Related provisions for CASS 5.5.29

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CASS 5.5.4RRP
If a firm is liable to pay money to a client, it must as soon as possible, and no later than one business day after the money is due and payable:(1) pay it into a client bank account, in accordance with CASS 5.5.5 R; or(2) pay it to, or to the order of, the client.
CASS 5.5.6GRP
The FCA expects that in most circumstances it will be practicable for a firm to pay client money into a client bank account by not later than the next business day after receipt.
CASS 5.5.7GRP
Where an insurance transaction involves more than one firm acting in a chain such that for example money is transferred from a "producing" broker who has received client money from a consumer5 to an intermediate broker and thereafter to an insurance undertaking, each broker firm will owe obligations to its immediate client to segregate client money which it receives (in this example the producing broker in relation to the consumer5and the intermediate broker in relation to the
CASS 5.5.11AGRP
2When a firm acts in accordance with CASS 5.3 (Statutory trust) it should not make a payment from the client bank account unless it is satisfied on reasonable grounds that the client has provided it with cleared funds. Accordingly, a firm should normally allow a reasonable period of time for cheques to clear. If a withdrawal is made and the client's cheque is subsequently dishonoured it will be the firm's responsibility to make good the shortfall in the account as quickly as possible
CASS 5.5.13GRP
A firm can hold client money in either a general client bank account (CASS 5.5.38 R) or a designated client bank account (CASS 5.5.39 R). A firm holds all client money in general client bank accounts for its clients as part of a common pool of money so those particular clients do not have a claim against a specific sum in a specific account; they only have a claim to the client money in general. A firm holds client money in designated client bank accounts for those clients who requested
CASS 5.5.16RRP
(1) A firm may draw down commission from the client bank account if:(a) it has received the premium from the client (or from a third party premium finance provider on the client's behalf);2 and(b) this is consistent with the firm'sterms of business which it maintains with the relevant client and 2the insurance undertaking to whom the premium will become2 payable;and the firm may draw down commission before payment of the premium to the insurance undertaking, provided that the conditions
CASS 5.5.17GRP
(1) As soon as commission becomes due to the firm (in accordance with CASS 5.5.16 R (1)) it must be treated as a remittance which must be withdrawn in accordance with CASS 5.5.16 R (2). 2The procedure required by CASS 5.5.16 R will also 2apply where moneyis 2due and payable 2to the firm in respect of fees due from clients (whether to the firm or other professionals).(2) Firms are reminded that money received in accordance with CASS 5.2 must not, except where a firm and an insurance
CASS 5.5.18RRP
(1) Subject to (4), a 2firm must in relation to each of its appointed representatives, field representatives and other agents comply with CASS 5.5.19 R to CASS 5.5.21 R (Immediate segregation) or with CASS 5.5.23 R (Periodic segregation and reconciliation).(2) A firm must in relation to each representative or other agent keep a record of whether it is complying with CASS 5.5.19 R to CASS 5.5.21 R or with CASS 5.5.23 R.(3) A firm is, but without affecting the application of CASS
CASS 5.5.23RRP
(1) A firm must, on a regular basis, and at reasonable intervals, ensure that it holds in its client bank account an amount which (in addition to any other amount which it is required by these rules to hold) is not less than the amount which it reasonably estimates to be the aggregate of the amounts held at any time by its appointed representatives, field representatives, and other agents.(2) A firm must, not later than ten business days following the expiry of each period in
CASS 5.5.24GRP
(1) CASS 5.5.23 R allows a firm with appointed representatives, field representatives and other agents to avoid the need for the representative to forward client money on a daily basis but instead requires a firm to segregate into its client money bank account amounts which it reasonably estimates to be sufficient to cover the amount of client money which the firm expects its representatives or agents to receive and hold over a given period. At the expiry of each such period, the
CASS 5.5.26RRP
A firm must take reasonable steps to ensure that it is notified promptly of any receipt of client money in the form of client entitlements.
CASS 5.5.28RRP
When a firm receives a client entitlement on behalf of a client, it must pay any part of it which is client money:(1) for client entitlements received in the United Kingdom, into a client bank account in accordance with CASS 5.5.5 R; or(2) for client entitlements received outside the United Kingdom, into any bank account operated by the firm, provided that such client money is:(a) paid to, or in accordance with, the instructions of the client concerned; or(b) paid into a client
CASS 5.5.40GRP
(1) A firm may operate as many client accounts as it wishes.(2) A firm is not obliged to offer its clients the facility of a designated client bank account.(3) Where a firm holds money in a designated client bank account, the effect upon either:(a) the failure of a bank where any other client bank account is held; or(b) the failure of a third party to whom money has been transferred out of any other client bank account in accordance with CASS 5.5.34 R;(each of which is a secondary
CASS 5.5.41RRP
A firm may hold client money with a bank that is not an approved bank if all the following conditions are met:(1) the client money relates to one or more insurance transactions which are subject to the law or market practice of a jurisdiction outside the United Kingdom;(2) because of the applicable law or market practice of that overseas jurisdiction, it is not possible to hold the client money in a client bank account with an approved bank;(3) the firm holds the money with such
CASS 5.5.42GRP
A firm owes a duty of care to a client when it decides where to place client money. The review required by CASS 5.5.43 R is intended to ensure that the risks inherent in placing client money with a bank are minimised or appropriately diversified by requiring a firm to consider carefully the bank or banks with which it chooses to place client money. For example, a firm which is likely only to hold relatively modest amounts of client money will be likely to be able to satisfy this
CASS 5.5.46GRP
A firm will be expected to perform due diligence when opening a client bank account with a bank that is authorised by an EEA regulator. Any continuing assessment of that bank may be restricted to verification that it remains authorised by an EEA regulator.
CASS 5.5.48RRP
If a client has notified a firm in writing that he does not wish his money to be held with a bank in the same group as the firm, the firm must either:(1) place that client money in a client bank account with another bank in accordance with CASS 5.5.38 R; or(2) return that client money to, or pay it to the order of, the client.
CASS 5.5.51RRP
In the case of a client bank account outside the United Kingdom, if the bank does not provide the acknowledgement referred to in CASS 5.5.49 R within 20 business days after the firm dispatched the notice, the firm must notify the client of this fact as set out in CASS 5.5.53 R.
CASS 5.5.58RRP
A firm must not undertake any transaction for a consumer5 that involves client money being passed to another broker or settlement agent located in a jurisdiction outside the United Kingdom, unless the firm has previously disclosed to the consumer5 (whether in its terms of business, client agreement 4or otherwise in writing):554(1) that his client money may be passed to a person outside the United Kingdom but the client may notify the firm that he does not wish his money to be
CASS 5.5.62GRP
(1) In order that a firm may check that it has sufficient money segregated in its client bank account (and held by third parties) to meet its obligations to clients it is required periodically to calculate the amount which should be segregated (the client money requirement) and to compare this with the amount shown as its client money resource. This calculation is, in the first instance, based upon the firm's accounting records and is followed by a reconciliation with its banking
CASS 5.5.65RRP
The client money resource, for the purposes of CASS 5.5.63 R (1)(a),2 is:(1) the aggregate of the balances on the firm's client money bank accounts, as at the close of business on the previous business day and, if held in accordance with CASS 5.4, designated investments (valued on a prudent and consistent basis) together with client money held by a third party in accordance with CASS 5.5.34 R; and(2) (but only if the firm is comparing the client money resource with its client's
CASS 5.5.66RRP
A firm'sclient money (client balance) requirement is the sum of, for all clients, the individual client balances calculated in accordance with CASS 5.5.67 R but excluding any individual balances which are negative (that is, uncleared client funds).
CASS 5.5.68RRP
A firm's client money (accruals) requirement is the sum of the following:(1) all insurance creditors shown in the firm's business ledgers as amounts due to insurance undertakings, clients and other persons; plus(2) unearned commission 2being the amount of commission 2shown as accrued (but not shown as due 2and payable) as at the date of the calculation (a prudent estimate must be used if the firm is unable to produce an exact figure at the date of the calculation).
CASS 5.5.69RRP
A firm which calculates its client money requirement on the preceding basis must in addition and within a reasonable period be able to match its client money resource to its requirement by reference to individual clients (with such matching being achieved for the majority of its clients and transactions).
CASS 5.5.80RRP
Money ceases to be client money if it is paid:(1) to the client, or a duly authorised representative of the client; or(2) to a third party on the instruction of or with the specific consent of the client, but not if it is transferred to a third party in the course of effecting a transaction, in accordance with CASS 5.5.34 R; or(3) into a bank account of the client (not being an account which is also in the name of the firm); or(4) to the firm itself, when it is due and payable
CASS 5.5.81GRP
(1) A firm which pays professional fees (for example to a loss adjuster or valuer) on behalf of a client may do so in accordance with CASS 5.5.80 R (2) where this is done on the instruction of or with the consent of the client.(2) When a firm wishes to transfer client money balances to a third party in the course of transferring its business to another firm, it should do so in compliance with CASS 5.5.80 R and a transferee firm will come under an obligation to treat any client
CASS 5.5.83RRP
For the purposes of CASS 5.1.5 R, if a firm makes a payment to, or on the instructions of, a client, from an account other than a client bank account, until that payment has cleared, no equivalent sum will become due and payable to the firm or may be withdrawn from a client bank account by way of reimbursement.
CASS 7.11.4ARRP
(1) 5A firm must properly consider and document the use of TTCAs in the context of the relationship between the client’s obligation to the firm and the money subjected to TTCAs by the firm.(2) A firm must be able to demonstrate that it has complied with the requirement under (1).(3) When considering, and documenting, the appropriateness of the use of TTCAs, a firm must take into account the following factors:(a) whether there is only a very weak connection between the client’s
CASS 7.11.6GRP
Where a firm has received full title or full ownership to money under a collateral arrangement, the fact that it has also granted a security interest to its client to secure its obligation to repay that money to the client would not result in the money being client money. This can be compared to a situation in which a firm takes a charge or other security interest over money held in a client bank account, where that money would still be client money as there would be no absolute
CASS 7.11.7GRP
Firms are reminded of the client'sbest interest rule, which requires a firm to act honestly, fairly and professionally in accordance with the best interests of its clients when structuring its business particularly in respect of the effect of that structure on firms' obligations under the client money rules.
CASS 7.11.18GRP
(1) In line with CASS 7.11.14 R, where a firm receives money from the client in fulfilment of the client's payment obligation in respect of a delivery versus payment transaction the firm is carrying out through a commercial settlement system in respect of a client's purchase, and the firm has not fulfilled its delivery obligation to the client by close of business on the third business day following the date of the client's fulfilment of its payment obligation to the firm, the
CASS 7.11.23GRP
Where proceeds of redemption paid to the client in accordance with CASS 7.11.21 R (1)(a)(ii) are paid by cheque, the cheque should be issued from the relevant client bank account.
CASS 7.11.24RRP
(1) If a firm makes use of the exemption under CASS 7.11.21 R, it must obtain the client's written agreement to the firm's use of the exemption.(2) In respect of each client, the record created in (1) must be retained for the duration of the time that the firm makes use of the exemption under CASS 7.11.21 R in respect of that client's money.
CASS 7.11.29GRP
When a client's obligation or liability, which is secured by that client's asset, crystallises, and the firm realises the asset in accordance with an agreement entered into between the client and the firm, the part of the proceeds of the asset to cover such liability that is due and payable to the firm is not client money. However, any proceeds of sale in excess of the amount owed by the client to the firm should be paid over to the client immediately or be held in accordance
CASS 7.11.30GRP
When a firm has entered into an arrangement under which commission is rebated to a client, those rebates need not be treated as client money until they become due and payable to the client in accordance with the terms of the contractual arrangements between the parties.
CASS 7.11.42RRP
Subject to CASS 7.11.44 R, money ceases to be client money for a firm if:(1) it is transferred by the firm to another person as part of a transfer of business to that person where the client money relates to the business being transferred;(2) it is transferred on terms which require the other person to return a client's transferred sums to the client as soon as practicable at the client's request;(3) a written agreement between the firm and the relevant client provides that:(a)
CASS 7.11.44RRP
(1) Client money belonging to those categories of clients set out in (2) and in respect of those amounts set out in (2) ceases to be client money of the firm if it is transferred by the firm to another person:(a) as part of a transfer of business to that other person where these sums relate to the business being transferred; and(b) on terms which require the other person to return a client's transferred sums as soon as practicable at the client's request.(2) (a) For retail clients
CASS 7.11.50RRP
A firm may pay away to a registered charity of its choice a client money balance which is allocated to a client and if it does so the released balance will cease to be client money under CASS 7.11.34 R (10), provided:(1) this is permitted by law and consistent with the arrangements under which the client money is held; (2) the firm held the balance concerned for at least six years following the last movement on the client's account (disregarding any payment or receipt of interest,
CASS 7.11.51GRP
Where the client money balance held by a firm is, in aggregate, £100 or less for a client other than a retail client or, for a retail client, £25 or less, the firm may comply with CASS 7.11.57 R instead of CASS 7.11.50 R.
CASS 7.11.55RRP
(1) If a firm pays away client money under CASS 7.11.50 R (4) it must make and retain, or where the firm already has such records, retain: (a) records of all balances released from client bank accounts under CASS 7.11.50 R (including details of the amounts and the identity of the client to whom the money was allocated); (b) all relevant documentation (including charity receipts); and(c) details of the communications the firm had or attempted to make with the client concerned pursuant
CASS 7.11.56GRP
The purpose of CASS 7.11.57 R is to allow a firm to pay away to charity client money balances of (i) £25 or less for retail clients or (ii) £100 or less for other clients when those balances remain unclaimed. If a firm follows this process, the money will cease to be client money (see CASS 7.11.34 R (10).
CASS 7.11.57RRP
A firm may pay away to a registered charity of its choice a client money balance which is allocated to a client and if it does so the released balance will cease to be client money under CASS 7.11.34 R (10):(1) the balance in question is (i) for a retail client, in aggregate, £25 or less, or (ii) for a professional client, in aggregate, £100 or less; (2) the firm held the balance concerned for at least six years following the last movement on the client's account (disregarding
CASS 7.16.9GRP
(1) A firm should ensure that the amount it reflects in its internal client money reconciliation as its client money resource is equal to the aggregate balance on its client bank accounts. For example, if:(a) a firm holds client money received as cash, cheques or payment orders but not yet deposited in a client bank account (in accordance with CASS 7.13.32 R); and(b) that firm records all receipts from clients, whether or not yet deposited with a bank, in its cashbook (see CASS
CASS 7.16.11RRP
The net negative add-back method may only be used, under this section, by a CASS 7 asset management firm or a CASS 7 loan-based crowdfunding firm and only if such firms do not undertake any margined transactions for, or on behalf of, their clients.
CASS 7.16.14GRP
(1) The individual client balance method (CASS 7.16.16 R) may be applied by any firm except a CASS 7 loan-based crowdfunding firm. This method requires a firm to calculate the total amount of client money it should be segregating in client bank accounts by reference to how much the firm should be holding in total (ie, across all its client bank accounts and businesses) for each of its individual clients for:(a) non-margined transactions (CASS 7.16.16 R (1) and CASS 7.16.21 R);
CASS 7.16.15GRP
The net negative add-back method (CASS 7.16.17 R) is available to CASS 7 asset management firms and CASS 7 loan-based crowdfunding firms, many of whom may operate internal ledger systems on a bank account by bank account, not client-by-client, basis. This method allows a firm to calculate the total amount of client money it is required to have segregated in client bank accounts by reference to: (1) the balances in each client bank account (see CASS 7.16.17 R (1) and CASS 7.16.18
CASS 7.16.16RRP
Subject to CASS 7.16.25 R and CASS 7.16.37 R, under this method the client money requirement must be calculated by taking the sum of, for all clients and across all products and accounts: (1) the individual client balances calculated under CASS 7.16.21 R, excluding:(a) individual client balances which are negative (ie, debtors); and(b) clients' equity balances;(2) the total margined transaction requirement (calculated under CASS 7.16.32 R); and(3) any amounts that have been segregated
CASS 7.16.17RRP
Subject to CASS 7.16.25 R, under this method the client money requirement must be calculated by taking the sum of, for each client bank account: (1) the amount which the firm's internal records show as held on that account; and(2) an amount that offsets each negative net amount which the firm's internal records show attributed to that account for an individual client.
CASS 7.16.22ERP
(1) A firm may calculate either:(a) one individual client balance for each client,1 based on the total of the firm's holdings for that1client; or (b) a number of individual client balances for each client, equal to the number of products or business lines the firm operates for that client and each balance based on the total of the firm's holdings for that client in respect of the particular product or business line.1(2) Each individual client balance for a client should be calculated
CASS 7.16.28RRP
Subject to CASS 7.16.30 R, a client's equity balance is the amount which the firm would be liable to pay to the client (or the client to the firm) under the client money rules for margined transactions if each of the open positions were liquidated at the closing or settlement prices published by the relevant exchange or other appropriate pricing source and the account with the firm were closed. This notional balance should include any unrealised losses or profits associated with
CASS 7.16.29RRP
Subject to CASS 7.16.30 R, a firm's equity balance is the amount which the firm would be liable to pay to the exchange, clearing house, intermediate broker or OTC counterparty (or vice-versa) for the firm's margined transactions if each of the open positions of those of the firm's clients that are entitled to protection under the client money rules were liquidated at the closing or settlement prices published by the relevant exchange or other appropriate pricing source and the
CASS 7.16.31GRP
The margined transaction requirement should represent the total amount of client money a firm is required under the client money rules to segregate in client bank accounts for margined transactions. The calculation in CASS 7.16.33 R is designed to ensure that an amount of client money is held in client bank accounts which equals at least the difference between the equity the firm holds at exchanges, clearing houses, intermediate brokers and OTC counterparties for margined transactions
CASS 7.16.37RRP
Where appropriate, a firm may:(1) when, in respect of a client, there is a positive individual client balance and a negative client equity balance, offset the credit against the debit and, therefore, have a reduced individual client balance in CASS 7.16.21 R for that client; and(2) when, in respect of a client, there is a negative individual client balance and a positive client equity balance, offset the credit against the debit and, therefore, have a reduced client equity balance
CASS 7.16.38GRP
The effect of CASS 7.16.37 R is to allow a firm to offset, on a client-by-client basis, a negative amount with a positive amount arising out of the calculations in CASS 7.16.21 R and CASS 7.16.28 R and, therefore, reduce its overall client money requirement.
CASS 5.6.7RRP
If a primary pooling event occurs:(1) client money held in each client money account of the firm is treated as pooled;(2) the firm must distribute that client money in accordance with CASS 5.3.2 R or, as appropriate, CASS 5.4.7 R, so that each client receives a sum which is rateable to the client money entitlement calculated in accordance with CASS 5.5.66 R; and(3) the firm must, as trustee, call in and make demand in respect of any debt due to the firm as trustee, and must liquidate
CASS 5.6.8GRP
A client's main claim is for the return of client money held in a client bank account. A client may claim for any shortfall against money held in a firm's own account. For that claim, the client will be an unsecured creditor of the firm.
CASS 5.6.9RRP
Client money received by the firm (including in its capacity as trustee under CASS 5.4 (Non-statutory trust)) after a primary pooling event must not be pooled with client money held in any client money account operated by the firm at the time of the primary pooling event. It must be placed in a client bank account that has been opened after that event and must be handled in accordance with the client money rules, and returned to the relevant client without delay, except to the
CASS 5.6.15RRP
CASS 5.6.20 R to CASS 5.6.31 R do not apply if, on the failure of the third party, the firm repays to its clients or pays into a client bank account, at an unaffected bank, an amount equal to the amount of client money which would have been held if a shortfall had not occurred at that third party.
CASS 5.6.19GRP
The client money (insurance) distribution rules seek to ensure that clients who have previously specified that they are not willing to accept the risk of the bank that has fails, and who therefore requested that their client money be placed in a designated client bank account as a different bank, should not suffer the loss of the bank that has failed.
CASS 5.6.22RRP
Money held in each general client bank account of the firm must be treated as pooled and:(1) any shortfall in client money held, or which should have been held, in general client bank accounts, that has arisen as a result of the failure of the bank, must be borne by all the clients whose client money is held in a general client bank account of the firm, rateably in accordance with their entitlements;(2) a new client money entitlement must be calculated for each client by the firm,
CASS 5.6.24RRP
For each client with a designated client bank account held at the failed bank:(1) any shortfall in client money held, or which should have been held, in designated client bank accounts that has arisen as a result of the failure, must be borne by all the clients whose client money is held in a designated client bank account of the firm at the failed bank, rateably in accordance with their entitlements;(2) a new client money entitlement must be calculated for each of the relevant
CASS 5.6.26RRP
Client money received by the firm after the failure of a bank, that would otherwise have been paid into a client bank account at that bank:(1) must not be transferred to the failed bank unless specifically instructed by the client in order to settle an obligation of that client to the failed bank; and(2) must be, subject to (1), placed in a separate client bank account that has been opened after the secondary pooling event and either:(a) on the written instruction of the client, transferred
CASS 5.6.30RRP
Money held in each general client bank account of the firm must be treated as pooled and:(1) any shortfall in client money held, or which should have been held, in general client bank accounts, that has arisen as a result of the failure, must be borne by all the clients whose client money is held in a general client bank account of the firm, rateably in accordance with their entitlements;(2) a new client money entitlement must be calculated for each client by the firm, to reflect
CASS 5.6.31RRP
Client money received by the firm after the failure of another broker or settlement agent, to whom the firm has transferred client money that would otherwise have been paid into a client bank account at that broker or settlement agent:(1) must not be transferred to the failed thirty party unless specifically instructed by the client in order to settle an obligation of that client to the failed broker or settlement agent; and(2) must be, subject to (1), placed in a separate client bank
CASS 7.13.19GRP
A designated client fund account may be used for a client only where that client has consented to the use of that account and all other designated client fund accounts which may be pooled with it. For example, a client who consents to the use of bank A and bank B should have his money held in a different designated client fund account at bank B from a client who has consented to the use of banks B and C. If a firm deposits client money into a designated client fund account then,
CASS 7.13.36RRP
(1) A firm must allocate any client money it receives to an individual client promptly and, in any case, no later than ten business days following the receipt (or where subsequent to the receipt of money it has identified that the money, or part of it, is client money under CASS 7.13.37 R, no later than ten business days following that identification). (2) Pending a firm's allocation of a client money receipt to an individual client under (1), it must record the received client
CASS 7.13.40GRP
Where the firm has payment instructions from the client the firm should pay the money to the order of the client, rather than into a client bank account.
CASS 7.10.16RRP
In relation to the application of the client money rules (and any other rule in so far as it relates to matters covered by the client money rules) to the firms referred to in (1) and (2), the following is not client money:(1) any deposits within the meaning of the CRD held by a CRD credit institution; and[Note: article 16(9)7 of MiFID and article 4(1)7 of the MiFID Delegated Directive7](2) any money held by an approved bank that is not a CRD credit institution in an account with
CASS 7.10.19RRP
A firm holding money in either of the ways described in CASS 7.10.16 R must, before providing designated investment business services to the client in respect of those sums, notify the client that:(1) the money held for that client is held by the firm as banker and not as a trustee under the client money rules; and(2) if the firmfails, the client money distribution and transfer rules8 will not apply to these sums and so the client will not be entitled to share in any distribution
CASS 7.10.20RRP
A firm holding money in either of the ways described in CASS 7.10.16 R in respect of a client and providing the services to it referred to in CASS 7.10.19 R must:(1) explain to its clients the circumstances, if any, under which it will cease to hold any money in respect of those services as banker and will hold the money as trustee in accordance with the client money rules; and(2) set out the circumstances in (1), if any, in its terms of business so that they form part of its
CASS 7.10.22RRP
If a CRD credit institution or an approved bank that is not a CRD credit institution wishes to hold client money for a client (rather than hold the money in either of the ways described in CASS 7.10.16 R) it must, before providing designated investment business services to the client, disclose the following information to the client:(1) that the money held for that client in the course of or in connection with the business described under (2) is being held by the firm as client
CASS 7.10.26RRP
A firm that holds money on behalf of, or receives money from, an affiliated company in respect of designated investment business which is not MiFID business must not treat the money as client money unless:(1) the firm has been notified by the affiliated company that the money belongs to a client of the affiliated company; or(2) the affiliated company is a client dealt with at arm's length; or(3) the affiliated company is a manager of an occupational pension scheme or is an overseas
CASS 7.10.27RRP
The client money rules do not apply with respect to coins held on behalf of a client if the firm and the client have agreed that the money (or money of that type) is to be held by the firm for the intrinsic value of the metal which constitutes the coin.
CASS 11.11.19GRP
Firms are reminded that, under CASS 11.4.3 R, if a firm has drawn any cheques, or other payable orders, to discharge its fiduciary duty to its clients (for example, to return client money to the client or distribute it to the client's creditors), the sum concerned must be included in the firm's calculation of its client money requirement until the cheque or order is presented and paid.
CASS 11.11.21RRP
The individual client balance for each client must be calculated as follows:(1) the amount paid by the client to the CASS debt management firm; plus(2) the amount of any interest, and any other sums, due to the client;less:(3) the aggregate of the amount of money:(a) paid back to that client; and(b) due and payable by the client to the CASS debt management firm; and(c) paid out to a third party for, or on behalf of, that client.
CASS 11.11.22RRP
Where the individual client balance calculated in respect of an individual client under CASS 11.11.21 R is a negative figure (because the amounts paid by or due to a client under CASS 11.11.21 R (1) and CASS 11.11.21 R (2) are less than the amounts paid out or due and payable by that client under CASS 11.11.21 R (3), that individual client balance should be treated as zero for the purposes of the calculation of the firm'sclient money requirement in CASS 11.11.17 R.
CASS 11.13.2GRP
The debt management client money distribution rules seek, in the event of the failure of a CASS debt management firm or of an approved bank at which the CASS debt management firm holds client money, to protect client money and to facilitate the timely payment of sums to creditors or the timely return of client money to clients.
CASS 11.13.11RRP
(1) Subject to (2), if a secondary pooling event occurs as a result of the failure of an approved bank where one or more client bank accounts are held then in relation to every client bank account of the firm, the provisions of CASS 11.13.12 R (1), CASS 11.13.12 R (2) and CASS 11.13.12 R (3) will apply.(2) CASS 11.13.12 R does not apply if, on the failure of the approved bank, the CASS debt management firm pays to its clients, or pays into a client bank account at an unaffected
CASS 11.13.12RRP
Money held in each client bank account of the firm must be treated as pooled and:(1) any shortfall in client money held, or which should have been held, in client bank accounts, that has arisen as a result of the failure of the approved bank, must be borne by all clients whose client money is held in a client bank account of the firm, rateably in accordance with their entitlements to the pool;(2) a new client money entitlement must be calculated for each client by the firm, to
CASS 11.13.14RRP
Any interest earned on client money following a primary or secondary pooling event will be due to clients in accordance with CASS 11.9.11 R (Interest).
CASS 7A.2.4RRP
If a primary pooling event occurs, then4:(1) (a) in respect of a sub-pool,4 the following is treated as a single notional pool of client money for the beneficiaries of that pool:45(i) any client money held in a client bank account of the firm relating to that sub-pool; and5(ii) any client money held in a client transaction account of the firm relating to that sub-pool, except for client money held in a client transaction account at an authorised central counterparty3 or a clearing
CASS 7A.2.5RRP
(-2) (a) Subject to paragraph (-2)(b), each client’s entitlement to client money in a notional pool is calculated with reference to the client money requirement as shown by an internal client money reconciliation carried out in accordance with CASS 7.15.15R(4)(a) (Internal client money reconciliations) as at the primary pooling event.7(b) If, as at the primary pooling event, the firm had entered in to one or more cleared margined transactions through the use of a client transaction
CASS 7A.2.6ARRP
(1) 7Before a firm ceases to treat a balance of client money in a notional pool as client money by transferring it to itself under CASS 7.17.2R(5) it must:(a) (subject to paragraph (2)) attempt to distribute the balance to the relevant client or transfer it to another person for safekeeping on behalf of the client in accordance with CASS 7A.2.4R (Pooling and distribution or transfer); (b) (subject to paragraph (3)) take reasonable steps to notify any client in respect of whom
CASS 7A.2.6CERP
(1) 7Reasonable steps in CASS 7A.2.6AR(1)(b) include the following course of conduct:(a) determining, as far as reasonably possible, the correct contact details for the relevant client;(b) for a client for whom the firm has evidence that it was a professional client for the purposes of the client money rules at the time of the primary pooling event:(i) writing to the client at the last known address either by post or by electronic mail:(A) to inform it of the firm’s intention
CASS 7A.2.10BGRP
7Where the firm has payment instructions from the client, the firm should pay the money to the order of the client, rather than into a client bank account.
CASS 7.19.25RRP
The records maintained under this section, including the sub-pool disclosure documents, are a record of the firm that must be kept in a durable medium for at least five years following the date on which client money was last held by the firm for a sub-pool to which those records or the sub-pool disclosure document applied.
CASS 6.1.12RRP
(1) Subject to (2) and CASS 6.1.12B R and with the written agreement of the relevant client, a9firm need not treat this chapter as applying in respect of a delivery versus payment transaction through a commercial settlement system if:9929(a) in respect of a client's purchase, the firm intends for the asset in question to be due to the client within one business day following the client's fulfilment of its payment obligation to the firm;9 or9(b) in respect of a client's sale, the
CASS 6.1.12DGRP
(1) 9In line with CASS 6.1.12 R, where a firm receives a safe custody asset from a client in respect of a delivery versus payment transaction the firm is carrying out through a commercial settlement system in respect of a client's sale, and the firm has not fulfilled its payment obligation to the client by close of business on the third business day following the date of the client's fulfilment of its delivery obligation to the firm, the firm should consider whether the custody
CASS 5.1.1RRP
(1) CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 apply, subject to (2), (3) and CASS 5.1.3 R to CASS 5.1.6 R, to a firm that receives or holds money in the course of or in connection with its insurance mediation activity.(2) CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 do not, subject to (3), apply:(a) to a firm to the extent that it acts in accordance with the client money chapter; or64(b) to a firm in carrying on an insurance mediation activity which is in respect of a reinsurance contract; or(c) to an insurance undertaking
CASS 5.1.2GRP
A firm that is an approved bank, and relies on the exemption under CASS 5.1.1 R (2)(e), should be able to account to all of its clients for amounts held on their behalf at all times. A bank account opened with the firm that is in the name of the client would generally be sufficient. When money from clients deposited with the firm is held in a pooled account, this account should be clearly identified as an account for clients. The firm should also be able to demonstrate that an
CASS 5.1.5ARRP
3CASS 5.1.5 R (1)(b) and CASS 5.1.5 R (2) do not apply, and hence money is client money, in any case where:(1) in relation to an activity specified in CASS 5.2.3 R (1) (a) to CASS 5.2.3 R (1) (c), the insurance undertaking has agreed that the firm may treat money which it receives and holds as agent of the undertaking, as client money and in accordance with the provisions of CASS 5.3 to CASS 5.6; and(2) the agreement in (1) is in writing and adequate to show that the insurance
CASS 5.1.7GRP
(1) Principle 10 (Clients' assets) requires a firm to arrange adequate protection for clients' assets when the firm is responsible for them. An essential part of that protection is the proper accounting and handling of client money. The rules in CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 also give effect to the requirement in article 4.4 of the Insurance Mediation Directive5 that all necessary measures should be taken to protect clients against the inability of an insurance intermediary to transfer
CASS 7A.3.8ARRP
3If a secondary pooling event occurs as a result of the failure of an authorised central counterparty: (1) any money held in a client transaction account that is an individual client account at the failedauthorised central counterparty is not pooled by the firm with any of its other client money;(2) any money held in a client transaction account that is an omnibus client account at the failedauthorised central counterparty is not pooled by the firm with any of its other client
CASS 7A.3.10RRP
For each client with a designated client bank account maintained by the firm for the general pool or a particular sub-pool and2 held at the failed bank:(1) any secondary pooling shortfall3 in client money held, or which should have been held, in designated client bank accounts that has arisen as a result of the failure, must be borne by all the clients of the relevant pool2 whose client money is held in a designated client bank account of the firm at the failed bank, rateably
CASS 7A.3.11RRP
Money held by the firm2 in each designated client fund account for the general pool or a particular sub-pool with the failedbank must be treated as pooled with any other designated client fund accounts for the general pool or a particular sub-pool as the case may be2 which contain part of the same designated fund and:2(1) any secondary pooling shortfall3 in client money held, or which should have been held, in designated client fund accounts that has arisen as a result of the
CASS 7A.3.13RRP
Client money received by the firm after the failure of a bank, exchange, clearing house, intermediate broker, settlement agent or OTC counterparty,3 that would otherwise have been paid into a client bank account or client transaction account at that bank, exchange, clearing house, intermediate broker, settlement agent or OTC counterparty, as the case may be3, for either the general pool or a particular sub-pool2:(1) must not be transferred to the failedperson3 unless specifically
CASS 11.4.1GRP
CASS 11 provides important safeguards for the protection of client money held by CASS debt management firms that sit alongside the fiduciary duty owed by firms in relation to client money. CASS 11.4.2 R to CASS 11.4.4 G provide guidance and rules for when money ceases to be client money for the purposes of both those rules and of the fiduciary duty which CASS debt management firms owe to clients in relation to client money.
CASS 11.4.2RRP
Money ceases to be client money if:(1) it is paid to the client, or a duly authorised representative of the client; or(2) it is:(a) paid to a third party on the instruction of the client, or with the specific consent of the client; or(b) paid to a third party further to an obligation on the firm under any applicable law; or(3) it is paid into an account of the client (not being an account which is also in the name of the firm) on the instruction, or with the specific consent,
CASS 11.4.3RRP
When a CASS debt management firm draws a cheque or other payable order to discharge its fiduciary duty to the client, it must continue to treat the sum concerned as client money until the cheque or order is presented and paid.
CASS 11.4.4GRP
Money is not client money when it is properly due and payable to the firm for its own account. The circumstances in which money may become due and payable to the firm could include when fees have become due and payable from the client to the firm under the agreement between the client and the firm.
CASS 5.2.1GRP
If a firm holds money as agent of an insurance undertaking then the firm'sclients (who are not insurance undertakings) will be adequately protected to the extent that the premiums which it receives are treated as being received by the insurance undertaking when they are received by the agent and claims money and premium refunds will only be treated as received by the client when they are actually paid over. The rules in CASS 5.2 make provision for agency agreements between firms
CASS 5.2.4GRP
Firms are reminded that CASS 5.1.5A R1 provides that, if the insurance undertaking has agreed in writing, 1money held in accordance with an agreement made under CASS 5.2.3 R may be treated as 1client money and may (but not otherwise) 1be kept in a client bank account.
CASS 11.9.10RRP
A CASS debt management firm must ensure that client money received by its appointed representatives, field representatives or other agents is:(1) received directly into a client bank account of the firm; or(2) if it is received in the form of a cheque or other payable order:(a) paid into a client bank account of the CASS debt management firm promptly and, in any event, no later than the next business day after receipt; or(b) forwarded to the firm or, in the case of a field representative,
CASS 11.9.13GRP
The FCA would expect compliance with the requirement in CASS 11.9.12 R to return client money promptly to require client money to be returned to a client within five business days of the date on which a client's withdrawal from a debt management plan takes effect.
CASS 8.2.1RRP
1A mandate is any means that give a firm the ability to control a client's assets or liabilities, which meet the conditions in (1) to (5): (1) they are obtained by the firm from the client, and with the client's consent;(2) where those means are obtained in the course of, or in connection with, the firm'sinsurance mediation activity, they are in written form at the time they are obtained from the client;(3) they are retained by the firm;(4) they put the firm in a position where
CASS 8.2.4GRP
The instructions referred to at CASS 8.2.1 R (4) are all instructions given by a firm to another person who also has a relationship with the firm'sclient. For example, the other person may be the client'sbank, intermediary, custodian or credit card provider. This means, for example, that any means by which a firm can control a client's money or assets for which it is itself responsible to the client (rather than any other person) would not amount to a mandate. This includes where
CASS 7.17.5GRP
The statutory trust under CASS 7.17.2 R does not permit a firm, in its capacity as trustee, to use client money to advance credit to the firm's clients, itself, or any other person. For example, if a firm wishes to undertake a transaction for a client in advance of receiving client money from that client to fund that transaction, it should not advance credit to that client or itself using other clients'client money (ie, it should not 'pre-fund' the transaction using other clients'