Related provisions for COBS 18.2.6

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COBS 11.2.1RRP
A firm must take all reasonable steps to obtain, when executing orders, the best possible result for its clients taking into account the execution factors.42[Note: The Committee of European Securities Regulators (CESR) has issued a Question and Answer paper on best execution under the first Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID I, 2004/39/EU)5. This paper also incorporates the European Commission's response to CESR's questions regarding the scope of the best execution
COBS 11.2.3GRP
[deleted]4
COBS 11.2.4GRP
If a firm provides a quote to a client and that quote would meet the firm's obligations to take all reasonable steps to obtain the best possible result for its clients if the firm executed that quote at the time the quote was provided, the firm will meet those same obligations if it executes its quote after the client accepts it, provided that, taking into account the changing market conditions and the time elapsed between the offer and acceptance of the quote, the quote is not
COBS 11.2.5GRP
The obligation to deliver the best possible result when executing client orders applies in relation to all types of financial instruments. However, given the differences in market structures or the structure of financial instruments, it may be difficult to identify and apply a uniform standard of and procedure for best execution that would be valid and effective for all classes of instrument. Best execution obligations should therefore be applied in a manner that takes into account
COBS 11.2.5AGRP
COBS 11.2.6RRP
When executing a client order, a firm must take into account the following criteria for determining the relative importance of the execution factors:(1) the characteristics of the client including the categorisation of the client as retail or professional;(2) the characteristics of the client order;(3) the characteristics of financial instruments that are the subject of that order; and4(4) the characteristics of the execution venues to which that order can be directed.42(5) [deleted]4instrument
COBS 11.2.7RRP
Where a firm executes an order on behalf of a retail client, the best possible result must be determined in terms of the total consideration, representing the price of the financial instrument and the costs related to execution, which must include all expenses incurred by the client which are directly related to the execution of the order, including execution venue fees, clearing and settlement fees and any other fees paid to third parties involved in the execution of the ord
COBS 11.2.8GRP
For the purposes of ensuring that a firm obtains the best possible result for the client when executing a retail client order in the absence of specific client instructions, the firm should take into consideration all factors that will allow it to deliver the best possible result in terms of the total consideration, representing the price of the financial instrument and the costs related to execution. Speed, likelihood of execution and settlement, the size and nature of the order,
COBS 11.2.9GRP
A firm's execution policy should determine the relative importance of each of the execution factors or establish a process by which the firm will determine the relative importance of the execution factors. The relative importance that the firm gives to those execution factors must be designed to obtain the best possible result for the execution of its client orders. Ordinarily, the FCA would expect that price will merit a high relative importance in obtaining the best possible
COBS 11.2.10RRP
For the purposes of delivering best execution for a retail client where there is more than one competing venue to execute an order for a financial instrument, in order to assess and compare the results for the client that would be achieved by executing the order on each of the execution venues listed in the firm's order execution policy that is capable of executing that order, the firm's own commissions and costs for executing the order on each of the eligible execution venues
COBS 11.2.11GRP
The obligation to deliver best execution for a retail client where there are competing execution venues is not intended to require a firm to compare the results that would be achieved for its client on the basis of its own execution policy and its own commissions and fees, with results that might be achieved for the same client by any other firm on the basis of a different execution policy or a different structure of commissions or fees. Nor is it intended to require a firm to
COBS 11.2.12RRP
A firm must not structure or charge its commissions in such a way as to discriminate unfairly between execution venues.4
COBS 11.2.13GRP
A firm would be considered to structure or charge its commissions in a way which discriminates unfairly between execution venues if it charges a different commission or spread to clients for execution on different execution venues and that difference does not reflect actual differences in the cost to the firm of executing on those venues.4
COBS 11.2.14RRP
A firm must establish and implement effective arrangements for complying with the obligation to take all reasonable steps to obtain the best possible result for its clients. In particular, the firm must establish and implement an order execution policy to allow it to obtain, for its client orders, the best possible result in accordance with that obligation.42
COBS 11.2.15RRP
The order execution policy must include, in respect of each class of financial instruments, information on the different execution venues where the firm executes its client orders and the factors affecting the choice of execution venue. It must at least include those execution venues that enable the firm to obtain on a consistent basis the best possible result for the execution of client orders.4
COBS 11.2.16GRP
(1) When establishing its execution policy, a firm should determine the relative importance of the execution factors, or at least establish the process by which it determines the relative importance of these factors, so that it can deliver the best possible result to its clients.(2) In order to give effect to that policy, a firm should select the execution venues that enable it to obtain on a consistent basis the best possible result for the execution of client orders.(3) A firm
COBS 11.2.17GRP
The provisions of this section which provide that costs of execution include a firm's own commissions or fees charged to the client for the provision of an investment service should not apply for the purpose of determining what execution venues must be included in the firm's execution policy.4
COBS 11.2.18GRP
The provisions of this section as to execution policy are without prejudice to the general obligation of a firm to monitor the effectiveness of its order execution arrangements and policy and assess the execution venues in its execution policy on a regular basis.4
COBS 11.2.19RRP
(1) Whenever there is a specific instruction from the client, the firm must execute the order following the specific instruction.4(2) A firm satisfies its obligation under this section to take all reasonable steps to obtain the best possible result for a client to the extent that it executes an order, or a specific aspect of an order, following specific instructions from the client relating to the order or the specific aspect of the order.4
COBS 11.2.20GRP
When a firm executes an order following specific instructions from the client, it should be treated as having satisfied its best execution obligations only in respect of the part or aspect of the order to which the client instructions relate. The fact that the client has given specific instructions which cover one part or aspect of the order should not be treated as releasing the firm from its best execution obligations in respect of any other parts or aspects of the client order
COBS 11.2.21GRP
A firm should not induce a client to instruct it to execute an order in a particular way, by expressly indicating or implicitly suggesting the content of the instruction to the client, when the firm ought reasonably to know that an instruction to that effect is likely to prevent it from obtaining the best possible result for that client. However, this should not prevent a firm inviting a client to choose between two or more specified trading venues, provided that those venues
COBS 11.2.22RRP
A firm must provide appropriate information to its clients on its order execution policy.4
COBS 11.2.23RRP
(1) A firm must provide a retail client with the following details on its execution policy in good time prior to the provision of the service:(a) an account of the relative importance the firm assigns, in accordance with the execution criteria, to the execution factors, or the process by which the firm determines the relative importance of those factors;(b) a list of the execution venues on which the firm places significant reliance in meeting its obligation to take all reasonable
COBS 11.2.23ARRP
2A full-scope UK AIFM and an incoming EEA AIFM branch4 must make available appropriate information on its execution policy required under article 27(3) of the AIFMD level 2 regulation (Execution of decisions to deal on behalf of the managed AIF)4 and on any material changes to that policy to the investors in4 of each AIF4 it manages.4
COBS 11.2.24RRP
Where the order execution policy provides for the possibility that client orders may be executed outside a regulated market or an MTF, the firm must, in particular, inform its clients about this possibility.4
COBS 11.2.25RRP
2(1) A firm4 must obtain the prior consent of its clients to the execution policy.2(2) [deleted]42(3) [deleted]4242
COBS 11.2.26RRP
A firm must obtain the prior express consent of its clients before proceeding to execute their orders outside a regulated market or an MTF. The firm may obtain this consent either in the form of a general agreement or in respect of individual transactions.4
COBS 11.2.27RRP
A firm must monitor the effectiveness of its order execution arrangements and execution policy in order to identify and, where appropriate, correct any deficiencies. In particular, it must assess, on a regular basis, whether the execution venues included in the order execution policy provide for the best possible result for the client or whether it needs to make changes to its execution arrangements. The firm must notify clients of any material changes to their order execution
COBS 11.2.28RRP
(1) A firm must review annually its execution policy, as well as its order execution arrangements.(2) This review must also be carried out whenever a material change occurs that affects the firm's ability to continue to obtain the best possible result for the execution of its client orders on a consistent basis using the venues included in its execution policy.42
COBS 11.2.29RRP
2(1) A firm4 must be able to demonstrate to its clients, at their request, that it has executed their orders in accordance with its execution policy.2(2) [deleted]42 and article 25(5) of the UCITS implementing Directive]2
COBS 11.2.30RRP
A firm must, when providing the service of portfolio management4,2 comply with the obligation to act in accordance with the best interests of its clients when placing orders with other entities for execution that result from decisions by the firm to deal in financial instruments on behalf of its client.42
COBS 11.2.31RRP
A firm must, when providing the service of reception and transmission of orders, comply with the obligation to act in accordance with the best interests of its clients when transmitting client orders to other entities for execution.4
COBS 11.2.32RRP
In order to comply with the obligation to act in accordance with the best interests of its clients when it places an order with, or transmits an order to, another entity for execution, a firm must:42(1) take all reasonable steps to obtain the best possible result for its clients taking into account the execution factors. The relative importance of these factors must be determined by reference to the execution criteria and, for retail clients,2 to the requirement to determine the
COBS 11.2.33GRP
This section is not intended to require a duplication of effort as to best execution between a firm which provides the service of reception and transmission of orders or portfolio management and any firm to which that firm transmits its orders for execution.4
COBS 11.2.34RRP
The provisions applying to a firm which places orders with, or transmits orders to, other entities for execution (see COBS 11.2.30 R to COBS 11.2.33 G) will not apply when the firm which provides the service of portfolio management or collective portfolio management2 and/or service of reception and transmission of orders also executes the orders received or the decisions to deal on behalf of its client's portfolio. In those cases the requirements of this section for firms who
COBS 11.3.1RRP
(1) A firm (other than a UCITS management company3 providing collective portfolio management services)1 which is authorised to execute orders on behalf of clients must implement procedures and arrangements which provide for the prompt, fair and expeditious execution of client orders, relative to other orders or the trading interests of the firm.[Note: paragraph 1 of article 28(1)3 of MiFID](2) These procedures or arrangements must allow for the execution of otherwise comparable
COBS 11.3.2RRP
[deleted]311
COBS 11.3.3GRP
For the purposes of the provisions of this section, orders should not be treated as otherwise comparable if they are received by different media and it would not be practicable for them to be treated sequentially. [Note: recital 1103 to the MiFID Org Regulation3]
COBS 11.3.4RRP
Where a management company3 executes the order itself in the course of providing collective portfolio management services,1 it must take all reasonable steps to ensure that any clientfinancial instruments or client funds received in settlement of that executed order are promptly and correctly delivered to the account of the appropriate UCITS scheme3. [Note:3 article 27(1) third paragraph of the UCITS implementing Directive]11
COBS 11.3.5RRP
[deleted]311
COBS 11.3.7RRP
[deleted]311
COBS 11.3.8RRP
[deleted]311
COBS 11.3.9RRP
[deleted]311
COBS 11.3.10RRP
[deleted]311
COBS 11.3.11RRP
[deleted]3
COBS 11.3.12GRP
For the purposes of the provisions of this section, the reallocation of transactions should be considered as detrimental to a client if, as an effect of that reallocation, unfair precedence is given to the firm or to any particular person. [Note: recital 1093to the MiFID Org Regulation3]
COBS 11.3.13GRP
In this section, carrying out client orders includes:(1) the execution of orders on behalf of clients;(2) the placing of orders with other entities for execution that result from decisions to deal in financial instruments on behalf of clients when providing the service of portfolio management or collective portfolio management;1(3) the transmission of client orders to other entities for execution when providing the service of reception and transmission of orders.
COBS 18.5.3RRP
Where6COBSrules specified in the table in COBS 18.5.2 R apply to a firm carrying on scheme management activity12 or, for an AIFM, AIFM investment management functions, the following modifications apply:666(1) subject to (2), references to customer or client are to be construed as references to any fund6for12 which the firm6 is acting or intends to act12; 66(2) in the case of a small authorised UK AIFM of an unauthorised AIF or a residual CIS operator6, when a firm6 is required
COBS 18.5.4RRP
The best execution provisions in COBS 11.2 (Best execution for AIFMs and residual CIS operators) do not apply12 to a small authorised UK AIFM of an unauthorised AIF or a residual CIS operator6 of12 a fund6 whose fund6 documents include a statement that best execution does not apply in relation to the fund6 and in which:6666(1) no investor6 is a retail client; or6(2) no current investor in the fund6 was a retail client when it invested in the fund.666
COBS 18.5.4CRRP
[deleted]127
COBS 18.5.7GRP
The fund documents of an unauthorised fund managed by a small authorised UK AIFM or a residual CIS operator (if those fund documents6 exist) should make it clear that if an investor6 is reclassified as a retail client, this reclassification will not affect certain activities of the firm6. In particular, despite such a reclassification, the firm6 will not be required to comply with the best execution provisions. It should be noted that there is no requirement that fund6 documents
COBS 18.5.8RRP
Where the fund is an unauthorised fund managed by a small authorised UK AIFM or a residual CIS operator6 and no current investor6 in the fund6 was a retail client when it invested in the fund6, the fund6 documents must include a statement that:66666(1) explains that if an investor6 is reclassified as a retail client subsequent to investing in the fund6, then the firm6 may continue to treat all investors in the fund6 as though they were not retail clients; 6666(2) explains that
COBS 16.2.1RRP
(1) If a firm has carried out an order in the course of its designated investment business on behalf of a client, it must:(a) promptly provide the client, in a durable medium, with the essential information concerning the execution of the order;(b) in the case of a retail client, send the client a notice in a durable medium confirming the execution of the order and such of the trade confirmation information (COBS 16 Annex 1R) 2as is applicable: (i) as soon as possible and no later
COBS 16.2.2GRP
The requirement concerning orders relating to bonds funding a mortgage loan agreement is unlikely to be relevant to products in the United Kingdom market.
COBS 16.2.3RRP
For the purposes of calculating the unit price in the trade confirmation information, where the order is executed in tranches, the firm may supply the client with information about the price of each tranche or the average price. If the average price is provided, the firm must supply the retail client with information about the price of each tranche upon request.6
COBS 16.2.4GRP
Where a firm executes an order in tranches, the firm may, where appropriate, indicate the trading time and the execution venue in a way that is consistent with this, such as, "multiple". In accordance with the client's best interests rule, a firm should provide additional information at the client's request.
COBS 16.2.6RRP
A6firm need not despatch a confirmation if:(1) the firm has agreed with the client (in the case of a retail client, in writing and with the client's informed consent) that confirmations need not be supplied, either generally or in specified circumstances; or(2) the designated investment is a life policy, stakeholder pension scheme3 or a personal pension scheme (other than a SIPP); or(3) the designated investment is held within a CTF and the statement provided under the CTF Regulations
COBS 11.4.1RRP
Unless a client expressly instructs otherwise, a firm must, in the case of a clientlimit order in respect of shares admitted to trading on a regulated market or traded on a trading venue2 which is not immediately executed under prevailing market conditions, take measures to facilitate the earliest possible execution of that order by making public immediately that clientlimit order in a manner which is easily accessible to other market participants. [Note: article 28(2)2 of Mi
COBS 11.4.2GRP
In respect of transactions executed between eligible counterparties, the obligation to disclose clientlimit orders should only apply where the counterparty is explicitly sending a limit order to a firm for its execution. [Note: recital 1052 to MiFID]
COBS 11.4.3EURP
[deleted]2
COBS 11.4.5RRP
The obligation in COBS 11.4.1R2 to make public a limit order is disapplied in respect of transactions that are2 large in scale compared with normal market as determined under article 4 of MiFIR2. [Note: article 28(2)2 of MiFID]
COBS 18.2.7RRP
1The duty to provide best execution does not apply where:(1) the firm has agreed with a professional client that it does not owe a duty of best execution to him; or(2) the firm relies on another person to whom it passes a customer order for execution to provide best execution, but only if it has taken reasonable care to ensure that he will do so.
COBS 18.2.8RRP
1To provide best execution, a firm must:(1) take reasonable care to ascertain the price which is the best available for the customer order in the relevant market at the time for transactions of the kind and size concerned; and (2) execute the customer order at a price which is no less advantageous to the customer, unless the firm has taken reasonable steps to ensure that it would be in the customer's best interests not to do so.
COBS 18.2.9ERP
(1) 1In order to take reasonable care to ascertain the price which is the best available, a firm:(a) should disregard any charges and commission made by it or its agents that are disclosed to the customer under COBS 6.1.9 R (Information about costs and associated charges);(b) need not have access to competing exchanges, or to all, or a minimum number of, available price sources; but if a firm can access prices displayed by different exchanges and trading platforms and make a direct
COBS 16.3.2RRP
(1) In the case of a retail client, the periodic statement must be provided once every six months, except in the following cases:(a) if the retail client so requests, the periodic statement must be provided every three months;(b) if the retail client elects to receive information about executed transactions on a transaction-by-transaction basis (COBS 16.3.3 R) and there are no transactions in derivatives or other securities giving the right to acquire or sell a transferable security
COBS 16.3.3RRP
(1) If the client elects to receive information about executed transactions on a transaction-by-transaction basis, a firmmanaging investments must provide promptly to the client, on the execution of a transaction, the essential information concerning that transaction in a durable medium.(2) If the client is a retail client, the firm must send the client3 a notice confirming the transaction and containing such of the information identified in column (1) of the table in COBS 16
COBS 16.3.5RRP
For the purposes of calculating the unit price in the trade confirmation information or periodic information, where the order is executed in tranches, the firm may supply the client with information about the price of each tranche or the average price. If the average price is provided, the firm must supply the retail client with information about the price of each tranche upon request.3
COBS 11.1.6RRP
3The section on best execution (COBS 11.2A6) does not apply to a firm when:(1) executing orders: or(2) placing orders with other entities for execution: or(3) transmitting orders to other entities for execution;in relation to a spread-bet which is not a financial instrument, where the firm has not made a personal recommendation in relation to that spread-bet.
COBS 11.1.7RRP
4The section on best execution (COBS 11.2 or COBS 11.2B, as applicable6) does not apply to a firm when, acting in the capacity of operator of a regulated collective investment scheme, it purchases or sells units in that scheme.
COBS 11.7.7RRP
Where successive personal transactions are carried out on behalf of a person in accordance with prior instructions given by that person, the obligations under this section do not apply:(1) separately to each successive transaction if those instructions remain in force and unchanged; or(2) to the termination or withdrawal of such instructions, provided that any financial instruments which had previously been acquired pursuant to the instructions are not disposed of at the same
COBS 6.1G.1RRP
1If a client requests a firm (F) to transfer the title to a retail investment product which is held by F directly, or indirectly through a third party, on that client's behalf to another person (P), and F may lawfully transfer the title to that retail investment product to P, F must execute the client's request within a reasonable time and in an efficient manner.