Related provisions for CASS 5.5.27

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CASS 5.5.4RRP
If a firm is liable to pay money to a client, it must as soon as possible, and no later than one business day after the money is due and payable:(1) pay it into a client bank account, in accordance with CASS 5.5.5 R; or(2) pay it to, or to the order of, the client.
CASS 5.5.5RRP
A firm must segregate client money by either:(1) paying it as soon as is practicable into a client bank account; or(2) paying it out in accordance with CASS 5.5.80 R.
CASS 5.5.6GRP
The FSA expects that in most circumstances it will be practicable for a firm to pay client money into a client bank account by not later than the next business day after receipt.
CASS 5.5.7GRP
Where an insurance transaction involves more than one firm acting in a chain such that for example money is transferred from a "producing" broker who has received client money from a consumer5 to an intermediate broker and thereafter to an insurance undertaking, each broker firm will owe obligations to its immediate client to segregate client money which it receives (in this example the producing broker in relation to the consumer5and the intermediate broker in relation to the
CASS 5.5.8RRP
A firm may segregate client money in a different currency from that of receipt. If it does so, the firm must ensure that the amount held is adjusted at intervals of not more than twenty five business days to an amount at least equal to the original currency amount (or the currency in which the firm has its liability to its clients, if different), translated at the previous day's closing spot exchange rate.
CASS 5.5.9RRP
A firm must not hold money other than client money in a client bank account unless it is:(1) a minimum sum required to open the account, or to keep it open; or(2) money temporarily in the account in accordance with CASS 5.5.16 R (Withdrawal of commission and mixed remittance); or(3) interest credited to the account which exceeds the amount due to clients as interest and has not yet been withdrawn by the firm.
CASS 5.5.10RRP
If it is prudent to do so to ensure that client money is protected (and provided that doing so would otherwise be in accordance with CASS 5.5.63 R (1)(b)(ii)),2 a firm may pay into, or maintain in, a client bank account money of its own, and that money will then become client money for the purposes of CASS 5 and the client money (insurance) distribution rules.
CASS 5.5.11RRP
A firm, when acting in accordance with CASS 5.3 (statutory trust), must ensure that the total amount of client money held for each client in any of the firm'sclient moneybankaccounts is positive and that no payment is made from any such account for the benefit of a client unless the client has provided the firm with cleared funds to enable the payment to be made.
CASS 5.5.11AGRP
2When a firm acts in accordance with CASS 5.3 (Statutory trust) it should not make a payment from the client bank account unless it is satisfied on reasonable grounds that the client has provided it with cleared funds. Accordingly, a firm should normally allow a reasonable period of time for cheques to clear. If a withdrawal is made and the client's cheque is subsequently dishonoured it will be the firm's responsibility to make good the shortfall in the account as quickly as possible
CASS 5.5.12RRP
If client money is received by the firm in the form of an automated transfer, the firm must take reasonable steps to ensure that:(1) the money is received directly into a client bank account; and(2) if money is received directly into the firm's own account, the money is transferred into a client bank account no later than the next business day after receipt.
CASS 5.5.13GRP
A firm can hold client money in either a general client bank account (CASS 5.5.38 R) or a designated client bank account (CASS 5.5.39 R). A firm holds all client money in general client bank accounts for its clients as part of a common pool of money so those particular clients do not have a claim against a specific sum in a specific account; they only have a claim to the client money in general. A firm holds client money in designated client bank accounts for those clients who requested
CASS 5.5.15GRP
A firm which takes advantage of CASS 5.5.14 R will need to consider whether its permission should include the permitted activity of managing investments. If the firm is granted a power to manage with discretion the funds over which it is appointed as trustee under the trust deed required by CASS 5.4 then it will be likely to need a permission to manage investments. It is unlikely to need such a permission, however, if it is merely granted a power to invest but the deed stipulates
CASS 5.5.16RRP
(1) A firm may draw down commission from the client bank account if:(a) it has received the premium from the client (or from a third party premium finance provider on the client's behalf);2 and(b) this is consistent with the firm'sterms of business which it maintains with the relevant client and 2the insurance undertaking to whom the premium will become2 payable;and the firm may draw down commission before payment of the premium to the insurance undertaking, provided that the conditions
CASS 5.5.17GRP
(1) As soon as commission becomes due to the firm (in accordance with CASS 5.5.16 R (1)) it must be treated as a remittance which must be withdrawn in accordance with CASS 5.5.16 R (2). 2The procedure required by CASS 5.5.16 R will also 2apply where moneyis 2due and payable 2to the firm in respect of fees due from clients (whether to the firm or other professionals).(2) Firms are reminded that money received in accordance with CASS 5.2 must not, except where a firm and an insurance
CASS 5.5.18RRP
(1) Subject to (4), a 2firm must in relation to each of its appointed representatives, field representatives and other agents comply with CASS 5.5.19 R to CASS 5.5.21 R (Immediate segregation) or with CASS 5.5.23 R (Periodic segregation and reconciliation).(2) A firm must in relation to each representative or other agent keep a record of whether it is complying with CASS 5.5.19 R to CASS 5.5.21 R or with CASS 5.5.23 R.(3) A firm is, but without affecting the application of CASS
CASS 5.5.23RRP
(1) A firm must, on a regular basis, and at reasonable intervals, ensure that it holds in its client bank account an amount which (in addition to any other amount which it is required by these rules to hold) is not less than the amount which it reasonably estimates to be the aggregate of the amounts held at any time by its appointed representatives, field representatives, and other agents.(2) A firm must, not later than ten business days following the expiry of each period in
CASS 5.5.24GRP
(1) CASS 5.5.23 R allows a firm with appointed representatives, field representatives and other agents to avoid the need for the representative to forward client money on a daily basis but instead requires a firm to segregate into its client money bank account amounts which it reasonably estimates to be sufficient to cover the amount of client money which the firm expects its representatives or agents to receive and hold over a given period. At the expiry of each such period, the
CASS 5.5.26RRP
A firm must take reasonable steps to ensure that it is notified promptly of any receipt of client money in the form of client entitlements.
CASS 5.5.28RRP
When a firm receives a client entitlement on behalf of a client, it must pay any part of it which is client money:(1) for client entitlements received in the United Kingdom, into a client bank account in accordance with CASS 5.5.5 R; or(2) for client entitlements received outside the United Kingdom, into any bank account operated by the firm, provided that such client money is:(a) paid to, or in accordance with, the instructions of the client concerned; or(b) paid into a client
CASS 5.5.29RRP
A firm must take reasonable steps to ensure that a client entitlement which is client money is allocated within a reasonable period of time after notification of receipt.
CASS 5.5.30RRP
(1) In relation to consumers5, a firm must, subject to (2), take reasonable steps to ensure that its terms of business or other client agreements4 adequately explain, and where necessary obtain a client's informed consent to, the treatment of interest and, if applicable, investment returns, derived from its holding of client money and any segregated designated investments.54(2) In respect of interest earned on client bank accounts, (1) does not apply if a firm has reasonable ground
CASS 5.5.33GRP
CASS 5.5.34 R sets out the requirements a firm must comply with when it transfers client money to another person without discharging its fiduciary duty owed to that client. Such circumstances arise when, for example, a firm passes client money to another broker for the purposes of the client's transaction being effected. A firm can only discharge itself from its fiduciary duty by acting in accordance with, and in the circumstances permitted by, CASS 5.5.80 R.
CASS 5.5.40GRP
(1) A firm may operate as many client accounts as it wishes.(2) A firm is not obliged to offer its clients the facility of a designated client bank account.(3) Where a firm holds money in a designated client bank account, the effect upon either:(a) the failure of a bank where any other client bank account is held; or(b) the failure of a third party to whom money has been transferred out of any other client bank account in accordance with CASS 5.5.34 R;(each of which is a secondary
CASS 5.5.41RRP
A firm may hold client money with a bank that is not an approved bank if all the following conditions are met:(1) the client money relates to one or more insurance transactions which are subject to the law or market practice of a jurisdiction outside the United Kingdom;(2) because of the applicable law or market practice of that overseas jurisdiction, it is not possible to hold the client money in a client bank account with an approved bank;(3) the firm holds the money with such
CASS 5.5.42GRP
A firm owes a duty of care to a client when it decides where to place client money. The review required by CASS 5.5.43 R is intended to ensure that the risks inherent in placing client money with a bank are minimised or appropriately diversified by requiring a firm to consider carefully the bank or banks with which it chooses to place client money. For example, a firm which is likely only to hold relatively modest amounts of client money will be likely to be able to satisfy this
CASS 5.5.46GRP
A firm will be expected to perform due diligence when opening a client bank account with a bank that is authorised by an EEA regulator. Any continuing assessment of that bank may be restricted to verification that it remains authorised by an EEA regulator.
CASS 5.5.47RRP
Subject to CASS 5.5.41 R, a firm that holds or intends to hold client money with a bank which is in the same group as the firm must:(1) undertake a continuous review in relation to that bank which is at least as rigorous as the review of any bank which is not in the same group, in order to ensure that the decision to use a group bank is appropriate for the client;(2) disclose in writing to its client at the outset of the client relationship (whether by way of a client agreement,4terms of
CASS 5.5.48RRP
If a client has notified a firm in writing that he does not wish his money to be held with a bank in the same group as the firm, the firm must either:(1) place that client money in a client bank account with another bank in accordance with CASS 5.5.38 R; or(2) return that client money to, or pay it to the order of, the client.
CASS 5.5.51RRP
In the case of a client bank account outside the United Kingdom, if the bank does not provide the acknowledgement referred to in CASS 5.5.49 R within 20 business days after the firm dispatched the notice, the firm must notify the client of this fact as set out in CASS 5.5.53 R.
CASS 5.5.53RRP
A firm must not hold, for a consumer5, client money in a client bank account outside the United Kingdom, unless the firm has previously disclosed to the consumer5 (whether in its terms of business, client agreement9 or otherwise in writing):559(1) that his money may be deposited in a client bank account outside the United Kingdom but that the client may notify the firm that he does not wish his money to be held in a particular jurisdiction;(2) that in such circumstances, the legal
CASS 5.5.56RRP
If a client has notified a firm in writing before entering into a transaction that client money is not to be held in a particular jurisdiction, the firm must either:(1) hold the client money in a client bank account in a jurisdiction to which the client has not objected; or(2) return the client money to, or to the order of, the client.
CASS 5.5.58RRP
A firm must not undertake any transaction for a consumer5 that involves client money being passed to another broker or settlement agent located in a jurisdiction outside the United Kingdom, unless the firm has previously disclosed to the consumer5 (whether in its terms of business, client agreement 4or otherwise in writing):554(1) that his client money may be passed to a person outside the United Kingdom but the client may notify the firm that he does not wish his money to be
CASS 5.5.60RRP
If a client has notified a firm before entering into a transaction that he does not wish his money to be passed to another broker or settlement agent located in a particular jurisdiction, the firm must either:(1) hold the client money in a client bank account in the United Kingdom or a jurisdiction to which the money has not objected and pay its own money to the firm's own account with the broker, agent or counterparty; or(2) return the money to, or to the order of, the clien
CASS 5.5.62GRP
(1) In order that a firm may check that it has sufficient money segregated in its client bank account (and held by third parties) to meet its obligations to clients it is required periodically to calculate the amount which should be segregated (the client money requirement) and to compare this with the amount shown as its client money resource. This calculation is, in the first instance, based upon the firm's accounting records and is followed by a reconciliation with its banking
CASS 5.5.65RRP
The client money resource, for the purposes of CASS 5.5.63 R (1)(a),2 is:(1) the aggregate of the balances on the firm's client money bank accounts, as at the close of business on the previous business day and, if held in accordance with CASS 5.4, designated investments (valued on a prudent and consistent basis) together with client money held by a third party in accordance with CASS 5.5.34 R; and(2) (but only if the firm is comparing the client money resource with its client's
CASS 5.5.66RRP
A firm'sclient money (client balance) requirement is the sum of, for all clients, the individual client balances calculated in accordance with CASS 5.5.67 R but excluding any individual balances which are negative (that is, uncleared client funds).
CASS 5.5.67RRP
The individual client balance for each client must be calculated as follows:(1) the amount paid by a client to the firm (to include all premiums); plus(2) the amount due to the client (to include all claims and premium refunds); plus(3) the amount of any interest or investment returns due to the client;(4) less the amount paid to insurance undertakings for the benefit of the client (to include all premiums and commission due to itself) (i.e. commissions that are due but have not
CASS 5.5.68RRP
A firm's client money (accruals) requirement is the sum of the following:(1) all insurance creditors shown in the firm's business ledgers as amounts due to insurance undertakings, clients and other persons; plus(2) unearned commission 2being the amount of commission 2shown as accrued (but not shown as due 2and payable) as at the date of the calculation (a prudent estimate must be used if the firm is unable to produce an exact figure at the date of the calculation).
CASS 5.5.69RRP
A firm which calculates its client money requirement on the preceding basis must in addition and within a reasonable period be able to match its client money resource to its requirement by reference to individual clients (with such matching being achieved for the majority of its clients and transactions).
CASS 5.5.79GRP
The purpose of CASS 5.5.80 R to CASS 5.5.83 R is to set out those situations in which a firm will have fulfilled its contractual and fiduciary obligations in relation to any client money held for or on behalf of its client, or3 in relation to the firm's ability to require repayment of that money from a third party3.
CASS 5.5.80RRP
Money ceases to be client money if it is paid:(1) to the client, or a duly authorised representative of the client; or(2) to a third party on the instruction of or with the specific consent of the client, but not if it is transferred to a third party in the course of effecting a transaction, in accordance with CASS 5.5.34 R; or(3) into a bank account of the client (not being an account which is also in the name of the firm); or(4) to the firm itself, when it is due and payable
CASS 5.5.81GRP
(1) A firm which pays professional fees (for example to a loss adjuster or valuer) on behalf of a client may do so in accordance with CASS 5.5.80 R (2) where this is done on the instruction of or with the consent of the client.(2) When a firm wishes to transfer client money balances to a third party in the course of transferring its business to another firm, it should do so in compliance with CASS 5.5.80 R and a transferee firm will come under an obligation to treat any client
CASS 5.5.83RRP
For the purposes of CASS 5.1.5 R, if a firm makes a payment to, or on the instructions of, a client, from an account other than a client bank account, until that payment has cleared, no equivalent sum will become due and payable to the firm or may be withdrawn from a client bank account by way of reimbursement.
CASS 6.1.1RRP
This chapter (the custody rules) applies to a firm:21(1) [deleted]22(a) [deleted]22(b) [deleted]22(1A) 2when it holds financial instruments belonging to a client in the course of its MiFID business; and/or(1B) 2when it is safeguarding and administering investments, in the course of business that is not MiFID business.(2) [deleted]22
CASS 6.1.1AGRP
2The regulated activity of safeguarding and administering investments covers both the safeguarding and administration of assets (without arranging) andarranging safeguarding and administration of assets,5 when those assets are either safe custody investments or custody assets. A safe custody investment is, in summary, a designated investment which a firm receives or holds on behalf of a client. Custody assets include designated investments, and any other assets that the firm holds
CASS 6.1.1CGRP
2In accordance with article 42 of the Regulated Activities Order, a firm ("I") will not be arranging safeguarding and administration of assets if it introduces a client to another firm whose permitted activities include the safeguarding and administration of investments, or to an exempt person acting as such, with a view to that other firm or exempt person:(1) providing a safe custody service in the United Kingdom; or(2) arranging for the provision of a safe custody service in
CASS 6.1.2GRP
Firms are reminded that dividends (actual or payments in lieu), stock lending fees and other payments received for the benefit of a client, and which are due to the clients,2 should be held in accordance with the client money chapter where appropriate.2
CASS 6.1.4RRP
The custody rules do not apply where a firm carries on business in its name but on behalf of the client where that is required by the very nature of the transaction and the client is in agreement.[Note: recital 26 to MiFID]
CASS 6.1.5GRP
For example, this chapter does not apply where a firm borrows safe custody assets2 from a client as principal under a stock lending agreement.2
CASS 6.1.9GRP
Firms are reminded that, in certain cases, the collateral rules apply where a firm receives collateral from a client in order to secure the obligations of the client.
CASS 6.1.10GRP
The fact that a client is an affiliated company in respect of MiFID business2 does not affect the operation of the custody rules in relation to that client.
CASS 6.1.12RRP
(1) A firm need not treat this chapter as applying in respect of a delivery versus payment transaction through a commercial settlement system if it is intended that the safe custody asset2 is either to be: 2(a) in respect of a client's purchase, due to the client within one business day following the client's fulfilment of a payment obligation; or(b) in respect of a client's sale, due to the firm within one business day following the fulfilment of a payment obligation;unless
CASS 6.1.15GRP
The custody rules do not apply if a firm temporarily handles a safe custody asset2 belonging to a client. A firm should temporarily handle a safe custody asset2 for no longer than is reasonably necessary. In most transactions this would be no longer than one business day, but it may be longer or shorter depending upon the transaction in question. For example, when a firm executes an order to sell shares which have not been registered on a de-materialised exchange, handling documents
CASS 6.1.16GRP
When a firm temporarily handles a safe custody asset,2 in order to comply with its obligation to act in accordance with Principle 10 (Clients' assets), the following are guides to good practice:2(1) a firm should keep the safe custody asset2 secure, record it as belonging to that client, and forward it to the client or in accordance with the client's instructions as soon as practicable after receiving it; and2(2) a firm should make and retain a record of the fact that the firm
CASS 6.1.16ARRP
2The exemptions in CASS 6.1.16B R to CASS 6.1.16D G do not apply to a MiFID investment firm which holds financial instruments belonging to a client in the course of MiFID business.
CASS 6.1.16CRRP
2The custody rules do not apply to a personal investment firm when it temporarily holds a designated investment, other than in bearer form, belonging to a client, if the firm:(1) keeps it secure, records it as belonging to that client, and forwards it to the client or in accordance with the client's instructions, as soon as practicable after receiving it; (2) retains the designated investment for no longer than the firm has taken reasonable steps to determine is necessary to check
CASS 6.1.16ERRP
2The specialist regime in CASS 6.1.16F R to CASS 6.1.16I G does not apply to a MiFID investment firm which holds financial instruments belonging to a client in the course of MiFID business.
CASS 6.1.23GRP
The rules in this chapter are designed primarily to restrict the commingling of client and the firm's assets and minimise the risk of the client'ssafe custody assets2 being used by the firm without the client's agreement or contrary to the client's wishes, or being treated as the firm's assets in the event of its insolvency.2
CASS 6.1.24GRP
The custody rules also, where relevant,2 implement the provisions of MiFID which regulate the obligations of a firm when it holds financial instruments belonging to a client in the course of its MiFID business.2
CASS 6.2.1RRP
1A firm must, when holding safe custody assets2 belonging to clients, make adequate arrangements so as to safeguard clients' ownership rights, especially in the event of the firm's insolvency, and to prevent the use of safe custody assets2 belonging to a client on the firm's own account except with the client's express consent.[Note: article 13(7) of MiFID]22
CASS 6.2.3RRP
To the extent practicable, a firm must effect appropriate registration or recording of legal title to a safe custody asset2 in the name of:2(1) the client (or, where appropriate, the trustee firm), unless the client is an authorised person acting on behalf of its client, in which case it may be registered in the name of the client of that authorised person;(2) a nominee company which is controlled by:(a) the firm;(b) an affiliated company;(c) a recognised investment exchange
CASS 6.2.4RRP
A firm must accept the same level of responsibility to its client for any nominee company controlled by the firm with respect of any requirements of the custody rules.
CASS 6.2.5RRP
A firm may register or record legal title to its own applicable assets2 in the same name as that in which legal title to a safe custody asset2 is registered or recorded, but only if:22(1) the firm'sapplicable assets2 are separately identified in the firm's records from the safe custody assets;2 or22(2) the firm registers or records a safe custody asset2 in accordance with CASS 6.2.3R (4).2
CASS 6.2.6GRP
A firm when complying with CASS 6.2.3R (3) or CASS 6.2.3R (4) will be expected to demonstrate that adequate investigations have been made of the market concerned by reference to local sources, which may include an appropriate legal opinion.
SYSC 10.1.3RRP
A firm must take all reasonable steps to identify conflicts of interest between:3(1) the firm, including its managers, employees and appointed representatives (or where applicable, 2tied agents)2, or any person directly or indirectly linked to them by control, and a client of the firm; or2(2) one client of the firm and another client;that arise or may arise in the course of the firm providing any service referred to in SYSC 10.1.1 R.[Note: article 18(1) of MiFID]
SYSC 10.1.4RRP
For the purposes of identifying the types of conflict of interest that arise, or may arise, in the course of providing a service and whose existence may entail a material risk of damage to the interests of a client, a common platform firm and a management company5 must take into account, as a minimum, whether the firm or a relevant person, or a person directly or indirectly linked by control to the firm:(1) is likely to make a financial gain, or avoid a financial loss, at the
SYSC 10.1.5GRP
The circumstances which should be treated as giving rise to a conflict of interest cover cases where there is a conflict between the interests of the firm or certain persons connected to the firm or the firm'sgroup and the duty the firm owes to a client; or between the differing interests of two or more of its clients, to whom the firm owes in each case a duty. It is not enough that the firm may gain a benefit if there is not also a possible disadvantage to a client, or that one
SYSC 10.1.6RRP
A common platform firm and a management company5 must keep and regularly update a record of the kinds of service or activity carried out by or on behalf of that5firm in which a conflict of interest entailing a material risk of damage to the interests of one or more clients has arisen or, in the case of an ongoing service or activity, may arise.[Note:article 23 of MiFID implementing Directiveand article 20(1) of the UCITS implementing Directive]55
SYSC 10.1.7RRP
A firm must maintain and operate effective organisational and administrative arrangements with a view to taking all reasonable steps to prevent conflicts of interest as defined in SYSC 10.1.3 R from constituting or giving rise to a material risk of damage to the interests of its clients.[Note: article 13(3) of MiFID]3
SYSC 10.1.8RRP
(1) If arrangements made by a firm under SYSC 10.1.7 R to manage conflicts of interest are not sufficient to ensure, with reasonable confidence, that risks of damage to the interests of a client will be prevented, the firm must clearly disclose the general nature and/or sources of conflicts of interest to the client before undertaking business for the client.3(2) The disclosure must:(a) be made in a durable medium; and(b) include sufficient detail, taking into account the nature
SYSC 10.1.11RRP
(1) The conflicts of interest policy must include the following content:(a) it must identify in accordance with SYSC 10.1.3 R and SYSC 10.1.4 R, by reference to the specific services and activities carried out by or on behalf of the common platform firm or management company,5 the circumstances which constitute or may give rise to a conflict of interest entailing a material risk of damage to the interests of one or more clients; and(b) it must specify procedures to be followed
SYSC 10.1.16RRP
3The rules relating to:(1) types of conflict (see SYSC 10.1.4 R);(2) records of conflicts (see SYSC 10.1.6 R); and(3) conflicts of interest policies (see SYSC 10.1.10 R and SYSC 10.1.11 R);also apply to a firm which is not a common platform firm when it produces, or arranges for the production of, investment research that is intended or likely to be subsequently disseminated to clients of the firm or to the public in accordance with COBS 12.2, and when it produces or disseminates
SYSC 10.1.17RRP
5A management company, when identifying the types of conflict of interests for the purposes of SYSC 10.1.4 R, must take into account:(1) the interests of the firm, including those deriving from its belonging to a group or from the performance of services and activities, the interests of the clients and the duty of the firm towards the UCITS scheme or EEA UCITS scheme it manages; and(2) where it manages two or more UCITS schemes or EEA UCITS schemes, the interests of all of them.[Note:
SYSC 10.1.18GRP
5For a management company, references to client in SYSC 10.1.4 R and in the other rules in this section should be construed as referring to any UCITS scheme or EEA UCITS scheme managed by that firm or which it intends to manage, and with or for the benefit of which the relevant activity is to be carried on.
SYSC 10.1.19RRP
5A management company must be structured and organised in such a way as to minimise the risk of a UCITS scheme's, EEA UCITS scheme's or client's interests being prejudiced by conflicts of interest between the management company and its clients, between two of its clients, between one of its clients and a UCITS scheme or an EEA UCITS scheme, or between two such schemes.[Note: articles 12(1)(b) and 14(1)(d) of the UCITS Directive]
CASS 7A.2.4RRP
If a primary pooling event occurs:(1) client money held in each client money account of the firm is treated as pooled; and(2) the firm must distribute that client money in accordance with CASS 7.7.2 R, so that each client receives a sum which is rateable to the client money entitlement calculated in accordance with CASS 7A.2.5 R.
CASS 7A.2.5RRP
(1) When, in respect of a client, there is a positive individual client balance and a negative client equity balance, the credit must be offset against the debit reducing theindividual client balance for that client.(2) When, in respect of a client , there is a negative individual client balance and a positive client equity balance , the credit must be offset against the debit reducing the client equity balance for that client.
CASS 5.6.7RRP
If a primary pooling event occurs:(1) client money held in each client money account of the firm is treated as pooled;(2) the firm must distribute that client money in accordance with CASS 5.3.2 R or, as appropriate, CASS 5.4.7 R, so that each client receives a sum which is rateable to the client money entitlement calculated in accordance with CASS 5.5.66 R; and(3) the firm must, as trustee, call in and make demand in respect of any debt due to the firm as trustee, and must liquidate
CASS 5.6.8GRP
A client's main claim is for the return of client money held in a client bank account. A client may claim for any shortfall against money held in a firm's own account. For that claim, the client will be an unsecured creditor of the firm.
CASS 5.6.9RRP
Client money received by the firm (including in its capacity as trustee under CASS 5.4 (Non-statutory trust)) after a primary pooling event must not be pooled with client money held in any client money account operated by the firm at the time of the primary pooling event. It must be placed in a client bank account that has been opened after that event and must be handled in accordance with the client money rules, and returned to the relevant client without delay, except to the
CASS 5.6.15RRP
CASS 5.6.20 R to CASS 5.6.31 R do not apply if, on the failure of the third party, the firm repays to its clients or pays into a client bank account, at an unaffected bank, an amount equal to the amount of client money which would have been held if a shortfall had not occurred at that third party.
CASS 5.6.16GRP
When client money is transferred to a third party, a firm continues to owe a fiduciary duty to the client. However, consistent with a fiduciary's responsibility (whether as agent or trustee) for third parties under general law, a firm will not be held responsible for a shortfall in client money caused by a third party failure if it has complied with those duties.
CASS 5.6.19GRP
The client money (insurance) distribution rules seek to ensure that clients who have previously specified that they are not willing to accept the risk of the bank that has fails, and who therefore requested that their client money be placed in a designated client bank account as a different bank, should not suffer the loss of the bank that has failed.
CASS 5.6.22RRP
Money held in each general client bank account of the firm must be treated as pooled and:(1) any shortfall in client money held, or which should have been held, in general client bank accounts, that has arisen as a result of the failure of the bank, must be borne by all the clients whose client money is held in a general client bank account of the firm, rateably in accordance with their entitlements;(2) a new client money entitlement must be calculated for each client by the firm,
CASS 5.6.24RRP
For each client with a designated client bank account held at the failed bank:(1) any shortfall in client money held, or which should have been held, in designated client bank accounts that has arisen as a result of the failure, must be borne by all the clients whose client money is held in a designated client bank account of the firm at the failed bank, rateably in accordance with their entitlements;(2) a new client money entitlement must be calculated for each of the relevant
CASS 5.6.25RRP
A client whose money was held, or which should have been held, in a designated client bank account with a bank that has failed is not entitled to claim in respect of that money against any other client bank account or client transaction account of the firm.
CASS 5.6.26RRP
Client money received by the firm after the failure of a bank, that would otherwise have been paid into a client bank account at that bank:(1) must not be transferred to the failed bank unless specifically instructed by the client in order to settle an obligation of that client to the failed bank; and(2) must be, subject to (1), placed in a separate client bank account that has been opened after the secondary pooling event and either:(a) on the written instruction of the client, transferred
CASS 5.6.30RRP
Money held in each general client bank account of the firm must be treated as pooled and:(1) any shortfall in client money held, or which should have been held, in general client bank accounts, that has arisen as a result of the failure, must be borne by all the clients whose client money is held in a general client bank account of the firm, rateably in accordance with their entitlements;(2) a new client money entitlement must be calculated for each client by the firm, to reflect
CASS 5.6.31RRP
Client money received by the firm after the failure of another broker or settlement agent, to whom the firm has transferred client money that would otherwise have been paid into a client bank account at that broker or settlement agent:(1) must not be transferred to the failed thirty party unless specifically instructed by the client in order to settle an obligation of that client to the failed broker or settlement agent; and(2) must be, subject to (1), placed in a separate client bank
CASS 7A.3.2RRP
CASS 7A.3.6 R to CASS 7A.3.18 R do not apply if, on the failure of the third party, the firm repays to its clients or pays into a client bank account, at an unaffected bank, an amount equal to the amount of client money which would have been held if a shortfall had not occurred at that third party.
CASS 7A.3.5GRP
The client money distribution rules seek to ensure that clients who have previously specified that they are not willing to accept the risk of the bank that has failed, and who therefore requested that their client money be placed in a designated client bank account at a different bank, should not suffer the loss of the bank that has failed.
CASS 7A.3.8RRP
Money held in each general client bank account and client transaction account of the firm must be treated as pooled and:(1) any shortfall in client money held, or which should have been held, in general client bank accounts and client transaction accounts, that has arisen as a result of the failure of the bank, must be borne by all the clients whose client money is held in either a general client bank account or client transaction account of the firm, rateably in accordance with
CASS 7A.3.10RRP
For each client with a designated client bank account held at the failed bank:(1) any shortfall in client money held, or which should have been held, in designated client bank accounts that has arisen as a result of the failure, must be borne by all the clients whose client money is held in a designated client bank account of the firm at the failed bank, rateably in accordance with their entitlements;(2) a new client money entitlement must be calculated for each of the relevant
CASS 7A.3.11RRP
Money held in each designated client fund account with the failedbank must be treated as pooled with any other designated client fund accountsof the firm which contain part of the same designated fund and:(1) any shortfall in client money held, or which should have been held, in designated client fund accounts that has arisen as a result of the failure, must be borne by each of the clients whose client money is held in that designated fund, rateably in accordance with their entitlements;(2)
CASS 7A.3.13RRP
Client money received by the firm after the failure of a bank, that would otherwise have been paid into a client bank account at that bank :(1) must not be transferred to the failed bank unless specifically instructed by the client in order to settle an obligation of that client to the failed bank; and(2) must be, subject to (1), placed in a separate client bank account that has been opened after the secondary pooling event and either:(a) on the written instruction of the client,
CASS 6.3.1RRP
(1) 1A firm may deposit safe custody assets2 held by it on behalf of its clients into an account or accounts opened with a third party, but only if it exercises all due skill, care and diligence in the selection, appointment and periodic review of the third party and of the arrangements for the holding and safekeeping of those safe custody assets.222(1A) A firm which arranges the registration of a safe custody investment through a third party must exercise all due skill, care
CASS 6.3.2GRP
In discharging its obligations under this section, a firm should also consider, together with any other relevant matters:(1) once a safe custody asset2 has been lodged by the firm with the third party, the third party's performance of its services to the firm;2(2) the arrangements that the third party has in place for holding and safeguarding the safe custody asset;22(3) current industry standard reports, for example Financial Reporting and Auditing Group (FRAG) 21 report or
CASS 6.3.4RRP
(1) A firm must only deposit safe custody assets2 with a third party in a jurisdiction which specifically regulates and supervises the safekeeping of safe custody assets2 for the account of another person with a third party who is subject to such regulation.22(2) A firm must not deposit safe custody assets2 held on behalf of a client with a third party in a country that is not an EEA State (third country) and which does not regulate the holding and safekeeping of safe custody
COBS 7.2.1RRP
(1) Prior to the conclusion of any initial life policy and, if necessary, on amendment or renewal, a firm must provide a client with at least the following information:(a) its name and address;(b) the fact that it is registered on the FSA register and its FSA register number (or, if it is not on the FSA register, the register in which it has been included and the means for verifying that it has been registered);(c) whether it has a direct or indirect holding representing more
COBS 7.2.2GRP
1A firm will satisfy elements of the requirement immediately above if it provides a services and costs disclosure document or a combined initial disclosure document2 to a client (see COBS 6.3).2
COBS 7.2.2BGRP
2A firm may provide a services and costs disclosure document or a combined disclosure document to a client who buys a non-advised life policy.
COBS 7.2.3RRP
When a firm informs a client that it gives advice on the basis of a fair analysis of the market, it must give that advice on the basis of an analysis of a sufficiently large number of life policies available on the market to enable the firm to make a recommendation, in accordance with professional criteria, regarding which life policy would be adequate to meet the client's needs. [Note: article 12(2) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 7.2.4RRP
(1) Prior to the conclusion of any specific life policy, a firm must at least specify, in particular on the basis of the information provided by the client, the demands and needs of that client. Those demands and needs must be modulated according to the complexity of the relevant policy.(2) This rule does not apply when a firm makes a personal recommendation in relation to a life policy. [Note: article 12(3) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 7.2.5GRP
Firms are reminded that they are obliged to take reasonable steps to ensure that a personal recommendation is suitable for the client and that, whenever a personal recommendation relates to a life policy, a suitability report is required (COBS 9).
COBS 7.2.6RRP
All information to be provided to a client in accordance with the rules in this chapter must be communicated:(1) in a durable medium available and accessible to the client;(2) in a clear and accurate manner, comprehensible to the client; and(3) in an official language of the State of the commitment or in any other language agreed by the parties. [Note: article 13(1) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 7.2.7RRP
In the case of telephone selling, the prior information given to a client must be in accordance with the distance marketing disclosure rules (COBS 5.1). Moreover, information must be provided to the client in accordance with the means of communication to clients rule (COBS 7.2.6 R) immediately after the conclusion of the life policy. [Note: article 13(3) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 7.2.8RRP
The information referred to in the means of communication to clients rule (COBS 7.2.6 R) may be provided orally where the client requests it, or where immediate cover is necessary. In those cases, the information must be provided to the client in accordance with that rule immediately after the conclusion of the life policy. [Note: article 13(2) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
CASS 6.4.1RRP
(1) 1A firm must not enter into arrangements for securities financing transactions in respect of safe custody assets2 held by it on behalf of a client or otherwise use such safe custody assets2 for its own account or the account of another client of the firm, unless:22(a) the client has given express prior consent to the use of the safe custody assets2 on specified terms; and2(b) the use of that client'ssafe custody assets2 is restricted to the specified terms to which the
CASS 6.4.3RRP
Where a firm uses safe custody assets2 as permitted in this section, the records of the firm must include details of the client on whose instructions the use of the safe custody assets2 has been effected, as well as the number of safe custody assets2 used belonging to each client who has given consent, so as to enable the correct allocation of any loss.[Note: article 19(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]222
CASS 5.1.1RRP
(1) CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 apply, subject to (2), (3) and CASS 5.1.3 R to CASS 5.1.6 R, to a firm that receives or holds money in the course of or in connection with its insurance mediation activity.(2) CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 do not, subject to (3), apply:(a) to a firm to the extent that it acts in accordance with the client money chapter; or64(b) to a firm in carrying on an insurance mediation activity which is in respect of a reinsurance contract; or(c) to an insurance undertaking
CASS 5.1.2GRP
A firm that is an approved bank, and relies on the exemption under CASS 5.1.1 R (2)(e), should be able to account to all of its clients for amounts held on their behalf at all times. A bank account opened with the firm that is in the name of the client would generally be sufficient. When money from clients deposited with the firm is held in a pooled account, this account should be clearly identified as an account for clients. The firm should also be able to demonstrate that an
CASS 5.1.4ARRP
(1) 3A firm will, subject to (3), be deemed to comply with CASS 5.3 to CASS 5.6 if it receives or holds client money and it either:2(a) in relation to a service charge, complies with the requirement to segregate such money in accordance with section 42 of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1987 ("the 1987 Act"); or2(b) in relation to money which is clients' money for the purpose of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors' Rules of Conduct ("RICS rules") in force as at 14 January
CASS 5.1.5RRP
Subject to CASS 5.1.5A Rmoney is not client money when:3(1) it becomes properly due and payable to the firm:(a) for its own account; or(b) in its capacity as agent of an insurance undertaking where the firm acts in accordance with CASS 5.2; or(2) it is otherwise received by the firm pursuant to an arrangement made between an insurance undertaking and another person (other than a firm) by which that other person has authority to underwrite risks, settle claims or handle refunds
CASS 5.1.5ARRP
3CASS 5.1.5 R (1)(b) and CASS 5.1.5 R (2) do not apply, and hence money is client money, in any case where:(1) in relation to an activity specified in CASS 5.2.3 R (1) (a) to CASS 5.2.3 R (1) (c), the insurance undertaking has agreed that the firm may treat money which it receives and holds as agent of the undertaking, as client money and in accordance with the provisions of CASS 5.3 to CASS 5.6; and(2) the agreement in (1) is in writing and adequate to show that the insurance
CASS 5.1.6RRP
Except where a firm and an insurance undertaking have (in accordance with CASS 5.1.5A R) agreed otherwise, for the purposes of 3CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 an insurance undertaking (when acting as such) with whom a firm conducts insurance mediation activity is not to be treated as a client of the firm.
CASS 5.1.7GRP
(1) Principle 10 (Clients' assets) requires a firm to arrange adequate protection for clients' assets when the firm is responsible for them. An essential part of that protection is the proper accounting and handling of client money. The rules in CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 also give effect to the requirement in article 4.4 of the Insurance Mediation Directive5 that all necessary measures should be taken to protect clients against the inability of an insurance intermediary to transfer
COBS 9.2.1RRP
(1) A firm must take reasonable steps to ensure that a personal recommendation, or a decision to trade, is suitable for its client.(2) When making the personal recommendation or managing his investments, the firm must obtain the necessary information regarding the client's:(a) knowledge and experience in the investment field relevant to the specific type of designated investment or service;(b) financial situation; and(c) investment objectives;so as to enable the firm to make the
COBS 9.2.2RRP
(1) A firm must obtain from the client such information as is necessary for the firm to understand the essential facts about him and have a reasonable basis for believing, giving due consideration to the nature and extent of the service provided, that the specific transaction to be recommended, or entered into in the course of managing:(a) meets his investment objectives;(b) is such that he is able financially to bear any related investment risks consistent with his investment
COBS 9.2.3RRP
The information regarding a client’s knowledge and experience in the investment field includes, to the extent appropriate to the nature of the client, the nature and extent of the service to be provided and the type of product or transaction envisaged, including their complexity and the risks involved, information on:(1) the types of service, transaction and designated investment with which the client is familiar;(2) the nature, volume, frequency of the client’s transactions in
COBS 9.2.4RRP
A firm must not encourage a client not to provide information for the purposes of its assessment of suitability. [Note: article 37(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 9.2.5RRP
A firm is entitled to rely on the information provided by its clients unless it is aware that the information is manifestly out of date, inaccurate or incomplete. [Note: article 37(3) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 9.2.6RRP
If a firm does not obtain the necessary information to assess suitability, it must not make a personal recommendation to the client or take a decision to trade for him. [Note: article 35(5) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
COBS 9.2.7GRP
Although a firm may not be permitted to make a personal recommendation or take a decision to trade because it does not have the necessary information, its client may still ask the firm to provide another service such as, for example, to arrange a deal or to deal as agent for the client. If this happens, the firm should ensure that it receives written confirmation of the instructions. The firm should also bear in mind the client's best interests rule and any obligation it may have
COBS 9.4.2RRP
If a firm makes a personal recommendation in relation to a life policy, it must provide the client with a suitability report.[Note: article 12(3) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 9.4.3RRP
The obligation to provide a suitability report does not apply:(1) if the firm, acting as an investment manager for a retail client, makes a personal recommendation relating to a regulated collective investment scheme;(2) if the client is habitually resident outside the EEA and the client is not present in the United Kingdom at the time of acknowledging consent to the proposal form to which the personal recommendation relates;(3) to any personal recommendation by a friendly society
COBS 9.4.4RRP
A firm must provide the suitability report to the client:(1) in the case of a life policy, before the contract is concluded unless the necessary information is provided orally or immediate cover is necessary; or(2) in the case of a personal pension scheme or stakeholder pension scheme, where the rules on cancellation (COBS 15) require notification of the right to cancel, no later than the fourteenth day after the contract is concluded; or(3) in any other case, when or as soon
COBS 9.4.5RRP
If, in respect of a life policy, the firm gives necessary information orally or gives immediate cover, it must provide a suitability report to the client in a durable medium immediately after the contract is concluded.[Note: article 13(2) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 9.4.7RRP
The suitability report must, at least:(1) specify the client's demands and needs;(2) explain why the firm has concluded that the recommended transaction is suitable for the client having regard to the information provided by the client; and(3) explain any possible disadvantages of the transaction for the client.[Note: article 12(3) of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
COBS 9.4.9RRP
If a firm is providing a suitability report in the course of insurance mediation activity, the information must be provided:(1) in a durable medium which is available and accessible to the client;(2) in a clear and accurate manner, comprehensible to the client; and(3) in an official language of the State of the commitment in which the contract of insurance is made or in any other language agreed by the parties.[Note: article 13 of the Insurance Mediation Directive]
CASS 5.2.1GRP
If a firm holds money as agent of an insurance undertaking then the firm'sclients (who are not insurance undertakings) will be adequately protected to the extent that the premiums which it receives are treated as being received by the insurance undertaking when they are received by the agent and claims money and premium refunds will only be treated as received by the client when they are actually paid over. The rules in CASS 5.2 make provision for agency agreements between firms
CASS 5.2.3RRP
(1) A firm must not agree to:(a) deal in investments as agent for an insurance undertaking in connection with insurance mediation; or(b) act as agent for an insurance undertaking for the purpose of settling claims or handling premium refunds; or(c) otherwise receive money as agent of an insurance undertaking;unless:(d) it has entered into a written agreement with the insurance undertaking to that effect; and(e) it is satisfied on reasonable grounds that the terms of the policies
CASS 5.2.4GRP
Firms are reminded that CASS 5.1.5A R1 provides that, if the insurance undertaking has agreed in writing, 1money held in accordance with an agreement made under CASS 5.2.3 R may be treated as 1client money and may (but not otherwise) 1be kept in a client bank account.
CASS 5.2.5GRP
A firm which provides for the protection of a client(which is not an insurance undertaking) 1under CASS 5.2 is relieved of the obligation to provide protection for that client under CASS 5.3 or CASS 5.4 to the extent of the items of client 1money protected by the agency agreement.
CASS 5.2.7GRP
A firm may operate on the basis of an agency agreement as provided for by CASS 5.2.3 R for some of its clients and with protection provided by a client money trust in accordance with CASS 5.3 or CASS 5.4 for other clients. A firm may also operate on either basis for the same client but in relation to different transactions. A firm which does so should be satisfied that its administrative systems and controls are adequate and, in accordance with CASS 5.2.4 G, should ensure that
FEES 4.4.9DRP
3To the extent that a firm4 has provided the information required by FEES 4.4.7 D to the FSA as part of its compliance with another provision of the Handbook, it is deemed to have complied with the provisions of that direction.444
CASS 5.8.1RRP
(1) CASS 5.8 applies to a firm (including in its capacity as trustee under CASS 5.4) which in the course of insurance mediation activity takes into its possession for safekeeping any client title documents (other than documents of no value) or other tangible assets belonging to clients.(2) CASS 5.8 does not apply to a firm when: (a) carrying on an insurance mediation activity which is in respect of a reinsurance contract; or(b) acting in accordance with CASS 61 (Custody rules
CASS 5.8.2GRP
The rules in this section amplify the obligation in Principle 10 which requires a firm to arrange adequate protection for client's assets. Firms carrying on insurance mediation activities may hold, on a temporary or longer basis, client title documents such as policy documents (other than policy documents of no value) and also items of physical property if, for example, a firm arranges for a valuation. The rules are intended to ensure that firms make adequate arrangements for
CASS 5.8.3RRP
(1) A firm which has in its possession or control documents evidencing a client's title to a contract of insurance or other similar documents (other than documents of no value) or which takes into its possession or control tangible assets belonging to a client, must take reasonable steps to ensure that any such documents or items of property:(a) are kept safe until they are delivered to the client;(b) are not delivered or given to any other person except in accordance with instructions
CASS 5.3.1GRP
Section 139(1) of the Act (Miscellaneous ancillary matters) provides that rules may make provision which results in client money being held by a firm on trust (England and Wales and Northern Ireland) or as agent (Scotland only). CASS 5.3.2 R creates a fiduciary relationship between the firm and its client under which client money is in the legal ownership of the firm but remains in the beneficial ownership of the client. In the event of failure of the firm, costs relating to the
CASS 5.3.2RRP
A firm (other than a firm acting in accordance with CASS 5.4) receives and holds client money as trustee (or in Scotland as agent) on the following terms:(1) for the purposes of and on the terms of CASS 5.3, CASS 5.5 and the client money (insurance) distribution rules;(2) subject to (4),1 for the clients (other than clients which are insurance undertakings when acting as such)1 for whom that money is held, according to their respective interests in it;(3) after all valid claims
CASS 5.3.3GRP
(1) A firm which holds client money can discharge its obligation to ensure adequate protection for its clients in respect of such money by complying with CASS 5.3 which provides for such money to be held by the firm on the terms of a trust imposed by the rules.(2) The trust imposed by CASS 5.3 is limited to a trust in respect of client money which a firm receives and holds. The consequential and supplementary requirements in CASS 5.5 are designed to secure the proper segregation
COBS 9.6.4RRP
When a firm provides basic advice it must:1(1) explain why it chose the stakeholder products and stakeholder product providers that appear in the relevant range; and1(2) give the client a list of the stakeholder products and stakeholder product providers that appear in that range;1if the client asks it do so.1
COBS 9.6.9RRP
When a firm gives basic advice, it must do so using:1(1) a single range of stakeholder products; and1(2) a sales process that includes putting pre-scripted questions to the client.1
COBS 9.6.14RRP
1If a firm giving basic advice recommends to a retail client to acquire a stakeholder product, it must ensure that, before the conclusion of the contract, its representative:(1) (unless the relevant product is a deposit-based stakeholder product) explains to the client, if necessary in summary form, but always in a way that will allow the client to make an informed decision about the firm's recommendation:(a) the nature of the stakeholder product; and(b) the "aims", "commitment"
COBS 9.6.15RRP
1Notwithstanding COBS 9.6.14R (2) a firm may provide the summary sheet (COBS 9.6.14R (2)) as soon as reasonably practicable after the conclusion of the contract if the client asks it to do so, or the contract will be concluded using a means of distance communication that does not enable the provision of the summary sheet in a durable medium before the conclusion of the contract, but only if the firm:(1) reads the summary sheet to the client before it concludes the contract; and(2)
COBS 10.2.1RRP
(1) When providing a service to which this chapter applies, a firm must ask the client to provide information regarding his knowledge and experience in the investment field relevant to the specific type of product or service offered or demanded so as to enable the firm to assess whether the service or product envisaged is appropriate for the client.(2) When assessing appropriateness, a firm:(a) must determine whether the client has the necessary experience and knowledge in order
COBS 10.2.2RRP
The information regarding a client's knowledge and experience in the investment field includes, to the extent appropriate to the nature of the client, the nature and extent of the service to be provided and the type of product or transaction envisaged, including their complexity and the risks involved, information on:(1) the types of service, transaction and designated investment with which the client is familiar;(2) the nature, volume, frequency of the client's transactions in
COBS 10.2.3RRP
A firm must not encourage a client not to provide information required for the purposes of its assessment of appropriateness. [Note: article 37(2) of the MiFID implementing Directive]
CASS 3.1.1RRP
This chapter1 applies to a firm when it receives or holds assets in connection with an arrangement to secure the obligation of a client in the course of, or in connection with, its designated investment business, including MiFID business1.1
CASS 3.1.4GRP
For the purpose of this chapter1 only, a bare security interest in the client's asset gives a firm the right to realise the assets only on a client's default and without the right to use other than in default. 1
CASS 3.1.7GRP
This chapter1 recognises the need to apply a differing level of regulatory protection to the assets which form the basis of the two different types of arrangement described in CASS 3.1.5 G. Under the bare security interest arrangement, the asset continues to belong to the client until the firm's right to realise that asset crystallises (that is, on the client's default). But under a "right to use arrangement", the client has transferred to the firm the legal title and associated