Related provisions for EG 3.7.3

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EG 19.5.1RP
1RIPA provides methods of surveillance and information gathering to help the FCA in the prevention and detection of crime. RIPA ensures that, where these methods are used, an individual's rights to privacy under Article 8 of the European Convention of Human Rights are considered and protected.
EG 19.5.2RP
1Under RIPA the FCA is able to: acquire data relating to communications;carry out covert surveillance;make use of covert human intelligence sources (CHIS); andaccess electronic data protected by encryption or passwords.
EG 19.5.3RP
1The FCA is not able to obtain warrants to intercept communications during the course of transmission.
EG 19.5.4RP
1The FCA is only able to exercise powers available to it under Parts I and II of RIPA where it is necessary for the purpose of preventing or detecting crime. All RIPA authorisations for the acquisition of communications data, the carrying out of directed surveillance and the use of CHIS must be approved by a Head of Department in the Enforcement Division. Authorisation will only be given where the authorising officer believes that the proposed action is necessary and proportionate
EG 19.5.5RP
1Under Part III RIPA the FCA is able to require a person who holds “protected” electronic information (that is, information which is encrypted) to put that information into an intelligible form and, where the person has a key to the encrypted information, to require the person to disclose the key so that the data may be put into an intelligible form. The FCA may impose such a requirement where it is necessary for the purpose of preventing or detecting crime or where it is necessary
EG 3.7.2RP
1If the overseas regulator is a competent authority and makes a request in pursuance of any Community obligation, section 169(3) states that the FCA must, in deciding whether or not to exercise its investigative power, consider whether the exercise of that power is necessary to comply with that obligation.
EG 3.7.4RP
1When it considers whether to use its investigative power, and whether section 169(4) applies, the FCA will first consider whether it is able to assist without using its formal powers, for example by obtaining the information voluntarily. Where that is not possible, the FCA may take into account all of the factors in section 169(4), but may give particular weight to the seriousness of the case and its importance to persons in the United Kingdom, and to the public interest.
DEPP 7.2.1GRP
Under section 169(1)(b) and section 131FA2 of the Act, the FCA3 may appoint an investigator to investigate any matter at the request of an overseas regulator or EEA regulator2. The powers of the investigator appointed by the FCA3 (referred to here as the 'FCA's3 investigator') include the power to require persons to attend at a specified time and place and answer questions (the compulsory interview power).333
DEPP 7.2.4GRP
The FCA's3 policy on how it will use its investigative powers, including its power to appoint investigators, in support of overseas regulators and EEA regulators2, is set out in the FCA's3 Enforcement Guide (EG).33
EG 4.11.1RP
1Paragraph 4.7.1 explains the FCA's approach to the use of its statutory powers to require, amongst other matters, individuals to be interviewed. The type of interview is a decision for the FCA.
EG 4.11.6RP
1If a suspect has been interviewed by the FCA using statutory powers, before they are re-interviewed on a voluntary basis (under caution or otherwise), the FCA will explain the difference between the two types of interview. The FCA will also tell the individual about the limited use that can be made of their previous answers in criminal proceedings or in proceedings in which the FCA seeks a penalty for market abuse under Part VIII of the Act.
SUP 5.3.7GRP
The FCA5 will have regard to the objectives of its enquiries, and the relative effectiveness of its available powers to achieve those objectives. For example:66(1) historic information or evidence: if the objectives are limited to gathering historic information, or evidence for determining whether enforcement action may be appropriate, the FCA's5 information gathering and investigation powers under sections 165 (Power to require information), 167 (Appointment of investigator
SUP 5.3.8GRP
In accordance with its general policy the FCA5 will have regard to the question of cost, which is particularly pertinent in relation to skilled persons because:66(1) if the FCA5 uses the section 166 power (Reports by skilled persons) or the section 166A power (Appointment of skilled person to collect and update information), either 6the firm will appoint, and will have to pay for the services of, the skilled person, or the FCA5 will appoint, and will require under FEES 3.2.7
SUP 2.2.3GRP
The FCA1 would not normally seek to gather information using the methods described in SUP 2.3 or SUP 2.4 in a situation where the FCA1 could not have obtained it under the powers in Part XI of the Act (Information Gathering and Investigations). In particular, the limitations in the following sections of the Act are relevant to this chapter:11(1) section 175(5) (Information and documents: supplementary powers) under which no person may be required under Part XI of the Act (Information
EG 1.1.1RP
3This guide describes the FCA's approach to exercising the main enforcement powers given to it by the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (the Act) and by other legislation. It is broken down into two parts. The first part provides an overview of enforcement policy and process, with chapters about the FCA's approach to enforcement (chapter 2), the use of its main information gathering and investigation powers under the Act and the CRA (chapter 3), the conduct of investigations
EG 1.1.2RP
3In the areas set out below, the Act expressly requires the FCA to prepare and publish statements of policy or procedure on the exercise of its enforcement and investigation powers and in relation to the giving of statutory notices. (1) section 63C requires the FCA to publish a statement of its policy on the imposition, and amount, of financial penalties on persons that perform a controlled function without approval; (1-A) 1section 63ZD requires the FCA, among other things, to
EG 1.1.3RP
3This guide includes material on the investigation, disciplinary and criminal prosecution powers that are available to the FCA when it is performing functions as the competent authority under Part VI of the Act (Official listing). The Act provides a separate statutory framework within which the FCA must operate when it acts in that capacity. When determining whether to exercise its powers in its capacity as competent authority under Part VI, the FCA will have regard to the matters
EG 2.4.1RP
1Where this poses a significant risk to the consumer protection objective or to the FCA's other regulatory objectives, unauthorised activity will be a matter of serious concern for the FCA. The FCA deals with cases of suspected unauthorised activity in a number of ways and it will not use its investigation powers and/or take enforcement action in every single instance.
EG 2.4.2RP
1The FCA's primary aim in using its investigation and enforcement powers in the context of suspected unauthorised activities is to protect the interests of consumers. The FCA's priority will be to confirm whether or not a regulated activity has been carried on in the United Kingdom by someone without authorisation or exemption, and, if so, the extent of that activity and whether other related contraventions have occurred. It will seek to assess the risk to consumers' assets and
EG 19.18.1RP
1The FCA has investigation and sanctioning powers in relation to both criminal and civil breaches of the Counter Terrorism Act 2008 (“the Counter Terrorism Act”). The Counter Terrorism Act allows the Treasury to issue directions imposing requirements on relevant persons in relation to transactions or business relationships with designated persons of a particular country. Relevant persons may be required to take the following action: apply enhanced customer due diligence measures;apply
EG 19.18.3RP
1The investigation and sanctioning powers given to the FCA by the Counter Terrorism Act are similar to those given to the FCA by the Money Laundering Regulations. The FCA's approach to using its powers under the Counter Terrorism Act will be consistent with its approach to using its powers under the Money Laundering Regulations, described in paragraphs 19.15.1 to 19.15.7 above.
EG 19.10.7RP
1The FCA’s investigative powers in support of its Enterprise Act enforcement powers are set out in Schedule 5 to the CRA. The FCA can, under Schedule 5, require any person to provide it with information which will enable it to (i) exercise or consider exercising its functions as an enforcer; or (ii) determine whether a person is complying with an enforcement order, an interim enforcement order or an undertaking given as described below. If the FCA requires a person to provide
EG 19.10.21RP
1POCA also contains various powers of investigation which the FCA may use in specified circumstances. However, where these powers overlap with powers under the Act, the FCA will in most cases consider it more appropriate to rely on its investigation powers under the Act.
EG 19.14.4RP
1This means that there will be situations in which the FCA has powers to investigate and take action under both the Act and the Money Laundering Regulations. The FCA will consider all the circumstances of the case when deciding what action to take and, if it is appropriate to notify the subject about the investigation, will in doing so inform them about the basis upon which the investigation is being conducted and what powers it is using. The FCA will adopt the approach outlined
EG 19.14.5RP
1The Money Laundering Regulations also provide investigation powers that the FCA can use when investigating whether breaches2 have taken place. These powers include: • the power to require information from, and attendance of, relevant persons, payment service providers2and connected persons (regulation 662); and• powers of entry and inspection without or under warrant (regulations 69 and 702).The use of these powers will be limited to those cases in which the FCA is exercising
EG 19.35.1RP
1The DRS Regulations implement MiFID. The FCA has investigation and enforcement powers in relation to both criminal and non-criminal breaches of the DRS Regulations (including requirements imposed on persons subject to the DRS Regulations by MiFIR and any directly applicable EU regulation made under MiFIR or MiFID). The DRS Regulations impose requirements on data reporting services providers (“DRSPs”) which are entities authorised or verified to provide services of:(1) publishing
EG 19.20.1RP
1The FCA has investigation and sanctioning powers in relation to both criminal and civil breaches of the Payment Services Regulations. The Payment Services Regulations impose requirements including, amongst other things, obligations on payment service providers to provide users with a range of information and various provisions regulating the rights and obligations of payment service users and providers.
EG 19.20.5RP
1The Payment Services Regulations, for the most part, mirror the FCA's investigative, sanctioning and regulatory powers under the Act. The FCA has decided to adopt procedures and policies in relation to the use of those powers akin to those it has under the Act. Key features of the FCA's approach are described below.
EG 3.3.2RP
1The factors the FCA will consider when deciding whether to use the section 166 power include: (1) If the FCA's objectives for making further enquiries are predominantly for the purposes of fact finding i.e. gathering historic information or evidence for determining whether enforcement action may be appropriate, the FCA's information gathering and investigation powers under sections 167 and 168 of the Act are likely to be more effective and more appropriate than the power under
EG 19.23.1RP
1The FCA has investigation and sanctioning powers in relation to both criminal and civil breaches of the Electronic Money Regulations. The Electronic Money Regulations impose requirements including, amongst other things, various provisions regulating the rights and obligations of electronic money institutions.
EG 3.8.4RP
1Section 131FA states that the FCA must, in deciding whether or not to exercise its investigative power, consider whether the exercise of that power is necessary to comply with an obligation under the short selling regulation.
EG App 3.1.3RP
3Under the 2000 Act the FCA has powers to investigate concerns including: regulatory concerns about authorised firms and individuals employed by them;suspected contraventions of the Market Abuse Regulation or any directly applicable EU regulation made under the Market Abuse Regulation or for contraventions of the auction regulation2;2[Note: see Regulation 6 and Schedule 1 to the RAP Regulations for powers in relation to contraventions of the auction regulation]suspected misleading
EG App 3.2.1RP
1The Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills exercises concurrently with the FCA those powers and functions marked with an asterisk in App 3.1.3 above. The investigation functions are undertaken by Companies Investigation Branch (CIB) and the prosecution functions by the Legal Services Directorate.