC derivatives is accurate and up to date and in compliance with the methods agreed with the depositary.5

(3)

In exercising its pricing controls, the authorised fund manager may exercise reasonable discretion in determining the appropriate frequency of the operation of the controls and may choose a longer interval, if appropriate, given the level of activity on the authorised fund1or the materiality of any effect on the price.

(4)

Evidence of the exercise of the pricing controls should be retained.

(5)

Evidence of persistent or repetitive errors in relation to these matters, and in particular any evidence of a pattern of errors working in an authorised fund manager's favour, will make demonstrating effective controls more difficult.

(6)

Where the pricing1function is delegated to a third party, COLL 6.6.15 R (1) (Committees and delegation) will apply.

3

The depositary's review of the authorised fund manager's systems and controls

(1)

This section provides details of the types of checks a depositary should carry out to be satisfied that the authorised fund manager adopts systems and controls which are appropriate to ensure that prices of units are calculated in accordance with this section and to ensure that the likelihood of incorrect prices will be minimised. These checks also apply where an authorised fund manager has delegated all or some of its pricing1 functions to one or more third parties5.

5

(2)

A depositary should thoroughly review an authorised fund manager's systems and controls to confirm that they are satisfactory. The depositary's review should include an analysis of the controls in place to determine the extent to which reliance can be placed on them.

(3)

A review should be performed when the depositary is appointed and thereafter as it feels appropriate given its knowledge of the robustness and the stability of the systems and controls and their operation.

(4)

A review should be carried out more frequently where a depositary knows or suspects that an authorised fund manager's systems and controls are weak or are otherwise unsatisfactory.

(5)

Additionally, a depositary should from time to time review other aspects of the valuation of the scheme property of each authorised fund for which it is responsible, verifying, on a sample basis, if necessary, the assets, liabilities, accruals, units in issue1, securities prices (and in particular the prices of OTC derivatives,5unapproved securities and the basis for the valuation of unquoted securities) and any other relevant matters, for example an accumulation factor or a currency conversion factor.

(6)

A depositary should ensure that any issues, which are identified in any such review, are properly followed up and resolved.

4

The recording and reporting of instances of incorrect pricing

(1)

An authorised fund manager should record each instance where the price of a unit is incorrect as soon as the error is discovered, and report the fact to the depositary together with details of the action taken, or to be taken, to avoid repetition as soon as practicable.

(2)

In accordance with COLL 6.6.11 G (Duty to inform the FSA), the depositary should report any breach of the rules in COLL 6.3 immediately to the FSA. However, notification should relate to instances which the depositary considers material only.

(3)

A depositary should also report to the FSA immediately any instance of incorrect pricing1where the error is 0.5% or more of the price of a unit, where a depositary believes that reimbursement or payment is inappropriate and should not be paid by an authorised fund manager.

(4)

In accordance with SUP 16.6.8 R, a depositary should also make a return to the FSA on a quarterly basis which summarises the number of instances of incorrect pricing1 during a particular period.

5

The rectification of pricing breaches

(1)

COLL 6.6.3 R (1) (Functions of the authorised fund manager) places a duty on the authorised fund manager to take action to reimburse affected unitholders, former unitholders, and the scheme itself, for instances of incorrect pricing1, except if it appears to the depositary that the breach is of minimal significance.

(2)

A depositary may consider that the instance of incorrect pricing1is of minimal significance if:

(3)

In determining (2), if the instance of incorrect pricing1 is due to one or more factors or exists over a period of time, each price should be considered separately.

(4)

If a depositary deems it appropriate, it may, in spite of the circumstances outlined in (2), require a payment from the authorised fund manager or from the authorised fund to the unitholders, former unitholders, the authorised fund or the authorised fund manager (where appropriate).

(5)

The depositary should satisfy itself that any payments required following an instance of incorrect pricing1 are accurately and promptly calculated and paid.

(6)

If a depositary considers that reimbursement or payment is inappropriate, it should report the matter to the FSA, together with its recommendation and justification. The depositary should take into account the need to avoid prejudice to the rights of unitholders, or the rights of unitholders in a class of units.

(7)

It may not be practicable, or in some cases legally permissible, for the authorised fund manager to obtain reimbursement from unitholders, where the unitholders have benefited from the incorrect price.

(8)

In all cases where reimbursement or payment is required, amounts due to be reimbursed to unitholders for individual sums which are reasonably considered by the authorised fund manager and depositary to be immaterial, need not normally be paid.