Related provisions for GEN 4.5.2

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COBS 3.7.1RRP
A firm must allow a professional client or an eligible counterparty to request re-categorisation as a client that benefits from a higher degree of protection. [Note: second paragraph of article 24(2) of, and the second paragraph of section I of annex II to, MiFID and the second paragraph of article 50(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 3.7.2GRP
It is the responsibility of a professional client or eligible counterparty to ask for a higher level of protection when it deems it is unable to properly assess or manage the risks involved. [Note: third paragraph of section I and fourth paragraph of section II.2 of annex II to MiFID and second paragraph of article 50(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 3.7.4RRP
If a per se eligible counterparty requests treatment as a client whose business with the firm is subject to conduct of business protections, but does not expressly request treatment as a retail client and the firm agrees to that request, the firm must treat that eligible counterparty as a professional client. [Note: first paragraph of article 50(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 3.7.5RRP
(1) If, in relation to MiFID or equivalent third country business a per se professional client or a per se eligible counterparty requests treatment as a retail client, the client will be classified as a retail client if it enters into a written agreement with the firm to the effect that it will not be treated as a professional client or eligible counterparty for the purposes of the applicable conduct of business regime.(2) This agreement must specify the scope of the re-categorisation,
COBS 3.6.1RRP
(1) An eligible counterparty is a client that is either a per se eligible counterparty or an elective eligible counterparty.(2) A1client can only be an eligible counterparty in relation to eligible counterparty business (PRIN 1 Annex 1 R is an exception to this).1 [Note: article 24(1) of MiFID]
COBS 3.6.2RRP
Each of the following is a per se eligible counterparty (including an entity that is not from an EEA state that is equivalent to any of the following) unless and to the extent it is given a different categorisation under this chapter:(1) an investment firm;(2) a credit institution;(3) an insurance company;(4) a collective investment scheme authorised under the UCITS Directive or its management company;(5) a pension fund or its management company;(6) another financial institution
COBS 3.6.4RRP
A firm may treat a client as an elective eligible counterparty if:(1) the client is an undertaking and:(a) is a per se professional client (except for a client that is only a per se professional client because it is an institutional investor under COBS 3.5.2 R (5)) and, in relation to business other than MiFID or equivalent third country business:1(i) is a body corporate (including a limited liability partnership) which has (or any of whose holding companies or subsidiaries has)
COBS 3.6.5GRP
The categories of elective eligible counterparties include an equivalent undertaking that is not from an EEA State provided the above conditions and requirements are satisfied.
COBS 3.6.6RRP
A firm may obtain a prospective counterparty's confirmation that it agrees to be treated as an eligible counterparty either in the form of a general agreement or in respect of each individual transaction. [Note: second paragraph of article 24(3) of MiFID]
COBS 3.3.1RRP
A1firm must:(1) notify a new client of its categorisation as a retail client, professional client, or eligible counterparty in accordance with this chapter; and(2) prior to the provision of services, inform a client in a durable medium about:(a) any right that client has to request a different categorisation; and(b) any limitations to the level of client protection that such a different categorisation would entail. [Note: paragraph 2 of section I of annex II to MiFID and articles
COBS 3.3.2GRP
This chapter requires a firm to allow a client to request re-categorisation as a client that benefits from a higher degree of protection (see COBS 3.7.1 R). A firm must therefore notify a client that is categorised as a professional client or an eligible counterparty of its right to request a different categorisation whether or not the firm will agree to such requests. However, a firm need only notify a client of a right to request a different categorisation involving a lower
COBS 3.4.1RRP
A retail client is a client who is not a professional client or an eligible counterparty. [Note: article 4(1)(12) of MiFID]
COBS 3.4.2RRP
If a firm provides services relating to a CTF (except for a personal recommendation relating to a contribution to a CTF), the firm'sclient is a retail client even if it would otherwise be categorised as a professional client or an eligible counterparty under this chapter.
PRIN 1.2.2GRP
Principles 6, 8 and 9 and parts of Principle 7, as qualified by PRIN 3.4.1 R, apply only in relation to customers (that is, clients which are not eligible counterparties).4 The approach that a firm (other than for credit-related regulated activities in relation to which client categorisation does not apply)5 needs to take regarding categorisation3of clients into customers and eligible counterparties4 will depend on whether the firm is carrying on designated investment business
PRIN 1.2.3GRP
1(1) In relation to the carrying on of designated investment business, a firm's categorisation of a client under the COBS client categorisation chapter (COBS 3) will be applicable for the purposes of Principles 6, 7, 8 and 9.33(1A) Client categorisation under COBS 3 or PRIN 1 Annex 1 is not relevant to credit-related regulated activities and therefore the guidance on client categorisation does not apply in relation to a credit-related regulated activity. The definitions of client
PRIN 1.2.6GRP
If the person with or for whom the firm is carrying on an activity is acting through an agent, the ability of the firm to treat the agent as its client under COBS 2.4.3 R3 (Agent as client) will not be available. For example, if a general insurer is effecting a general insurance contract through a general insurance broker who is acting as agent for a disclosed policyholder, the policyholder will be a client of the firm and the firm must comply with the Principles accordingly.
PRIN 3.4.1RRP
Although Principle 7 refers to clients, the only requirement of Principle 7 relating to eligible counterparties3 is that a firm must communicate information to eligible counterparties3 in a way that is not misleading.33
PRIN 3.4.2RRP
For the purposes of PRIN, a firm intending to carry on, or carrying on, activities that do not involve designated investment business, may treat a client as an eligible counterparty in accordance with PRIN 1 Annex 1 R.22
INSPRU 3.2.5RRP
For the purpose of PRA Rulebook: Non-Solvency II firms: Insurance Company – Capital Resources 136 (Admissible assets in insurance), and also in relation to permitted links,1 a derivative or quasi-derivative is approved if:(1) it is held for the purpose of efficient portfolio management (INSPRU 3.2.6 R to INSPRU 3.2.7 R) or reduction of investment risk (INSPRU 3.2.8 R to INSPRU 3.2.13 G);(2) it is covered (INSPRU 3.2.14 R to INSPRU 3.2.33 G); and(3) it is effected or issued:(a)
INSPRU 3.2.35AGRP
The purpose of INSPRU 3.2.34 R and INSPRU 3.2.35 R is to ensure the appropriate application of PRA Rulebook: Non-Solvency II firms: Insurance Company – Overall Resources and Valuation,6 to derivatives and quasi-derivatives effected or issued off-market with an approved counterparty.
INSPRU 3.2.36RRP
(1) For the purposes of PRA Rulebook: Non-Solvency II firms: Insurance Company – Capital Resources 136 (Admissible assets in insurance), a stock lending transaction (including a repo transaction) 3is approved if:(a) the assets lent are admissible assets;(b) , the counterparty is an authorised person, an approved counterparty, a person registered as a broker-dealer with the Securities and Exchange Commission of the United States of America or a bank, or a branch of a bank, supervised,
GEN 4.5.2AGRP
3However, misleading statements by a firm when communicated with an eligible counterparty may involve a breach of Principle 7 (Communications with clients) or Part 7 (Offences relating to financial services) of the Financial Services Act 2012, as well as giving rise to private law actions for misrepresentation.
COBS 3.1.2GRP
This chapter relates to parts of the Handbook whose application depends on whether a person is a client, a retail client, a professional client or an eligible counterparty. However, it does not apply to the extent that another part of the Handbook provides for a different approach to client categorisation. For example, a separate approach to client categorisation is set out in the definition of a retail client for a firm that gives basic advice2.
CASS 9.4.3GRP
1A firm should provide the information required in CASS 9.4.2 R to any client for whom it holds custody assets or client money, including a retail client, a professional client and an eligible counterparty.
IPRU-INV 9.6.1RRP
(1) A firm must reconcile all balances and positions with: (a) banks and building societies (other than a client bank account subject to the client money rules), exchanges, approved exchanges, clearing houses and intermediate brokers; and (b) eligible counterparties which are members of an exchange or approved exchange as recorded by the firm to the balance or position on a statement
EG 11.2.1RP
2In deciding whether to exercise its powers to seek or require restitution under sections 382, 383 or 384 of the Act, the FCA will consider all the circumstances of the case. The factors which the FCA will consider may include, but are not limited to, those set out below. (1) Are the profits quantifiable? The FCA will consider whether quantifiable profits have been made which are owed to identifiable persons. In certain circumstances it may be difficult to prove that the conduct
COBS 11.4.2GRP
In respect of transactions executed between eligible counterparties, the obligation to disclose clientlimit orders should only apply where the counterparty is explicitly sending a limit order to a firm for its execution. [Note: recital 42 to MiFID]
EG 11.1.4RP
1Instances in which the FCA might consider using its powers to obtain restitution for eligible counterparties are likely to be very limited.
PRIN 4.1.4GRP
(1) Certain requirements under MiFID are disapplied for:(a) eligible counterparty business;(b) transactions concluded under the rules governing a multilateral trading facility between its members or participants or between the multilateral trading facility and its members or participants in relation to the use of the multilateral trading facility;(c) transactions concluded on a regulated market between its members or participants.(2) Under PRIN 3.1.6 R, these disapplications may
SYSC 10.1.2GRP
The requirements in this section only apply where a service is provided by a firm. The status of the client to whom the service is provided (as a retail client, professional client or eligible counterparty) is irrelevant for this purpose.3[Note:recital 25 of MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 4.12.4RRP
  1. (1)

    3The restriction in COBS 4.12.3 R does not apply if the promotion falls within an exemption in the table in (5) below.

  2. (2)

    A firm may communicate an invitation or inducement to participate in an unregulated collective investment scheme without breaching the restriction on promotion in section 238 of the Act if the promotion falls within an exemption in the table in (5) below.

  3. (3)

    Where the middle column in the table in (5) refers to promotion to a category of person, this means that the invitation or inducement:

    1. (a)

      is made only to recipients who the firm has taken reasonable steps to establish are persons in that category; or

    2. (b)

      is directed at recipients in a way that may reasonably be regarded as designed to reduce, so far as possible, the risk of participation in, acquisition or underwriting of the non-mainstream pooled investment by persons who are not in that category.

  4. (4)

    A firm may rely on more than one exemption in relation to the same invitation or inducement.

  5. (5)

    Title of Exemption

    Promotion to:

    Promotion of a non-mainstream pooled investment which is:

    1. Replacement products and rights issues

    A person who already participates in, owns, holds rights to or interests in, a non-mainstream pooled investment that is being liquidated or wound down or which is undergoing a rights issue. [See Note 1.]

    1. A non-mainstream pooled investment which is intended by the operator or manager to absorb or take over the assets of that non-mainstream pooled investment, or which is being offered by the operator or manager of that non-mainstream pooled investment as an alternative to cash on its liquidation;

    or

    2. Securities offered by the existing non-mainstream pooled investment as part of a rights issue.

    2. Certified high net worth investors

    An individual6 who meets the requirements set out in COBS 4.12.6 R, or a person (or persons) legally empowered to make investment decisions on behalf of such individual6.

    Any non-mainstream pooled investment the firm considers is likely to be suitable for that individual6, based on a preliminary assessment of the client's profile and objectives.

    [See COBS 4.12.5G (2).]

    3. Enterprise and charitable funds

    A person who is eligible to participate or invest in an arrangement constituted under:

    (1) the Church Funds Investment Measure 1958;

    (2) section 96 5or 100 of the Charities Act 2011;

    (3) section 25 of the Charities Act (Northern Ireland) 1964;

    (4) the Regulation on European Venture Capital Funds (‘EuVECAs’); or

    (5) the Regulation on European Social Entrepreneurship Funds (‘EuSEFs’).

    Any non-mainstream pooled investment which is such an arrangement.

    4. Eligible employees

    An eligible employee, that is, a person who is:

    (1) an officer;

    (2) an employee;

    (3) a former officer or employee; or

    (4) a member of the immediate family of any of (1) - (3), of an employer which is (or is in the same group as) the firm, or which has accepted responsibility for the activities of the firm in carrying out the designated investment business in question.

    1. A non-mainstream pooled investment, the instrument constituting which:

    A. restricts the property of the non-mainstream pooled investment, apart from cash and near cash, to:

    (1) (where the employer is a company) shares in and debentures of the company or any other connected company; [See Note 2.]

    (2) (in any case), any property, provided that the non-mainstream pooled investment takes the form of:

    (i) a limited partnership, under the terms of which the employer (or connected company) will be the unlimited partner and the eligible employees will be some or all of the limited partners; or

    (ii) a trust which the firm reasonably believes not to contain any risk that any eligible employee may be liable to make any further payments (other than charges) for investment transactions earlier entered into, which the eligible employee was not aware of at the time he entered into them; and

    B. (in a case falling within A(1) above) restricts participation in the non-mainstream pooled investment to eligible employees, the employer and any connected company.

    2. Any non-mainstream pooled investment, provided that the participation of eligible employees is to facilitate their co-investment:

    (i) with one or more companies in the same group as their employer (which may include the employer); or

    (ii) with one or more clients of such a company.

    5. Members of the Society of Lloyd’s

    A person admitted to membership of the Society of Lloyd's or any person by law entitled or bound to administer his affairs.

    A scheme in the form of a limited partnership which is established for the sole purpose of underwriting insurance business at Lloyd's.

    6. Exempt persons

    An exempt person (other than a person exempted only by section 39 of the Act (Exemption of appointed representatives)) if the financial promotion relates to a regulated activity in respect of which the person is exempt from the general prohibition.

    Any non-mainstream pooled investment.

    7. Non-retail clients

    An eligible counterparty or a professional client.

    Any non-mainstream pooled investment in relation to which the client is categorised as a professional client or eligible counterparty.

    [See Note 4.]

    8. Certified sophisticated investors

    An individual6 who meets the requirements set out in COBS 4.12.7 R, including an individual who is legally empowered (solely or jointly with others) to make investment decisions on behalf of another person who is the firm'sclient6.

    Any non-mainstream pooled investment.

    9. Self-certified sophisticated investors

    An individual6 who meets the requirements set out in COBS 4.12.8 R, including an individual who is legally empowered (solely or jointly with others) to make investment decisions on behalf of another person who is the firm'sclient6.

    Any non-mainstream pooled investment the firm considers is likely to be suitable for that client, based on a preliminary assessment of the client's profile and objectives.

    [See COBS 4.12.5G (2)]

    10. Solicited advice

    Any person.

    Any non-mainstream pooled investment, provided the communication meets all of the following requirements:

    (a) the communication only amounts to a financial promotion because it is a personal recommendation on a non-mainstream pooled investment;

    (b) the personal recommendation is made following a specific request by that client for advice on the merits of investing in the non-mainstream pooled investment; and

    (c) the client has not previously received a financial promotion or any other communication from the firm (or from a person connected to the firm) which is intended to influence the client in relation to that non-mainstream pooled investment. [See Note 3.]

    11. Excluded communications

    Any person.

    Any non-mainstream pooled investment, provided the financial promotion is an excluded communication.

    [See COBS 4.12.12 G and COBS 4.12.13 G.]

    12. Non-recognised UCITS

    Any person.

    Any EEA UCITS scheme which is not a recognised scheme, provided the following requirements are met:

    (1) the firm considers it is likely to be suitable for that client based on a preliminary assessment of the client's profile and objectives; and

    (2) the firm provides that client with the same product information as it would be required to provide by COBS 14.2 if the scheme was a recognised scheme.

    [See COBS 4.12.5G (2).]

    13. US persons

    A person who is classified as a United States person for tax purposes under United States legislation or who owns a US qualified retirement plan.

    Any investment company registered and operated in the United States under the Investment Company Act 1940.

    The following Notes explain certain words and phrases used in the table above.

    Note 1

    Promotion of non-mainstream pooled investments to a category of person includes any nominee company acting for such a person.

    Note 2

    A company is 'connected' with another company if:

    • they are both in the same group; or
    • one company is entitled, either alone or with another company in the same group, to exercise or control the exercise of a majority of the voting rights attributable to the share capital, which are exercisable in all circumstances at any general meeting of the other company or of its holding company.

    Note 3

    A person is connected with a firm if it acts as an introducer or appointed representative for that firm or if it is any other person, regardless of authorisation status, who has a relevant business relationship with the firm.

    Note 4

    In deciding whether a promotion is permitted under the rules of this section or under section 238 of the Act, firms may use the client categorisation regime that applies to business other than MiFID or equivalent third country business. (This is the case even if the firm will be carrying on a MiFID activity at the same time as or following the promotion.)

COBS 11.8.8RRP
For the purposes of COBS 11.8.5 R and COBS 11.8.5A R2 a relevant conversation or communication is any one of the following:(1) a conversation or communication between an employee or contractor of the firm with a client, or when acting on behalf of a client, with another person, which concludes an agreement by the firm to carry out the activities referred to in COBS 11.8.1 R as principal or as agent;(2) a conversation or communication between an employee or contractor of the firm
COBS 4.10.6GRP
For example, if a firmapproves a financial promotion for communication to a professional client or an eligible counterparty, the approval must be limited to communication to such persons.
COBS 2.4.2GRP
This section is not relevant to the question of who is the firm's counterparty for prudential purposes and it does not 2affect any obligation a firm may owe to any other person under the general law.