Related provisions for CASS 7.13.77

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CASS 7.13.1GRP
1The segregation of client money from a firm's own money is an important safeguard for its protection.
CASS 7.13.2RRP
Where a firm establishes one or more sub-pools, the provisions of CASS 7.13 (Segregation of client money) shall be read as applying separately to the firm's general pool and each sub-pool in line with CASS 7.19.3 R and CASS 7.19.12 R.
CASS 7.13.5GRP
The two approaches that a firm can adopt in discharging its obligations under this section are:(1) the 'normal approach'; or(2) the 'alternative approach' (see CASS 7.13.54 G to CASS 7.13.69 G).
CASS 7.13.6RRP
Unless otherwise permitted by any other rule in this chapter2, a firm using the normal approach must ensure that all client money it receives is paid directly into a client bank account at an institution referred to in CASS 7.13.3 R (1) to CASS 7.13.3 R (3), rather than being first received into the firm's own account and then segregated.
CASS 7.13.30RRP
A firm may segregate client money in a different currency from that in which it was received or in which the firm is liable to the relevant client. If it does so the firm must ensure that the amount held is adjusted each day to an amount at least equal to the original currency amount (or the currency in which the firm has its liability to its clients, if different), translated at the previous day's closing spot exchange rate.
CASS 7.13.32RRP
Where a firm receives client money in the form of cash, a cheque or other payable order, it must:(1) pay the money in accordance with CASS 7.13.6 R, promptly, and no later than on the business day after it receives the money into a client bank account, unless either:(a) the money is received by a business line for which the firm uses the alternative approach, in which case the money must be paid into the firm's own bank account promptly, and no later than on the business day after
CASS 7.13.39RRP
Pursuant to the client money segregation requirements, a firm that is operating the normal approach and is liable to pay money7 to a client must7 promptly, and in any event no later than one business day after the money is due and payable, pay the money: (1) to, or to the order of, the client; or(2) into a client bank account.
CASS 7.13.41RRP
If it is prudent to do so to prevent a shortfall in client money on the occurrence of a primary pooling event, a firm may pay money of its own into a client bank account and subsequently retain that money in the client bank account (prudent segregation). Money that the firm retains in a client bank account under this rule7 is client money for the purposes of the client money rules and the client money distribution and transfer rules7.
CASS 7.13.42GRP
A firm must make and retain an up-to-date record of all payments made under CASS 7.13.41 R. (See further CASS 7.13.50 R to CASS 7.13.53 R: the prudent segregation record.)
CASS 7.13.43RRP
If a firm intends to pays its own money into a client bank account under CASS 7.13.41 R it must establish a written policy that is approved by its governing body (and retain such policy for a period of at least five years after the date it ceases to retain such money in a client bank account under CASS 7.13.41 R) detailing:(1) the specific anticipated risks in relation to which it would be prudent for the firm to make such payments into a client bank account;(2) why the firm considers
CASS 7.13.46GRP
In the event the firm faces a risk not contemplated under its current policy it will not be prevented from prudently segregating money as client money in accordance with these rules but the policy must be created or amended, as applicable, as soon as reasonably practicable.
CASS 7.13.49ARRP
(1) 7Subject to paragraph (2), CASS 7.13.50R to CASS 7.13.52G do not apply to a firm following a primary pooling event.(2) Where a firm holds a prudent segregation record under CASS 7.13.53R following a primary pooling event, the prudent segregation record must continue to satisfy the requirements set out in CASS 7.13.51R.
CASS 7.13.50RRP
A firm must create and keep up-to-date records so that the amount of money paid into client bank accounts and retained as client money pursuant to CASS 7.13.41 R or withdrawn pursuant to CASS 7.13.49 R, and the reasons for such payment, retention and withdrawal can be easily ascertained (the prudent segregation record).
CASS 7.13.51RRP
The prudent segregation record must record:(1) the outcome of the firm's calculation of its prudent segregation;(2) the amounts paid into or withdrawn from a client bank account pursuant to CASS 7.13.41 R or CASS 7.13.49 R;(3) why each payment or withdrawal is made;(4) in respect of the firm's written policy required by CASS 7.13.43 R the firm must record, as applicable, either:(a) that the payment or withdrawal is made in accordance with that policy; or(b) that the policy will
CASS 7.13.53RRP
The prudent segregation record must be retained for five years after the firm ceases to retain money as client money pursuant to CASS 7.13.41 R.
CASS 7.13.53ARRP
(1) 7Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), CASS 7.13.59R, CASS 7.13.62R(3), CASS 7.13.62R(4) and CASS 7.13.63R to CASS 7.13.67R do not apply to a firm following its failure.(2) If, at the time of a primary pooling event, a firm has retained money in a client bank account for the purposes of alternative approach mandatory prudent segregation under CASS 7.13.65R, that money remains client money for the purposes of the client money rules and the client money distribution and transfer
CASS 7.13.54GRP
(1) In certain circumstances, use of the normal approach for a particular business line of a firm could lead to significant operational risks to client money protection. These may include a business line under which clients' transactions are complex, numerous, closely related to the firm's proprietary business and/or involve a number of currencies and time zones. In such circumstances, subject to meeting the relevant criteria and fulfilling the relevant notification and audit
CASS 7.13.55RRP
A firm that wishes to adopt the alternative approach for a particular business line must first establish, and document in writing, its reasons for concluding, that:(1) adopting the normal approach would lead to greater operational risks to client money protection compared to the alternative approach;(2) adopting the alternative approach (including complying with the requirements for alternative approach mandatory prudent segregation under CASS 7.13.65 R), would not result in undue
CASS 7.13.58RRP
(1) In addition to the requirement under CASS 7.13.57 R, before adopting the alternative approach, a firm must send a written report to the FCA prepared by an independent auditor of the firm in line with a reasonable assurance engagement, stating the matters set out in (2).(2) The written report in (1) must state whether, in the auditor's opinion:(a) the firm's systems and controls are suitably designed to enable it to comply with CASS 7.13.62 R to CASS 7.13.65 R; and(b) the firm's
CASS 7.13.60RRP
A firm that uses the alternative approach must not materially change how it will calculate and maintain the alternative approach mandatory prudent segregation amount under CASS 7.13.65 R unless:(1) an auditor of the firm has prepared a report that complies with the requirements in CASS 7.13.58 R (2)(b) in respect of the firm's proposed changes; and (2) the firm provides a copy of the report prepared by the auditor under (a) to the FCA before implementing the change.
CASS 7.13.62RRP
A firm that uses the alternative approach for a particular business line must, on each business day ('T0'):(1) receive any money from and pay any money to (or, in either case, on behalf of) clients into and out of its own bank accounts; (2) perform the necessary reconciliations of records and accounts required under CASS 7.15 (Records, accounts and reconciliations);(3) adjust the balances held in its client bank account (by effecting transfers between its own bank account and
CASS 7.13.63RRP
During the period between the adjustment in CASS 7.13.62 R (3) and the completion of the next reconciliations in CASS 7.13.62 R (2), a firm that uses the alternative approach for a particular business line may:(1) increase the balance held in its client bank account by making intra-day transfers (during T0) from its own bank account to its client bank account before the completion of the internal client money reconciliation under CASS 7.13.62 R (2) (that is expected sometime later
CASS 7.13.65RRP
(1) A firm that uses the alternative approach must, in addition to CASS 7.13.62 R, pay an amount (determined in accordance with this rule) of its own money into its client bank account and subsequently retain that money in its client bank account (alternative approach mandatory prudent segregation). The amount segregated by a firm in its client bank account under this rule is client money for the purposes of the client money rules and the client money distribution and transfer
CASS 7.13.66RRP
A firm must create and keep up-to-date records so that any amount of money that is, pursuant to CASS 7.13.65 R:(1) paid into a client bank account and retained as client money; or(2) withdrawn from a client bank account;can be easily ascertained (the alternative approach mandatory prudent segregation record).
CASS 7.13.67RRP
The alternative approach mandatory prudent segregation record under CASS 7.13.66 R must record:(1) the date of the first determination under CASS 7.13.65 R (2) and each subsequent review undertaken under CASS 7.13.65 R (4), and the total amount that the firm determined was required to be segregated under CASS 7.13.65 R (2) as at that date;(2) the date of any payment of the firm's own money into a client bank account, or withdrawal of any excess from a client bank account under
CASS 7.13.68RRP
The alternative approach mandatory prudent segregation record must be retained for five years after the firm ceases to segregate any money in accordance with CASS 7.13.65 R.
CASS 7.13.69GRP
Nothing in CASS 7.13.54 G to CASS 7.13.68 R prevents a firm from also making use of the prudent segregation rule in CASS 7.13.41 R.
CASS 7.13.72ARRP
(1) 7Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), CASS 7.13.73R to CASS 7.13.75R do not apply to a firm following a primary pooling event.(2) If, at the time of a primary pooling event, a firm has retained money in a client bank account for the purposes of clearing arrangement mandatory prudent segregation under CASS 7.13.73R, that money remains client money for the purposes of the client money rules and the client money distribution and transfer rules.(3) Where a firm holds a clearing
CASS 7.13.73RRP
(1) Where the circumstances described in CASS 7.13.72 R (1)(a) apply to a firm it must pay an amount (determined in accordance with this rule) of its own money into its client bank account and retain that money in its client bank account (clearing arrangement mandatory prudent segregation). The amount segregated by a firm in its client bank account under this rule will be client money for the purposes of the client money rules and the client money distribution and transfer rules7.
CASS 7.13.74RRP
A firm must create and keep up-to-date records so that any amount of money that is, pursuant to CASS 7.13.73 R: (1) paid into a client bank account and retained as client money; or(2) withdrawn from a client bank account;can be easily ascertained (the clearing arrangement mandatory prudent segregation record).
CASS 7.13.75RRP
The clearing arrangement mandatory prudent segregation record under CASS 7.13.74 R must record:(1) the date of the first determination under CASS 7.13.73 R (2) and each subsequent review undertaken under CASS 7.13.73 R (4), and the total amount that the firm determined was required to be segregated under CASS 7.13.73 R (2) as at that date;(2) the date of any payment of the firm's own money into a client bank account, or withdrawal of any excess from a client bank account under
CASS 7.13.76RRP
The clearing arrangement mandatory prudent segregation record must be retained for five years after the firm ceases to segregate any money in accordance with CASS 7.13.73 R.
CASS 7.16.5GRP
(1) A firm that adopts the normal approach to segregating client money (CASS 7.13.6 R) will be using the methods in this section to check whether it has correctly segregated client money in its client bank accounts.(2) A firm that adopts the alternative approach to segregating client money (CASS 7.13.54 G) will be using the methods in this section to calculate how much money it needs to withdraw from, or place in, client bank accounts as a result of any discrepancy arising between
CASS 7.16.13GRP
(1) The client money requirement should represent the total amount of client money a firm is required to have segregated in client bank accounts under the client money rules.(2) CASS 7.16.11 R does not prevent a firm from adopting a net negative add-back method as part of a non-standard method of internal client money reconciliation.(3) CASS 7.16.12 R does not prevent a CASS loan-based crowdfunding firm from adopting the individual client balance method as part of a non-standard
CASS 7.16.14GRP
(1) The individual client balance method (CASS 7.16.16 R) may be applied by any firm except a CASS 7 loan-based crowdfunding firm. This method requires a firm to calculate the total amount of client money it should be segregating in client bank accounts by reference to how much the firm should be holding in total (ie, across all its client bank accounts and businesses) for each of its individual clients for:(a) non-margined transactions (CASS 7.16.16 R (1) and CASS 7.16.21 R);
CASS 7.16.15GRP
The net negative add-back method (CASS 7.16.17 R) is available to CASS 7 asset management firms and CASS 7 loan-based crowdfunding firms, many of whom may operate internal ledger systems on a bank account by bank account, not client-by-client, basis. This method allows a firm to calculate the total amount of client money it is required to have segregated in client bank accounts by reference to: (1) the balances in each client bank account (see CASS 7.16.17 R (1) and CASS 7.16.18
CASS 7.16.16RRP
Subject to CASS 7.16.25 R and CASS 7.16.37 R, under this method the client money requirement must be calculated by taking the sum of, for all clients and across all products and accounts: (1) the individual client balances calculated under CASS 7.16.21 R, excluding:(a) individual client balances which are negative (ie, debtors); and(b) clients' equity balances;(2) the total margined transaction requirement (calculated under CASS 7.16.32 R); and(3) any amounts that have been segregated
CASS 7.16.19GRP
(1) A firm which utilises the net negative add-back method may1 calculate its client money requirement and client money resource on a bank account by bank account basis;(2) For1 the purposes of CASS 7.16.17 R, a firm should take into account any amounts that have been segregated as client money according to the firm's records under either or both CASS 7.13.50 R (prudent segregation record) and CASS 7.13.66 R (alternative approach mandatory prudent segregation record).
CASS 7.16.22ERP
(1) A firm may calculate either:(a) one individual client balance for each client,1 based on the total of the firm's holdings for that1client; or (b) a number of individual client balances for each client, equal to the number of products or business lines the firm operates for that client and each balance based on the total of the firm's holdings for that client in respect of the particular product or business line.1(2) Each individual client balance for a client should be calculated
CASS 7.16.25RRP
When calculating the client money requirement under either of the methods in CASS 7.16.10 R, a firm must:(1) include any unallocated client money (see CASS 7.13.36 R) and unidentified receipts of money it considers prudent to segregate as client money (see CASS 7.13.37 R);(2) include any money the firm appropriates and holds as client money to cover an unresolved shortfall in safe custody assets identified in its internal records which is not attributable, or cannot be attributed
CASS 7.16.31GRP
The margined transaction requirement should represent the total amount of client money a firm is required under the client money rules to segregate in client bank accounts for margined transactions. The calculation in CASS 7.16.33 R is designed to ensure that an amount of client money is held in client bank accounts which equals at least the difference between the equity the firm holds at exchanges, clearing houses, intermediate brokers and OTC counterparties for margined transactions
CASS 7.16.34GRP
Where CASS 7.16.33 R applies, the firm will be reducing the requirement arising from CASS 7.16.16 R (2) and, as such, simultaneously reducing its overall client money requirement (ie, the amount of money the firm is required to segregate in client bank accounts).
CASS 7.16.36RRP
A firm with a Part 30 exemption order which also operates an LME bond arrangement for the benefit of US-resident investors must exclude the client equity balances for transactions undertaken on the LME on behalf of those US-resident investors from the calculation of the margined transaction requirement, to the extent those transactions are provided for by an LME bond arrangement (see CASS 12.2.3 G).1
CASS 5.5.2GRP
One purpose of CASS 5.5 is to ensure that, unless otherwise permitted, client money is kept separate from the firm's own money. Segregation, in the event of a firm's failure, is important for the effective operation of the trust that is created to protect client money. The aim is to clarify the difference between client money and general creditors' entitlements in the event of the failure of the firm.
CASS 5.5.3RRP
A firm must, except to the extent permitted by CASS 5.5, hold client money separate from the firm'smoney.
CASS 5.5.5RRP
A firm must segregate client money by either:(1) paying it as soon as is practicable into a client bank account; or(2) paying it out in accordance with CASS 5.5.80 R.
CASS 5.5.7GRP
Where an insurance transaction involves more than one firm acting in a chain such that for example money is transferred from a "producing" broker who has received client money from a consumer5 to an intermediate broker and thereafter to an insurance undertaking, each broker firm will owe obligations to its immediate client to segregate client money which it receives (in this example the producing broker in relation to the consumer5and the intermediate broker in relation to the
CASS 5.5.8RRP
A firm may segregate client money in a different currency from that of receipt. If it does so, the firm must ensure that the amount held is adjusted at intervals of not more than twenty five business days to an amount at least equal to the original currency amount (or the currency in which the firm has its liability to its clients, if different), translated at the previous day's closing spot exchange rate.
CASS 5.5.14RRP
(1) A firm which handles client money in accordance with the rules for a non-statutory trust in CASS 5.4 may, to the extent it considers appropriate, but subject to (2), satisfy the requirement to segregate client money by segregating or arranging for the segregation of designated investments with a value at least equivalent to such money as would otherwise have been segregated into a client bank account.(2) A firm may not segregate designated investments unless it:(a) takes reasonable
CASS 5.5.17GRP
(1) As soon as commission becomes due to the firm (in accordance with CASS 5.5.16 R (1)) it must be treated as a remittance which must be withdrawn in accordance with CASS 5.5.16 R (2). 2The procedure required by CASS 5.5.16 R will also 2apply where moneyis 2due and payable 2to the firm in respect of fees due from clients (whether to the firm or other professionals).(2) Firms are reminded that money received in accordance with CASS 5.2 must not, except where a firm and an insurance
CASS 5.5.24GRP
(1) CASS 5.5.23 R allows a firm with appointed representatives, field representatives and other agents to avoid the need for the representative to forward client money on a daily basis but instead requires a firm to segregate into its client money bank account amounts which it reasonably estimates to be sufficient to cover the amount of client money which the firm expects its representatives or agents to receive and hold over a given period. At the expiry of each such period, the
CASS 5.5.30RRP
(1) In relation to consumers5, a firm must, subject to (2), take reasonable steps to ensure that its terms of business or other client agreements4 adequately explain, and where necessary obtain a client's informed consent to, the treatment of interest and, if applicable, investment returns, derived from its holding of client money and any segregated designated investments.54(2) In respect of interest earned on client bank accounts, (1) does not apply if a firm has reasonable ground
CASS 5.5.62GRP
(1) In order that a firm may check that it has sufficient money segregated in its client bank account (and held by third parties) to meet its obligations to clients it is required periodically to calculate the amount which should be segregated (the client money requirement) and to compare this with the amount shown as its client money resource. This calculation is, in the first instance, based upon the firm's accounting records and is followed by a reconciliation with its banking
CASS 5.5.63RRP
(1) A firm must, as often as is necessary to ensure the accuracy of its records and at least at intervals of not more than 25 business days:2(a) check whether its client money resource, as determined by CASS 5.5.65 R on the previous business day, was at least equal to the client money requirement, as determined by CASS 5.5.66 R or CASS 5.5.68 R, as at the close of business on that day; and2(b) ensure that:2(i) any shortfall is paid into a client bank account by the close of business
CASS 11.11.1RRP
A CASS debt management firm must keep such records and accounts as are necessary to enable it, at any time and without delay, to distinguish client money held for one client from client money held for any other client, and from its own money.
CASS 11.11.6GRP
So that a CASS debt management firm may check that it has sufficient money segregated in its client bank accounts to meet its obligations to clients for whom it is undertaking debt management activity, it is required periodically to carry out reconciliations of its internal records and accounts to check that the total amount of client money that it should have segregated in client bank accounts is equal to the total amount of client money it actually has segregated in client bank
CASS 11.11.8RRP
A CASS small debt management firm must undertake periodic checks of its internal accounts and records to ensure that the amount of money it holds in its client bank accounts is equal to the amount of client money that should be segregated under CASS 11.9.
CASS 11.11.10GRP
The checks that a CASS small debt management firm is required to undertake under CASS 11.11.8 R include checking that its internal records and accounts accurately record the balances of client money held in respect of individual clients, and that the aggregate of those individual client money balances are equal to the total client money segregated in its client bank accounts. In undertaking the comparison between the internal records of balances of client money and the client
CASS 11.11.12RRP
Where the check of its internal records and accounts that a CASS small debt management firm is required to undertake under CASS 11.11.8 R reveals a difference between the amount of money it holds in its client bank accounts and the amount of client money that should be held and segregated under CASS 11.9, a CASS small debt management firm must:(1) ensure that any shortfall in the amount held in its client bank accounts as compared to the amount that should be held there is made
CASS 11.11.17RRP
(1) The client money requirement is the sum of:(a) the aggregate of all individual client balances calculated in accordance with CASS 11.11.21 R and CASS 11.11.22 R;(b) the amount of any unallocated client money under CASS 11.9.7 R;(c) the amount of any unidentified client money under CASS 11.9.8 R; and(d) any other amounts of client money included in the calculation under (2). (2) For the purposes of (1)(d), the CASS debt management firm must consider whether there are amounts
CASS 11.11.18GRP
The client money requirement calculated in accordance with CASS 11.11.17 R should represent the total amount of client money a CASS debt management firm is required to have segregated in client bank accounts under the debt management client money chapter.
CASS 11.11.30RRP
A CASS debt management firm must inform the FCA in writing without delay if:(1) its internal records and accounts of client money are materially out of date or materially inaccurate so that the firm is no longer able to comply with the requirements in CASS 11.11.1 R to CASS 11.11.4 R; or(2) it becomes aware that, at any time in the preceding 12 months, the amount of client money segregated in its client bank accounts materially differed from the total aggregate amount of client
CASS 7.19.1GRP
(1) 1Under CASS 7.17.2R(2)2, a firm acts as trustee for all client money received or held by it for the benefit of the clients for whom that client money is held, according to their respective interests in it.(2) A firm that is also a clearing member of an authorised central counterparty may wish to segregate client money specifically for the benefit of a group of clients who have chosen to clear positions through a net margined omnibus client account maintained by the firm with
CASS 7.19.6RRP
(1) The records maintained for a sub-pool under CASS 7.19.4 R must identify all the client beneficiaries of that sub-pool.(2) The beneficiaries of each sub-pool are those clients:(a) from whom the firm has received a signed sub-pool disclosure document in accordance with CASS 7.19.11 R;(b) for whom the firm maintains, previously maintained or is in the process of establishing a margined transaction(s) in the relevant net margined omnibus client account at the authorised central
CASS 7.19.12RRP
Where a firm establishes one or more sub-pools, CASS 7.132 (Segregation of client money) is to2 be read as applying separately to the firm'sgeneral pool and each sub-pool.
CASS 7.19.25RRP
The records maintained under this section, including the sub-pool disclosure documents, are a record of the firm that must be kept in a durable medium for at least five years following the date on which client money was last held by the firm for a sub-pool to which those records or the sub-pool disclosure document applied.
CASS 7.10.10RRP
Subject to CASS 7.10.12 R, money is not client money when a firm (other than a sole trader) holds that money on behalf of, or receives it from, a professional client, other than in the course of insurance mediation activity, and the firm has obtained written acknowledgement from the professional client that:(1) money will not be subject to the protections conferred by the client money rules;(2) as a consequence, this money will not be segregated from the money of the firm in accordance
CASS 7.10.13GRP
When a firm undertakes a range of business for a professional client and has separate agreements for each type of business undertaken, the firm may treat client money held on behalf of the client differently for different types of business; for example, a firm may, under CASS 7.10.10 R or CASS 7.10.12 R, elect to segregate client money in connection with securities transactions and not segregate (by complying with CASS 7.10.10 R or CASS 7.10.12 R) money in connection with contingent
CASS 7.10.35RRP
(1) A trustee firm to which CASS 7.10.34 R applies may, in addition to the client money rules set out at CASS 7.10.34 R, also elect to comply with:(a) all the client money rules in CASS 7.13 (Segregation of client money); (b) CASS 7.14 (Client money held by a third party);(c) all the client money rules in CASS 7.15 (Records, accounts and reconciliations); or(d) CASS 7.18 (Acknowledgement letters).(2) A trustee firm must make a written record of any election it makes under this
CASS 7.10.36RRP
A trustee firm to which CASS 7.10.34 R applies and which is otherwise subject to the client money rules must ensure that any client money it holds other than in its capacity as trustee firm is segregated from client money it holds as a trustee firm.
CASS 7.10.38RRP
(1) A trustee firm to which CASS 7.10.34 R applies may elect that: (a) the applicable provisions of CASS 7.13 (Segregation of client money) and CASS 7.15 (Records, accounts and reconciliations) under CASS 7.10.34 R; and(b) 2any further provisions it elects to comply with under CASS 7.10.35 R (1);will apply separately and concurrently for each distinct trust that the trustee firm acts for.(2) A trustee firm must make a written record of any election it makes under this rule, including
CASS 7.10.39GRP
A trustee firm may wish to make an election under CASS 7.10.38 R if, for example, it acts for a number of distinct trusts which it wishes, or is required, to keep operationally separate. If a firm makes such an election then it should:(1) establish and maintain adequate internal systems and controls to effectively segregate client money held for one trust from client money held for another trust; and(2) conduct internal client money reconciliations as set out in CASS 7.16 and
CASS 11.9.1RRP
A CASS debt management firm must take all reasonable steps to ensure that all client money it receives is paid directly into a client bank account at an approved bank, rather than being first received into the firm's own account and then segregated.
CASS 11.9.6RRP
If a CASS debt management firm receives a mixed remittance it must:(1) pay the full sum into a client bank account promptly and in accordance with CASS 11.9.1 R to CASS 11.9.5 R; and(2) no later than one business day1 after the payment of the mixed remittance1 into the client bank account1 has cleared, pay the money that is not client money out of the client bank account.
CASS 11.9.7RRP
(1) A CASS debt management firm must allocate in its books and records any client money it receives to an individual client promptly and, in any case, no later than five business days following the receipt. (2) Pending a CASS debt management firm's allocation of a client money receipt to an individual client under (1), it must record the received client money in its books and records as "unallocated client money".
CASS 11.9.9GRP
If a CASS debt management firm is unable to identify money that it has received as either client money or its own money under CASS 11.9.8 R (1), it should consider whether it would be appropriate to return the money to the person who sent it (or, if that is not possible, to the source from where it was received, for example, the bank). A firm should have regard to its fiduciary duties when considering such matters.
CASS 7.15.14GRP
An internal client money reconciliation should:(1) be one of the steps a firm takes to arrange adequate protection for clients' assets when the firm is responsible for them (see Principle 10 (Clients' assets), as it relates to client money);(2) be one of the steps a firm takes to satisfy its obligations under CASS 7.12.2 R and CASS 7.15.3 R and, where relevant, SYSC 4.1.1R (1) and SYSC 6.1.1 R, to ensure the accuracy of the firm's records and accounts;(3) for the normal approach
CASS 7.15.16RRP
(1) A firm which has adopted the normal approach to segregating client money (see CASS 7.13.6 R) must use the internal client money reconciliation to check whether its client money resource, as at the close of business on the previous business day, was equal to its client money requirement at the close of business on that previous day.(2) A firm that adopts the alternative approach to segregating client money (see CASS 7.13.54 G) must use the internal client money reconciliation
CASS 7.15.18RRP
(1) Before using a non-standard method of internal client money reconciliation, a firm must:(a) establish and document in writing its reasons for concluding that the method of internal client money reconciliation it proposes to use will:(i) (for the normal approach to segregating client money) check whether the amount of client money recorded in the firm's records as being segregated in client bank accounts meets the firm's obligation to its clients under the client money rules
CASS 7.15.30GRP
Where the discrepancy identified under CASS 7.15.29 R has arisen as a result of a breach of the client money segregation requirements, the firm should ensure it takes sufficient steps to avoid a reoccurrence of that breach (see Principle 10 (Clients' assets), as it relates to client money, CASS 7.15.3 R and, where relevant, SYSC 4.1.1R (1) and SYSC 6.1.1 R).
CASS 7.15.33RRP
A firm must inform the FCA in writing without delay if: (1) its internal records and accounts of client money are materially out of date, inaccurate or invalid so that the firm is no longer able to comply with the requirements in CASS 7.15.2 R, CASS 7.15.3 R or CASS 7.15.5 R (1);(2) it will be unable to, or materially fails to, pay any shortfall into a client bank account or withdraw any excess from a client bank account so that the firm is unable to comply with CASS 7.15.29 R
CASS 7A.2.4AGRP
(1) 1Under EMIR, where a firm that is a clearing member4 of an authorised central counterparty defaults, the authorised central counterparty may:4(a) portclient positions where possible; and(b) after the completion of the default management process:(i) return any balance due directly to those clients for whom the positions are held, if they are known to the authorised central counterparty; or(ii) remit any balance to the firm for the account of its clients if the clients are
CASS 7A.2.6BGRP
(1) 7A firm may propose to cease to treat a balance of money as client money under CASS 7A.2.6AR(1) where the firm is using the procedure under regulation 12C of the IBSA Regulations to set a ‘hard bar date’ by giving a ‘hard bar date notice’, or another similar procedure in accordance with the legal procedure for the firm’sfailure.(2) In any case, a firm should consider the whether its obligations under law (including trust law) or any agreement permit it to cease to treat a
CASS 7A.2.7-ARRP
(1) 7This rule applies in respect of client money received by a firm after a primary pooling event that does not form part of a notional pool.(2) Where the firm is using the normal approach under CASS 7.13.6R (The normal approach), client money to which this rule applies must be received into a client bank account that does not contain any client money forming part of a notional pool under CASS 7A.2.4R(1) (Pooling and distribution or transfer).(3) (a) This paragraph applies in
CASS 7A.2.10ARRP
7A firm that is operating the normal approach to segregation under CASS 7.13 (Segregation of client money) which becomes liable to pay money to a client after a primary pooling event must promptly, and in any event no later than one business day after the money is due and payable, pay the money:(1) to, or to the order of, the client; or(2) into a client bank account that does not contain any client money forming part of a notional pool under CASS 7A.2.4R(1).
CASS 7.11.11GRP
When a firm notifies a client under CASS 7.11.9 R (3)(a) of when the termination of a TTCA5 is to take effect, it should take into account:(1) any relevant terms relating to such a termination that have been agreed with the client; and(2) the period of time it reasonably requires to return the money to the client, or to update its records under CASS 7.15 (Records, accounts and reconciliations) and to segregate the money as client money under CASS 7.13 (Segregation of client m
CASS 7.11.13GRP
A firm to which CASS 7.11.12 R applies should, for example, update its records under CASS 7.15 (Records, accounts and reconciliations) and segregate the money as client money under CASS 7.13 (Segregation of client money), from the relevant time at which the firm is required to treat the money as client money.
CASS 7.11.28GRP
Firms are reminded that, notwithstanding that money may be due and payable to them, they have a continuing obligation to segregate client money in accordance with the client money rules. In particular, in accordance with CASS 7.15.2 R, firms must ensure the accuracy of their records and accounts and are reminded of the requirement to carry out internal client money reconciliations either in accordance with the standard methods of internal client money reconciliation or the requirements
CASS 7.11.33GRP
(1) The firm may, under the terms of its agreement with the client, pay some, none, or all interest earned to the relevant client.(2) Where interest is payable on client money by a firm to clients: (a) such sums are client money and so, if not paid to, or to the order of the clients, are required to be segregated in accordance with CASS 7.13 (Segregation of client money); (b) the interest should be paid to clients in accordance with the firm's agreement with each client; and(c)
CASS 5.1.4ARRP
(1) 3A firm will, subject to (3), be deemed to comply with CASS 5.3 to CASS 5.6 if it receives or holds client money and it either:2(a) in relation to a service charge, complies with the requirement to segregate such money in accordance with section 42 of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1987 ("the 1987 Act"); or2(b) in relation to money which is clients' money for the purpose of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors' Rules of Conduct ("RICS rules") in force as at 14 January
CASS 5.1.7GRP
(1) Principle 10 (Clients' assets) requires a firm to arrange adequate protection for clients' assets when the firm is responsible for them. An essential part of that protection is the proper accounting and handling of client money. The rules in CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 also give effect to the requirement in article 4.4 of the Insurance Mediation Directive5 that all necessary measures should be taken to protect clients against the inability of an insurance intermediary to transfer
SUP 12.6.5RRP
(1) A firm must not permit an appointed representative to hold client money unless the firm is an insurance intermediary acting in accordance with CASS 5.5.18 R to CASS 5.5.23 R (which include provision for periodic segregation and reconciliation)2.(2) The firm must take reasonable steps to ensure that if client money is received by the appointed representative, it is paid into a client bank account of the firm, or forwarded to the firm, in accordance with :(a) CASS 4.3.15 R to
SUP 12.6.5AGRP
7When complying with the MiFID client money segregation requirements, firms' attention is drawn to CASS 7.13.34 R and CASS 7.13.35 G.1010
CASS 6.1.12RRP
(1) Subject to (2) and CASS 6.1.12B R and with the written agreement of the relevant client, a9firm need not treat this chapter as applying in respect of a delivery versus payment transaction through a commercial settlement system if:9929(a) in respect of a client's purchase, the firm intends for the asset in question to be due to the client within one business day following the client's fulfilment of its payment obligation to the firm;9 or9(b) in respect of a client's sale, the
CASS 6.1.12AGRP
(1) 9The amount of client money a firm segregates for the purposes of CASS 6.1.12R (3) may be determined by the previous day's closing mark to market valuation of the relevant safe custody asset or, if in relation to a particular safe custody asset none is available, the most recent available valuation.(2) Where a firm is segregating money for the purposes of CASS 6.1.12R (3) it should, as regularly as necessary, and having regard to Principle 10:(a) review the value of the safe
CASS 5.3.3GRP
(1) A firm which holds client money can discharge its obligation to ensure adequate protection for its clients in respect of such money by complying with CASS 5.3 which provides for such money to be held by the firm on the terms of a trust imposed by the rules.(2) The trust imposed by CASS 5.3 is limited to a trust in respect of client money which a firm receives and holds. The consequential and supplementary requirements in CASS 5.5 are designed to secure the proper segregation
CASS 11.1.4RRP
Subject to CASS 11.1.6 R, only the rules and guidance in the debt management client money chapter listed in the table below apply to CASS small debt management firms.ReferenceRuleCASS 11.1.1 R to CASS 11.1.4 R and CASS 11.1.6 RApplicationCASS 11.2.1 R to CASS 11.2.9 GFirm classificationCASS 11.3.1 R to CASS 11.3.2 R and CASS 11.3.6 RResponsibility for CASS operational oversightCASS 11.4.1 G to CASS 11.4.4 GDefinition of client money and discharge of fiduciary dutyCASS 11.5.1 R
CASS 5.2.7GRP
A firm may operate on the basis of an agency agreement as provided for by CASS 5.2.3 R for some of its clients and with protection provided by a client money trust in accordance with CASS 5.3 or CASS 5.4 for other clients. A firm may also operate on either basis for the same client but in relation to different transactions. A firm which does so should be satisfied that its administrative systems and controls are adequate and, in accordance with CASS 5.2.4 G, should ensure that
CASS 1.2.12GRP
2The purpose of the rules regarding the segregation of investments and money held under different regimes is to reduce the risk of confusion between assets held under different regimes either on an on-going basis or on the failure of a firm or a third party holding those assets.
CASS 6.6.54RRP
(1) This rule applies where a firm identifies a discrepancy as a result of, or that reveals, a shortfall, which the firm has not yet resolved.(2) Subject to paragraphs (3) and (4)7, until the discrepancy is resolved a firm must do one of the following:(a) appropriate a sufficient number of its own applicable assets to cover the value of the shortfall and hold them for the relevant clients under the custody rules in such a way that the applicable assets, or the proceeds of their