Related provisions for DISP 1.6.7
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633This chapter contains rules and guidance on how respondents should deal promptly and fairly with complaints in respect of business carried on from establishments in the United Kingdom,11 by certain branches of firms in the EEA or by certain EEA firms carrying out activities in the United Kingdom under the freedom to provide cross border services.11 It is also relevant to those who may wish to make a complaint or refer it to the Financial Ombudsman Service.
(1) Subject to DISP 1.1.5 R, this15 chapter applies to a firm in respect of complaints from eligible complainants concerning activities carried on from an establishment maintained by it or its appointed representative in the United Kingdom.15(2) For complaints relating to the MiFID business of a firm, the complaints handling rules and the complaints record rule:(a) apply to complaints from retail clients and do not apply to complaints from eligible complainants who are not retail
10The scope of this sourcebook does not include:(1) a complaint about pre-commencement investment business which was regulated by a recognised professional body (those complaints will be handled under the arrangements of that professional body); or(2) a complaint about the administration of an occupational pension scheme, because this is not a regulated activity (firms should refer complainants to the Pensions Advisory Service rather than to the Financial Ombudsman Service).
8This chapter (except the complaints record rule,9 the complaints reporting rules and the complaints data publication rules9) applies to payment service providers in respect of complaints from eligible complainants concerning activities carried on from an establishment maintained by it or its agent in the United Kingdom.9
1335This chapter (except the complaints record rule, the complaints reporting rules, and the complaints data publication rules) applies to electronic money issuers in respect of complaints from eligible complainants concerning activities carried on from an establishment maintained by it or its agent in the United Kingdom.
11For complaints related to collective portfolio management services of a UK UCITS management company for a UCITS scheme or an EEA UCITS scheme, DISP 1.1.3R (1) applies, except where modified as follows:(1) the consumer awareness rules, complaints handling rules and complaints record rule apply in respect of complaints from Unitholders rather than from eligible complainants; and(2) the consumer awareness rules, the complaints handling rules and the complaints record rule, as modified
For complaints related to collective portfolio management services of an EEA UCITS management company for a UCITS scheme, DISP 1.1.3R (1) applies, except where modified as follows:(1) where the services are provided from a branch in the United Kingdom, the consumer awareness rules, complaints handling rules and complaints record rule apply in respect of complaints from Unitholders rather than from eligible complainants; and(2) this chapter, except the consumer awareness rules,
Where the subject matter of a complaint is subject to a review directly or indirectly under the terms of the policy statement for the review of specific categories of FSAVC business issued by the FSA on 28 February 2000, the complaints resolution rules, the complaints time limit rules, the complaints record rule,9 the complaints reporting rules and the complaints data publication rules9 will apply only if the complaint is about the outcome of the review.9
(1) A firm, payment service provider8 or electronic money issuer1335 falling within the Compulsory Jurisdiction which does not conduct business with eligible complainants and has no reasonable likelihood of doing so, can, by written notification to the FSA , claim exemption from the rules relating to the funding of the Financial Ombudsman Service, and from the remainder of this chapter.1335(2) Notwithstanding (1):11(a) the complaints handling rules and complaints record rule
(1) This chapter does not prevent:(a) the use by a respondent of a third party administrator to handle or resolve complaints (or both); or(b) two or more respondents arranging a one-stop shop for handling or resolving complaints (or both) under a service level agreement.(2) These arrangements do not affect respondents' obligations as set out in DISP or the provisions relating to outsourcing by a firm set out in SYSC 8 and SYSC 13.
1The deadlines for publication of the Society's complaints data summaries are:(1) 28 February for the summary of its report relating to the reporting period ending on 31 December of the previous year; and(2) 31 August for the summary of its report relating to the reporting period ending on 30 June of the same year.
1The Society may choose how it publishes the complaints data summary. However, the complaints data summary should be readily available. For this reason, the FSA recommends that the Society publishes the summary on its website. The Society may publish further information with the complaints data summary to aid understanding.
Members will individually comply with this chapter if and only if all complaints by policyholders against members are dealt with under the Lloyd's complaints procedures. Accordingly, certain of the obligations under this chapter, for example the obligation to report on complaints received and the obligation to pay fees under the rules relating to the funding of the Financial Ombudsman Service (FEES 5), must be complied with by the Society on behalf of members. Managing agents
An individual member or former member who was an individual member should not have access to the schemes referred to in DISP 1.11.13 R unless the complaints arrangements maintained by the Society have failed to resolve the complaint to his satisfaction within eight weeks of receiving it.
On receipt of a complaint, a respondent must:(1) send the complainant a prompt written acknowledgement providing early reassurance that it has received the complaint and is dealing with it; and(2) ensure the complainant is kept informed thereafter of the progress of the measures being taken for the complaint's resolution.
The respondent must, by the end of eight weeks after its receipt of the complaint, send the complainant:(1) a 'final response', being a written response from the respondent which:3939(a) accepts the complaint and, where appropriate, offers redress or remedial action; or(b) offers redress or remedial action without accepting the complaint; or(c) rejects the complaint and gives reasons for doing so;and which:(d) encloses a copy of the Financial Ombudsman Service's standard explanatory
DISP 1.6.2 R does not apply if the complainant has already indicated in writing acceptance of a response by the respondent, provided that the response:28(1) informed the complainant how to pursue his complaint with the respondent if he remains dissatisfied; 28(2) referred to the ultimate availability of the Financial Ombudsman Service if he remains dissatisfied with the respondent's response;28
7The Ombudsman can consider a complaint under the Compulsory Jurisdiction if it relates to an act or omission by a firm in carrying on one or more of the following activities:(1) regulated activities (other than auction regulation bidding);10(1A) payment services;7(2) consumer credit activities;(3) lending money secured by a charge on land;(4) lending money (excluding restricted credit where that is not a consumer credit activity );(5) paying money by a plastic card (excluding
The Ombudsman can also consider under the Compulsory Jurisdiction:625625(1) as a result of the Ombudsman Transitional Order, a relevant existing complaint or a relevant new complaint that relates to an act or omission by a firm or an unauthorised person which was subject to a former scheme immediately before commencement; or(2) as a result of the Mortgages and General Insurance Complaints Transitional Order, a relevant transitional complaint that relates to an act or omission
7The Ombudsman can consider a complaint under the Compulsory Jurisdiction if it relates to an act or omission by a payment service provider in carrying on:(1) payment services; or(2) consumer credit activities;or any ancillary activities, including advice, carried on by the payment service provider in connection with them.
926The Ombudsman can consider a complaint under the Compulsory Jurisdiction if it relates to an act or omission by an electronic money issuer in carrying on:(1) issuance of electronic money; or(2) consumer credit activities;or any ancillary activities, including advice, carried on by the electronic money issuer in connection with them.
8As a result of section 404B(11) of the Act, the Ombudsman can also consider under the Compulsory Jurisdiction a complaint from a complainant who:(1) is not satisfied with a redress determination made by a respondent under a consumer redress scheme; or(2) considers that a respondent has failed to make a redress determination in accordance with a consumer redress scheme.
Complaints about acts or omissions include those7 in respect of activities for which the firm,926payment service provider7 or electronic money issuer926 is responsible (including business of any appointed representative or agent7 for which the firm,926payment institution7 or electronic money institution926 has accepted responsibility).62577
7The Compulsory Jurisdiction includes complaints about the UK end of 'one leg' payment services transactions, i.e. services provided from UK establishments that also involve a payment service provider located outside the EEA. The Compulsory Jurisdiction also includes complaints about payment services irrespective of the currency of the transaction.
Where a complaint is determined in favour of the complainant, the Ombudsman's determination may include one or more of the following:16(1) a money award against the respondent; or1616(2) an interest award against the respondent; or1616(3) a costs award against the respondent; or1616(4) a direction to the respondent.16
Except in relation to a complaint the subject matter of which falls to be dealt with (or has properly been dealt with) under a consumer redress scheme, a8 money award may be such amount as the Ombudsman considers to be fair compensation for one or more of the following:8(1) financial loss (including consequential or prospective loss); or(2) pain and suffering; or(3) damage to reputation; or(4) distress or inconvenience;whether or not a court would award compensation.16
8In relation to a complaint the subject matter of which falls to be dealt with (or has properly been dealt with) under a consumer redress scheme, a money award is a payment of such amount as the Ombudsman determines that a respondent should make (or should have made) to a complainant under the scheme.
16Where the Ombudsman is determining what amount (if any) constitutes fair compensation as a money award in relation to a relevant new complaint or a relevant transitional complaint, the Ombudsman Transitional Order and the Mortgages and General Insurance Complaints Transitional Order require him to take into account what amount (if any) might have been expected to be awarded by way of compensation in relation to an equivalent complaint dealt with under the former scheme in question
16If the Ombudsman considers that fair compensation requires payment of a larger amount, he may recommend that the respondent pays the complainant the balance. The effect of section 404B(6) of the Act is that this is also the case in relation to a complaint the subject matter of which falls to be dealt with (or has properly been dealt with) under a consumer redress scheme.8
16 Except in relation to a complaint the subject matter of which falls to be dealt with (or has properly been dealt with) under a consumer redress scheme, an8 interest award may provide for the amount payable under the money award to bear interest at a rate and as from a date specified in the award.8
16 Except in relation to a complaint the subject matter of which falls to be dealt with (or has properly been dealt with) under a consumer redress scheme, a8 direction may require the respondent8 to take such steps in relation to the complainant as the Ombudsman considers just and appropriate (whether or not a court could order those steps to be taken).88
8In relation to a complaint the subject matter of which falls to be dealt with (or has properly been dealt with) under a consumer redress scheme, a direction may require the respondent to take such action as the Ombudsman determines the respondent should take (or should have taken) under the scheme.
(1) Where the firm's relevant reporting period (as defined in DISP 1.10.4 R) ends between 1 January and 30 June, the firm must publish the complaints data summary no later than 31 August of the same year.(2) Where the firm's relevant reporting period (as defined in DISP 1.10.4 R) ends between 1 July and 31 December, the firm must publish the complaints data summary no later than 28 February of the following year.
The following rules do not apply to a complaint that is resolved by a respondent by close of business on the business day following its receipt:(1) the complaints time limit rules; (2) the complaints forwarding rules; (3) the complaints reporting rules;6(4) the complaints record rule, if the complaint does not relate to MiFID business or collective portfolio management services for a UCITS scheme or an EEA UCITS scheme7; and6(5) the complaints data publication rules.6
Recognised bodies may receive complaints from time to time from their members and other people, both about the conduct of members and about the recognised body itself. A UK recognised body will need to have satisfactory arrangements to investigate these complaints in order to satisfy the relevant recognition requirements (see REC 2.15 and REC 2.16) or RAP recognition requirements (see REC 2A.3.2 G).1
The Act does not provide a mechanism for appeals to the FSA from decisions by recognised bodies in relation to complaints. However, the FSA is required by section 299 of the Act (Complaints about recognised bodies) to have arrangements to investigate complaints (called relevant complaints in the Act) which it considers relevant to the question of whether a recognised body should remain recognised as such. This section describes aspects of the FSA's arrangements for investigating
Where the FSA receives a complaint about a recognised body, it will, in the first instance, seek to establish whether the complainant has approached the recognised body. Where this is not the case, the FSA will ask the complainant to complain to the recognised body. Where the complainant is dissatisfied with the handling of the complaint, but has not exhausted the recognised body's own internal complaints procedures (in the case of a complaint against a UK recognised body, including
When it is considering a relevant complaint, the FSA will make its own enquiries as appropriate with the recognised body, the complainant and other persons. It will usually ask the recognised body and the complainant to comment upon any preliminary or draft conclusions of its review and to confirm any matters of fact at that stage.
A credit union must provide the FSA, once a year, with a report in the format set out in CREDS 9 Annex 1 R (Credit Union complaints return) which contains (for the relevant reporting period) information about:(1) the total number of complaints received by the credit union;(2) the number of complaints closed by the credit union:(a) within eight weeks of receipt; and(b) more than eight weeks after receipt;(3) the total number of complaints:(a) upheld by the credit union in the reporting
For the purposes of CREDS 9.2.4 R:(1) a complaint received on any day other than a business day, or after close of business on a business day, may be treated as received on the next business day; and(2) a complaint is resolved where the complainant has indicated acceptance of a response from the credit union, with neither the response nor acceptance having to be in writing.
For the purpose of CREDS 9.2.1 R, and upon completing the return, the credit union should note that:(1) where a complaint could fall into more than one category, the complaint should be recorded against the category that the credit union considers to form the main part of the complaint;(2) where a complaint has been upheld under CREDS 9.2.1R (3)(a), a credit union should report any complaints to which it has given a final response which accepts the complaint and, where appropriate,
Where a complaint is made, the firm should assess the complaint fairly, giving appropriate weight and balanced consideration to all available evidence, including what the complainant says and other information about the sale that the firm identifies. The firm is not expected automatically to assume that there has been a breach or failing.
The firm should recognise that oral evidence may be sufficient evidence and not dismiss evidence from the complainant solely because it is not supported by documentary proof. The firm should take account of a complainant's limited ability fully to articulate his complaint or to explain his actions or decisions made at the time of the sale.
Where the complainant's account of events conflicts with the firm's own records or leaves doubt, the firm should assess the reliability of the complainant's account fairly and in good faith. The firm should make all reasonable efforts (including by contact with the complainant where necessary) to clarify ambiguous issues or conflicts of evidence before making any finding against the complainant.
In determining a particular complaint, the firm should (unless there are reasons not to because of the quality and plausibility of the respective evidence) give more weight to any specific evidence of what happened during the sale (including any relevant documentation and oral testimony) than to general evidence of selling practices at the time (such as training, instructions or sales scripts or relevant audit or compliance reports on those practices).
The firm should not assume that because it was not authorised to give advice (or because it intended to sell without making a recommendation) it did not in fact give advice in a particular sale. The firm should consider the available evidence and assess whether or not it gave advice or made a recommendation (explicitly or implicitly) to the complainant.
19The Ombudsman can only consider a complaint if:(1) the respondent has already sent the complainant its final response ; or(2) eight weeks have elapsed since the respondent received the complaint; or3(3) in relation to a complaint the subject matter of which falls to be dealt with (or has properly been dealt with) under a consumer redress scheme:3(a) the respondent has already sent the complainant its redress determination under the scheme; or3(b) the respondent has failed to
19The Ombudsman cannot consider a complaint if the complainant refers it to the Financial Ombudsman Service:(1) more than six months after the date on which the respondent sent the complainant its final response or redress determination or summary resolution communication; or3(2) more than: (a) six years after the event complained of; or (if later)(b) three years from the date on which the complainant became aware (or ought reasonably to have become aware) that he had cause for
19The six-year and the three-year time limits do not apply where:(1) [deleted]33(2) the complaint concerns a contract or policy which is the subject of a review directly or indirectly under:(a) the terms of the Statement of Policy on 'Pension transfers and Opt-outs' issued by the FSA on 25 October 1994; or(b) the terms of the policy statement for the review of specific categories of FSAVC business issued by the FSA on 28 February 2000.
A complaint may be brought on behalf of an eligible complainant (or a deceased person who would have been an eligible complainant) by a person authorised by the eligible complainant or authorised by law. It is immaterial whether the person authorised to act on behalf of an eligible complainant is himself an eligible complainant.122
An eligible complainant must be a person that is:122(1) a consumer3; 3(2) a micro-enterprise3 ;3(a) 3in relation to a complaint relating wholly or partly to payment services, either at the time of the conclusion of the payment service contract or at the time the complainant refers the complaint to the respondent; or(b) otherwise, at the time the complainant refers the complaint to the respondent; (3) a charity which has an annual income of less than £1 million at the time the
If a respondent is in doubt about the eligibility of a business, charity or trust, it should treat the complainant as if it were eligible. If the complaint is referred to the Financial Ombudsman Service, the Ombudsman will determine eligibility by reference to appropriate evidence, such as audited accounts or VAT returns.122
To be an eligible complainant a person must also have a complaint which arises from matters relevant to one or more of the following relationships with the respondent:122(1) the complainant is (or was) a customer,624payment service user3 or electronic money holder624 of the respondent;(2) the complainant is (or was) a potential customer,624payment service user3 or electronic money holder624 of the respondent;(3) the complainant is the holder, or the beneficial owner, of units
122In the Compulsory Jurisdiction, under the Ombudsman Transitional Order and the Mortgages and General Insurance Complaints Transitional Order, where a complainant:(1) wishes to have a relevant new complaint or a relevant transitional complaint dealt with by the Ombudsman; and(2) is not otherwise eligible; but(3) would have been entitled to refer an equivalent complaint to the former scheme in question immediately before the relevant transitional order came into effect;if the
122The following are not eligible complainants:(1) (in all jurisdictions) a firm, payment service provider,3electronic money issuer, 624licensee or VJ participant whose complaint relates in any way to an activity which:(a) the firm itself has permission to carry on; or(ab) 3the firm,624payment service provider or electronic money issuer624 itself is entitled to carry on under the Payment Services Regulations or the Electronic Money Regulations ; or624624(b) the licensee or
122In the Compulsory Jurisdiction, in relation to relevant new complaints under the Ombudsman Transitional Order and relevant transitional complaints under the Mortgages and General Insurance Complaints Transitional Order:(1) where the former scheme in question is the Insurance Ombudsman Scheme, a complainant is not to be treated as an eligible complainant unless:(a) he is an individual; and(b) the relevant new complaint does not concern aspects of a policy relating to a business
The firm should seek to establish the true substance of the complaint, rather than taking a narrow interpretation of the issues raised, and should not focus solely on the specific expression of the complaint. This is likely to require an approach to complaint handling that seeks to clarify the nature of the complaint.
Where a complaint raises (expressly or otherwise) issues that may relate to the original sale or a subsequently rejected claim then, irrespective of the main focus of the complaint, the firm should pro-actively consider whether the issues relate to both the sale and the claim, and assess the complaint and determine redress accordingly.
15The Ombudsman may:(1) exclude evidence that would otherwise be admissible in a court or include evidence that would not be admissible in a court;(2) accept information in confidence (so that only an edited version, summary or description is disclosed to the other party) where he considers it appropriate;(3) reach a decision on the basis of what has been supplied and take account of the failure by a party to provide information requested; and(4) dismiss a complaint if a complainant
The Ombudsman can consider a complaint under the Voluntary Jurisdiction if:422(1) it is not covered by the Compulsory Jurisdiction or the Consumer Credit Jurisdiction; and422(2) it relates to an act or omission by a VJ participant in carrying on one or more of the following activities:(a) an activity carried on after 28 April 1988 which:(i) was not a regulated activity at the time of the act or omission, but(ii) was a regulated activity when the VJ participant joined the Voluntary
DISP 2.5.1R (2)(a)is for those that are subject to the Compulsory Jurisdiction for regulated activities but are not covered by the Ombudsman Transitional Order or the Mortgage and General Insurance Complaints Transitional Order. It enables the Financial OmbudsmanScheme to cover complaints about earlier events relating to those activities before they became regulated activities.4222422
DISP 2.5.1R (2)(b) is for those that were members of one of the former schemes replaced by the Financial Ombudsman Service immediately before commencement. It enables the Financial Ombudsman Service5 to cover complaints that arise out of acts or omissions occurring after commencement for any activities which are not covered by the Compulsory Jurisdiction but that would have been covered by the relevant former scheme.4225
6DISP 2.5.1R (2)(l) includes complaints about the EEA end of 'one leg' payment services transactions, i.e. services provided from EEA establishments that are subject to the territorial jurisdiction of the Voluntary Jurisdiction (see DISP 2.6.4R (2)) that also involve a payment service provider located outside the EEA. It also includes complaints about payment services irrespective of the currency of the transaction.
422The Voluntary Jurisdiction covers an act or omission that occurred before the VJ participant was participating in the Voluntary Jurisdiction, and whether the act or omission occurred before or after commencement, either:(1) if the complaint could have been dealt with under a former scheme; or(2) under the agreement by the VJ participant in the Standard Terms.
Once a complaint has been received by a respondent, it must:(1) investigate the complaint competently, diligently and impartially, obtaining additional information as necessary;59(2) assess fairly, consistently and promptly:(a) the subject matter of the complaint;(b) whether the complaint should be upheld;(c) what remedial action or redress (or both) may be appropriate;(d) if appropriate, whether it has reasonable grounds to be satisfied that another respondent may be solely or
Factors that may be relevant in the assessment of a complaint under DISP 1.4.1R (2) include the following:59(1) all the evidence available and the particular circumstances of the complaint;(2) similarities with other complaints received by the respondent;(3) relevant guidance published by the FSA , other relevant regulators, the Financial Ombudsman Service or former schemes; and(4) appropriate analysis of decisions by the Financial Ombudsman Service concerning similar complaints
DISP 1 Annex 1 requires (for the relevant reporting period) information about:(1) the total number of complaints received by the firm;1(2) the total number of complaints closed by the firm:(a) within four weeks or less of receipt;(b) more than four weeks and up1 to eight weeks of receipt; and1(c) more than eight weeks after receipt;(3) the total number of complaints:(a) upheld by the firm in the reporting period; and1(b) outstanding at the beginning of the reporting period; and11(4)
For the purpose of DISP 1.10.2 R, when completing the return, the firm should take into account the following matters.(1) If a complaint could fall into more than one category, the complaint should be recorded in the category which the firm considers to form the main part of the complaint.(2) Under DISP 1.10.2R (3)(a), a firm should report any complaint to which it has given a response 1which upholds the complaint, even if any redress offered is disputed by the complainant. For
(1) The Compulsory Jurisdiction covers complaints about the activities of a firm (including its appointed representatives) , of a payment service provider (including agents of a payment institution)or of an electronic money issuer (including agents of an electronic money institution) carried on from an establishment in the United Kingdom.77(2) The Compulsory Jurisdiction also covers complaints about collective portfolio management services provided by an EEA UCITS management
This:518(1) includes incoming EEA firms, incoming EEAauthorised payment institutions6, incoming EEA authorised electronic money institutions819 and incoming Treaty firms; but(2) excludes complaints about business conducted in the United Kingdom on a services basis from an establishment outside the United Kingdom (other than complaints about collective portfolio management services provided by an EEA UCITS management company in managing a UCITS scheme).7
The Voluntary Jurisdiction covers only complaints about the activities of a VJ participant carried on from an establishment:518(1) in the United Kingdom; or(2) elsewhere in the EEA if the following conditions are met:(a) the activity is directed wholly or partly at the United Kingdom (or part of it);(b) contracts governing the activity are (or, in the case of a potential customer, would have been) made under the law of England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland; and(c) the
A respondent that has reasonable grounds to be satisfied that another respondent may be solely or jointly responsible for the matter alleged in a complaint may forward the complaint, or the relevant part of it, in writing to that other respondent, provided it: (1) does so promptly; (2) informs the complainant promptly in a final response of why the complaint has been forwarded by it to the other respondent, and of the other respondent's contact details; and(3) where jointly responsible