Related provisions for BIPRU 8.7.17

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BIPRU 8.7.1GRP
The calculation of the consolidated capital resources requirement of a firm's UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group involves taking the individual components that make up the capital resources requirement on a solo basis and applying them on a consolidated basis. Those components are the capital charge for credit risk (the credit risk capital requirement), the capital charge for market risk (the market risk capital requirement), the capital charge for operational risk (the
BIPRU 8.7.10RRP
A firm must calculate the consolidated capital resources requirement of its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group in accordance with the method identified by the decision tree in BIPRU 8 Annex 5 (Decision tree for identifying the consolidated capital resources requirement of a UK consolidation group or a non-EEA sub-group).
BIPRU 8.7.15GRP
The provisions of this section on credit risk and market risk restrict the choice given by BIPRU 8.7.13 R in certain circumstances.
BIPRU 8.7.18GRP
The credit risk capital requirement (on which the consolidated credit risk requirement is based) is split into threecapital charges. One relates to credit risk in the non-trading book (the credit risk capital component). One relates to credit risk in the trading book (the counterparty risk capital component). The third is a capital charge for exposures in the trading book that exceed the limits in BIPRU 10.5 (Limits on exposures). This is called the concentration risk capital
BIPRU 8.7.20RRP
A firm may use a combination of the CCR standardised method, the CCR mark to market method and the CCR internal model method on a permanent basis with respect to the firm's UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group for the purposes of calculating the consolidated credit risk requirement. In particular, where the firm is permitted to apply the CCR internal model method on a consolidated basis with respect to its UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group, it may combine the
BIPRU 8.7.21RRP
BIPRU 9.4.1 R (Minimum requirements for recognition of significant credit risk transfer) as applied on a consolidated basis requires the transfer to be to a person outside the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group.
BIPRU 8.7.29RRP
In accordance with BIPRU 8.2.1 R and BIPRU 8.3.1 R (The basic consolidation rules for a UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group), a firm may exclude that part of the risk capital requirement that arises as a result of:(1) (in respect of the consolidated credit risk requirement) intra-group balances; or(2) (in respect of the consolidated operational risk requirement and consolidated fixed overheads requirement) intra-group transactions;with other undertakings in the UK consolidation
BIPRU 9.5.1RRP
(1) An originator of a synthetic securitisation may calculate risk weighted exposure amounts1, and, as relevant, expected loss amounts, for the securitised exposures in accordance with BIPRU 9.5.3 R and BIPRU 9.5.4 R, if either of the following conditions is fulfilled:1(a) 1significant credit risk is considered to have been transferred to third parties, either through funded or unfunded credit protection; or(b) 1the originator applies a 1250% risk weight to all securitisation
BIPRU 9.5.1BDRP
1An originator's application for a waiver of the requirements in BIPRU 9.5.1R (6) and (7) must demonstrate that the following conditions are satisfied:(1) it has policies and methodologies in place which ensure that the possible reduction of capital requirements which the originator achieves by the securitisation is justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties; and(2) that such transfer of credit risk to third parties is also recognised for the purposes
BIPRU 9.5.1FGRP
1In the event that the FSA decides that the possible reduction in risk weighted exposure amounts which the originatorcredit institution would achieve by the securitisation referred to in BIPRU 9.5.1R (6) is not justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties, it will use its powers under section 45 (Variation etc on the Authority's own initiative) of the Act to require the firm to increase its risk weight exposure amount to an amount commensurate with the
BIPRU 9.5.2RRP
BIPRU 9.5.3 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R apply to the calculation by an originator of risk weighted exposure amounts for exposuressecuritised in a synthetic securitisation.
BIPRU 9.5.3RRP
(1) In calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for the securitised exposures, where the conditions in BIPRU 9.5.1 R are met, the originator of a synthetic securitisation must, subject to the treatment of maturity mismatches set out in BIPRU 9.5.6 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R, use the relevant calculation methodologies set out in BIPRU 9.9-BIPRU 9.14and not those set out in BIPRU 3 (Standardised credit risk) or BIPRU 4 (IRB approach).(2) For firms calculating risk weighted exposure amounts
BIPRU 9.5.4RRP
Subject to the treatment of maturity mismatches set out in BIPRU 9.5.6 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R, the originator must calculate risk weighted exposure amounts in respect of all tranches in the securitisation in accordance with the provisions of BIPRU 9.9-BIPRU 9.14. For example, where a tranche is transferred by means of unfunded credit protection to a third party, the risk weight of that third party must be applied to the tranche in the calculation of the originatorsrisk weighted exposure
BIPRU 9.5.6RRP
For the purposes of calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9.5.3 R, any maturity mismatch between the credit protection by which the tranching is achieved and the securitised exposures must be taken into consideration in accordance with BIPRU 9.5.7 R-BIPRU 9.5.8 R.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 2 point 5]
BIPRU 9.5.8RRP
(1) An originator must ignore any maturity mismatch in calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for tranches appearing pursuant to BIPRU 9.9-BIPRU 9.14 with a risk weight of 1250%. For all other tranches the maturity mismatch treatment prescribed in BIPRU 5.8 (Maturity mismatches) must be applied in accordance with the following formula:RW* is [RW(SP) x (t-t*)/(T-t*)] + [RW(Ass) x (T-t)/(T-t*)](2) The following apply for the purposes of the formula in (1):(a) RW* is risk weighted
BIPRU 3.4.7RRP
An export credit agency credit assessment may be recognised by a firm for the purpose of determining the risk weight to be applied to an exposure under the standardised approach if either of the following conditions is met:(1) the credit assessment is a consensus risk score from export credit agencies participating in the OECD "Arrangement on Guidelines for Officially Supported Export Credits"; or(2) the export credit agency publishes its credit assessments, and the export credit
BIPRU 3.4.40RRP
If there is no short-term credit assessment as set out in BIPRU 3.4.112 R, the general preferential treatment for short-term exposures as specified in BIPRU 3.4.37 R applies to all exposures to institutions of up to three months residual maturity.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 34]
BIPRU 3.4.41RRP
If there is a short-term credit assessment as set out in BIPRU 3.4.112 R and such an assessment determines the application of a more favourable or identical risk weight than the use of the general preferential treatment for short-term exposures, as specified in BIPRU 3.4.37 R, then the short-term assessment and risk weighting specified in BIPRU 3.4.112 R must be used for that specific exposure only. Other short-term exposures must follow the general preferential treatment for
BIPRU 3.4.42RRP
If there is a short-term credit assessment as set out in BIPRU 3.4.112 R and such an assessment determines a less favourable risk weight than the use of the general preferential treatment for short-term exposures, as specified in BIPRU 3.4.37 R, then the general preferential treatment for short-term exposures must not be used and all unrated short-term claims must be assigned the same risk weight as that applied by the specific short-term assessment.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1
BIPRU 3.4.84RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 3.4.56 R or BIPRU 3.4.58 R, a firm may only treat an exposure as fully and completely secured by residential property situated in the territory of a third-country competent authority that is listed as equivalent for credit risk in BIPRU 8 Annex 6 R3 if it would be treated as fully and completely secured under the applicable requirements of that third-country competent authority (including any applicable loan-to-value ceiling).3
BIPRU 3.4.85RRP
For the purposes of BIPRU 3.4.56 R or BIPRU 3.4.58 R, where the residential property in question is situated in the territory of a third-country competent authority that is not listed as equivalent for credit risk in BIPRU 8 Annex 3 R:(1) a firm must not treat an exposure as fully and completely secured by the residential property in question unless the value of the property exceeds the exposures by a substantial margin, which must be at least 20%;(2) the firm must apply a risk
BIPRU 3.4.89RRP
Exposures or any part of an exposure secured by mortgages on offices or other commercial premises which cannot properly be considered to fall within any other standardised credit risk exposure class or to qualify for a lower risk weight under BIPRU 3 must be assigned a risk weight of 100%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 51]
BIPRU 3.4.97RRP
For the purpose of defining the secured portion of the past due item, eligible collateral and guarantees must be those eligible for credit risk mitigation purposes under BIPRU 5.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 62]
BIPRU 3.4.124RRP
Where a firm is not aware of the underlying exposures of a CIU, it may calculate an average risk weight for the CIU in accordance with the standardised approach subject to the following rules: it will be assumed that the CIU first invests, to the maximum extent allowed under its mandate, in the standardised credit risk exposure classes attracting the highest capital requirement, and then continues making investments in descending order until the maximum total investment limit
BIPRU 4.7.3RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.3.5 R (Relevant parameters), the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for credit risk for all exposures belonging to the equity exposureIRB exposure class must be calculated in accordance with one of the following ways:(1) the simple risk weight approach (see BIPRU 4.7.8 R;(2) the PD/LGD approach (see BIPRU 4.7.13 R); and(3) the internal models approach (see BIPRU 4.7.23 R);in accordance with BIPRU 4.7 and subject to the firm'sIRB permission.[Note:BCD
BIPRU 4.7.6RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.7.5 R a firm may, if its IRB permission permits it to do so, attribute the risk weighted exposure amounts for equity exposures to ancillary services undertakings according to the treatment of non credit-obligation assets.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 18]
BIPRU 4.7.9RRP
The risk weighted exposure amounts must be calculated according to the following formula:risk-weighted exposure amounts = RW * exposure value;where:(1) risk weight (RW) = 190% for private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios;(2) risk weight (RW) = 290% for exchange traded equity exposures; and(3) risk weight (RW) = 370% for all other equity exposures.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 19]
BIPRU 4.7.10RRP
Short cash positions and derivative instruments held in the non-trading book are permitted to offset long positions in the same individual stocks provided that these instruments have been explicitly designated as hedges of specific equity exposures and that they provide a hedge for at least another year. Other short positions must be treated as if they are long positions with the relevant risk weight assigned to the absolute value of each position. In the context of maturity mismatched
BIPRU 4.7.14RRP
The risk weighted exposure amounts must be calculated according to the formulas in BIPRU 4.4.58 R (Risk weighted exposure amounts for sovereigns, institutions and corporates). If a firm does not have sufficient information to use the definition of default a scaling factor of 1.5 must be assigned to the risk weights.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 22]
BIPRU 4.7.15RRP
At the individual exposure level the sum of the expected loss amount multiplied by 12.5 and the risk weighted exposure amount must not exceed the exposure value multiplied by 12.5.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 23]
BIPRU 4.7.24RRP
The risk weighted exposure amount is the potential loss on the firm'sequity exposures as derived using internal value-at-risk models subject to the 99th percentile, one-tailed confidence interval of the difference between quarterly returns and an appropriate risk-free rate computed over a long-term sample period, multiplied by 12.5. The risk weighted exposure amounts at the equity exposure portfolio2 level must not be less than the total of the sums2 of the minimum risk weighted
BIPRU 3.2.20RRP
(1) To calculate risk weighted exposure amounts, risk weights must be applied to all exposures, unless deducted from capital resources, in accordance with the provisions of BIPRU 3.4.(2) The application of risk weights must be based on the standardised credit risk exposure class to which the exposure is assigned and, to the extent specified in BIPRU 3.4, its credit quality.(3) Credit quality may be determined by reference to:(a) the credit assessments of eligible ECAIs in accordance
BIPRU 3.2.21RRP
For the purposes of applying a risk weight, as referred to in BIPRU 3.2.20 R, the exposure value must be multiplied by the risk weight specified or determined in accordance with the standardised approach.[Note: BCD Article 80(2)]
BIPRU 3.2.22RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 3.2.20 R, where an exposure is subject to credit protection the risk weight applicable to that item may be modified in accordance with BIPRU 5.[Note: BCD Article 80(4)]
BIPRU 3.2.23RRP
Risk weighted exposure amounts for securitisedexposures must be calculated in accordance with BIPRU 9.[Note: BCD Article 80(5)]
BIPRU 3.2.24RRP
Exposures the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for which is not otherwise provided for under the standardised approach must be assigned a risk weight of 100%.[Note: BCD Article 80(6)]
BIPRU 3.2.25RRP
(1) Subject to BIPRU 3.2.35 R, and with the exception of exposures giving rise to liabilities in the form of the items referred to in BIPRU 3.2.26 R, a firm is not required to comply with BIPRU 3.2.20 R (Calculation of risk weighted exposures amounts under the standardised approach) in the case of the exposures of the firm to a counterparty which is its parent undertaking, its subsidiary undertaking or a subsidiary undertaking of its parent undertaking provided that the following
BIPRU 5.7.1RRP
The following parties may be recognised as eligible providers of unfunded credit protection:(1) central governments and central banks;(2) regional governments or local authorities;(3) multilateral development banks;(4) international organisationsexposures which are assigned a 0% risk weight under the standardised approach;(5) public sector entities, claims on which are treated as claims on institutions or central governments under the standardised approach;(6) institutions;(7)
BIPRU 5.7.4RRP
When a firm conducts an internal hedge using a credit derivative - i.e. hedges the credit risk of an exposure in the non-trading book with a credit derivative booked in the trading book - in order for the protection to be recognised as eligible for the purposes of BIPRU 4.10 or BIPRU 5 the credit risk transferred to the trading book must be transferred out to a third party or parties. In such circumstances, subject to the compliance of such transfer with the requirements for the
BIPRU 5.7.9RRP
Where an exposure is protected by a guarantee which is counter-guaranteed by a central government or central bank, a regional government or local authority or a public sector entity claims on which are treated as claims on the central government in whose jurisdiction they are established under the standardised approach, a multilateral development bank or an international organisation,1to which a 0% risk weight is assigned under or by virtue of the standardised approach, or a public
BIPRU 5.7.24RRP
Where the protected amount is less than the exposure value and the protected and unprotected portions are of equal seniority - i.e.1 the firm and the protection provider share losses on a pro-rata basis, proportional regulatory capital relief is afforded. For the purposes of BIPRU 3.2.20 R to BIPRU 3.2.26 Rrisk weighted exposure amounts must be calculated in accordance with the following formula:(E-GA) x r + GA x gwhere:1(1) E is the exposure value; according to BIPRU 3.2.1 R
BIPRU 5.7.27RRP
Where a firm obtains credit protection for a number of exposures under terms that the first default among the exposures will trigger payment and that this credit event will terminate the contract, the firm may modify the calculation of the risk weighted exposure amount and, as relevant, the expected loss amount of the exposure which would in the absence of the credit protection produce the lowest risk weighted exposure amount under the standardised approach or the IRB approach
BIPRU 5.7.28RRP
Where the nth default among the exposures triggers payment under the credit protection provided by a credit derivative, a firm purchasing the protection may only recognise the protection for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and, as relevant, expected loss amounts if protection has also been obtained for defaults 1 to n-1 or when n-1 defaults have already occurred. In such cases the methodology must follow that set out in BIPRU 5.7.27 R for first-to-default derivatives
BIPRU 9.3.1RRP
(1) Where significant credit risk associated with securitised exposures has been transferred from the originator in accordance with the terms of BIPRU 9.4 or BIPRU 9.5, that originator may:(a) in the case of a traditional securitisation, exclude from its calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and, as relevant, expected loss amounts, the exposures which it has securitised; and(b) in the case of a synthetic securitisation, calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and, as
BIPRU 9.3.7RRP
1Significant credit risk will be considered to have been transferred for originators in the following cases:(1) the risk weighted exposure amounts of the mezzanine securitisation positions held by the originator in the securitisation do not exceed 50% of the risk weighted exposure amounts of all mezzanine securitisation positions existing in this securitisation;(2) where there are no mezzanine securitisation positions in a given securitisation and the originator can demonstrate
BIPRU 9.3.8RRP
1An originator must notify the FSA that it is relying on the deemed transfer of significant credit risk under BIPRU 9.3.7R within a reasonable period before or after a relevant transfer, not being later than one month after the date of the transfer. The notification must include the following information: (1) the risk weighted exposure amount of the securitised exposures and retained securitisation positions; (2) the exposure value of the securitised exposures and the retained
BIPRU 9.3.9GRP
1In the event that the FSA decides that the possible reduction in risk weighted exposure amounts which the originator would achieve by the securitisation referred to in BIPRU 9.3.7R is not justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties, it will use its powers under section 45 of the Act (Variation etc on the Authority's own initiative) to require the firm to increase its risk weighted exposure amount to an amount commensurate with the FSA's assessment of
BIPRU 9.3.11DRP
1An originator's application for a waiver of the requirements in BIPRU 9.3.7R and BIPRU 9.3.8R must demonstrate that the following conditions are satisfied:(1) it has policies and methodologies in place which ensure that the possible reduction of capital requirements which the originator achieves by the securitisation is justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties; and(2) that such transfer of credit risk to third parties is also recognised for the purposes
BIPRU 5.8.1RRP
For the purposes of calculating risk weighted exposure amounts, a maturity mismatch occurs when the residual maturity of the credit protection is less than that of the protected exposure. Protection of less than three months residual maturity, the maturity of which is less than the maturity of the underlying exposure, must not be recognised.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 4 point 1]
BIPRU 5.8.2RRP
Where there is a maturity mismatch the credit protection must not be recognised where the original maturity of the protection is less than 1 year.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 4 point 2 (part)]
BIPRU 5.8.3RRP
Subject to a maximum of 5 years, the effective maturity of the underlying is the longest possible remaining time before the obligor is scheduled to fulfil its obligations. Subject to BIPRU 5.8.4 R, the maturity of the credit protection is the time to the earliest date at which the protection may terminate or be terminated.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 4 point 3]
BIPRU 5.8.4RRP
Where there is an option to terminate the protection which is at the discretion of the protection seller, the maturity of the protection must be taken to be the time to the earliest date at which that option may be exercised. Where there is an option to terminate the protection which is at the discretion of the protection buyer and the terms of the arrangement at origination of the protection contain a positive incentive for the firm to call the transaction before contractual
BIPRU 5.8.11RRP
(1) The maturity of the credit protection and that of the exposure must be reflected in the adjusted value of the credit protection according to the following formula:GA = G* x (t-t*)/(T-t*)where:(a) G* is the amount of the protection adjusted for any currency mismatch;(b) GA is G* adjusted for any maturity mismatch;(c) t is the number of years remaining to the maturity date of the credit protection calculated in accordance with BIPRU 5.8.3 R to BIPRU 5.8.5 R, or the value of
BIPRU 9.4.1RRP
The originator of a traditional securitisation may exclude securitised exposures from the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts if either of the following conditions is fulfilled:(1) 2significant credit risk associated with the securitised exposures is considered to have been transferred to third parties; or(2) 2the originator applies a 1250% risk weight to all securitisation positions it holds in the securitisation or deducts these securitisation
BIPRU 9.4.11RRP
2Significant credit risk will be considered to be transferred for an originator in the following cases:(1) 2the risk weighted exposure amounts of the mezzanine securitisation positions held by the originator in the securitisation do not exceed 50% of the risk weighted exposure amounts of all mezzanine securitisation positions existing in this securitisation;(2) 2where there are no mezzanine securitisation positions in a given securitisation and the originator can demonstrate that
BIPRU 9.4.12RRP
2An originator must notify the FSA that it is relying on the deemed transfer of significant credit risk under BIPRU 9.4.11R within a reasonable period before or after a relevant transfer, not being later than one month after the date of the transfer. The notification must include the following information:(1) 2the risk weighted exposure amount of the securitised exposures and retained securitisation positions; (2) 2the exposure value of the securitised exposures and the retained
BIPRU 9.4.13GRP
2In the event that the FSA decides that the possible reduction in risk weighted exposure amounts which the originator would achieve by the securitisation referred to in BIPRU 9.4.11R is not justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties, it will use its powers under section 45 (Variation etc on the Authority's own initiative) of the Act to require the firm to increase its risk weight exposure amount to an amount commensurate with the FSA's assessment of the
BIPRU 9.4.15DRP
2An originator's application for a waiver of the requirements in BIPRU 9.4.11R and BIPRU 9.4.12R must demonstrate that the following conditions are satisfied.(1) 2it has policies and methodologies in place which ensure that the possible reduction of capital requirements which the originator achieves by the securitisation is justified by a commensurate transfer of credit risk to third parties; and(2) 2that such a transfer of credit risk to third parties is also recognised for the
BIPRU 4.10.3RRP
A firm using the IRB approach, but not using its own estimates of LGD and conversion factors, may recognise credit risk mitigation in accordance with BIPRU 5 as modified by BIPRU 4.10 in the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for the purposes of the calculation of the credit risk capital component or as relevant expected loss amounts for the purposes of the calculation in GENPRU 2.2.191 R to GENPRU 2.2.193 R or GENPRU 2.2.236 R.[Note: BCD Article 91 (as it applies to
BIPRU 4.10.15RRP
(1) For the recognition of receivables as collateral the requirements in this paragraph must be met.(2) The legal mechanism by which the collateral is provided must be robust and effective and ensure that the lender has clear rights over the proceeds.(3) A firm must take all steps necessary to fulfil local requirements in respect of the enforceability of security interests. There must be a framework which allows the lender to have a first priority claim over the collateral subject
BIPRU 4.10.30RRP
(1) Where:(a) risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts are calculated under the IRB approach; and(b) an exposure is collateralised by both financial collateral and other eligible collateral;LGD* to be taken as the LGD for the purposes of the IRB approach must be calculated in accordance with this rule.(2) A firm must subdivide the volatility-adjusted value of the exposure (i.e. the value after the application of the volatility adjustment as set out in BIPRU 5.4.28
BIPRU 4.10.37RRP
(1) In the case of a firm using the IRB approach to calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts, the persons in (2) are added to the list in BIPRU 5.4.64 R (Definition of core market participant).(2) The persons referred to in (1) are other financial companies (including insurance companies) exposures to which do not have a credit assessment by an eligible ECAI and are internally rated as having a probability of default equivalent to that associated with
BIPRU 4.10.42RRP
A firm must have clearly specified criteria for the types of guarantors it recognises for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts.[Note: Annex VII Part 4 point 98]
BIPRU 4.10.45RRP
A firm must have clearly specified criteria for adjusting grades, pools or LGD estimates, and in the case of retail exposures and eligible purchased receivables, the process of allocating exposures to grades or pools, to reflect the impact of guarantees for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts. These criteria must comply with the minimum requirements referred to in BIPRU 4.10.43 R.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 101]
BIPRU 4.10.51RRP
GA as calculated under BIPRU 5.8.11 R is then taken as the value of the protection for the purposes of calculating the effects of unfunded credit protection under the IRB approach.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 4 point 8 (part)]
BIPRU 4.3.4RRP
The risk weighted exposure amounts for credit risk for exposures belonging to one of the exposure classes referred to in (1) to (4) must, unless deducted from capital resources, be calculated in accordance with the following provisions:(1) for exposures in the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class, BIPRU 4.4.57 R to BIPRU 4.4.60 R, BIPRU 4.4.79 R, BIPRU 4.5.8 R to BIPRU 4.5.10 R (for specialised lending exposures), BIPRU 4.9.3 R and BIPRU 4.8.16 R to BIPRU 4.8.17
BIPRU 4.3.5RRP
The calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for credit risk and dilution risk must be based on the relevant parameters associated with the exposure in question. These include probability of default (PD), loss given default (LGD), maturity (M) and the exposure value of the exposure. PD and LGD may be considered separately or jointly, in accordance with the provisions relating to PD and LGD in BIPRU 4.4, BIPRU 4.6, BIPRU 4.7 and BIPRU 4.8 at:(1) for exposures in the sovereign,
BIPRU 4.3.13RRP
Senior management must have a good understanding of the rating system's designs and operations. Senior management must ensure on an ongoing basis that the rating systems are operating properly. Senior management must be regularly informed by the credit risk control units about the performance of the rating process, areas needing improvement, and the status of efforts to improve previously identified deficiencies.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 126]
BIPRU 4.3.14RRP
Internal ratings-based analysis of the firm's credit risk profile must be an essential part of the management reporting required under BIPRU 4.3.9 R, BIPRU 4.3.11 R and BIPRU 4.3.13 R. Reporting must include at least risk profile by grade, migration across grades, estimation of the relevant parameters per grade, and comparison of realised default rates and, to the extent that own estimates are used, of realised LGDs and realised conversion factors against expectations and stress-test
BIPRU 4.3.15RRP
The credit risk control unit must be independent from the personnel and management functions responsible for originating or renewing exposures and report directly to senior management. The unit must be responsible for the design or selection, implementation, oversight and performance of the rating systems. It must regularly produce and analyse reports on the output of the rating systems.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 128]
BIPRU 4.3.16RRP
The areas of responsibility for the credit risk control unit(s) must include the following:(1) testing and monitoring grades and pools;(2) production and analysis of summary reports from the firm'srating systems;(3) implementing procedures to verify that grade and pool definitions are consistently applied across departments and geographic areas;(4) reviewing and documenting any changes to the rating process, including the reasons for the changes;(5) reviewing the rating criteria
BIPRU 4.3.25RRP
A rating system comprises all of the methods, processes, controls, data collection and IT systems that support the assessment of credit risk, the assignment of exposures to grades or pools (rating), and the quantification of default and loss estimates for a certain type of exposure.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 1]
BIPRU 4.3.40RRP
(1) A firm must regularly perform a credit risk stress test to assess the effect of certain specific conditions on its total capital requirements for credit risk. The test to be employed must be one chosen by the firm. The test to be employed must be meaningful and reasonably conservative. Stressed portfolios must contain the vast majority of a firm's total exposures covered by the IRB approach.(2) The stress test must be designed to assess the firm's ability to meet its capital
BIPRU 4.3.42GRP
The requirement in BIPRU 4.3.40 R (2) is to identify, in a forward-looking manner, severe but plausible downturn conditions relevant to business lines and jurisdictions and to determine the likely impact of those conditions on a firm's credit risk regulatory capital requirements. The description of the economic recession contained in BIPRU 4.3.40 R (2) should not be taken as stipulating one approach (e.g. statistical) over other approaches (e.g. scenario analysis) in the identification
BIPRU 11.5.4RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding compliance with BIPRU 3, BIPRU 4, BIPRU 6, BIPRU 7, BIPRU 10 and the overall Pillar 2 rule:(1) a summary of the firm's approach to assessing the adequacy of its internal capital to support current and future activities;(2) for a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, 8% of the risk weighted exposure amounts for each of the standardised credit risk exposure
BIPRU 11.5.7RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding its exposure to counterparty credit risk:(1) a discussion of the methodology used to assign internal capital and credit limits for counterparty credit exposures;(2) a discussion of policies for securing collateral and establishing credit reserves;(3) a discussion of policies with respect to wrong-way riskexposures;(4) a discussion of the impact of the amount of collateral the firm would have to provide given a downgrade
BIPRU 11.5.8RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding its exposure to credit risk and dilution risk:(1) the definitions for accounting purposes of past due and impaired;(2) a description of the approaches and methods adopted for determining value adjustments and provisions;(3) the total amount of exposures after accounting offsets and without taking into account the effects of credit risk mitigation, and the average amount of the exposures over the period broken down by different
BIPRU 11.5.10RRP
For a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, the following information must be disclosed for each of the standardised credit risk exposure classes;(1) the names of the nominated ECAIs and export credit agencies and the reasons for any changes;(2) the standardised credit risk exposure classes for which each ECAI or export credit agency is used;(3) a description of the process used to transfer the issuer and issue
BIPRU 11.5.12RRP
A firm must disclose its capital resources requirements separately for each risk referred to in (1), (2) and (3):44(1) in respect of its trading-book business, its:(a) interest rate PRR;(b) equity PRR;1(c) option PRR;(d) collective investment schemesPRR;(e) counterparty risk capital component; and(f) concentration risk capital component; and(2) in respect of all of its business activities, its:(a) commodity PRR; and(b) foreign currency PRR; and41(3) its specific interest-rate
BIPRU 11.5.17RRP
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9 or capital resource requirements according to BIPRU 7.2.48A R to BIPRU 7.2.48K R4 must disclose the following information, where relevant separately for its trading book and non-trading book:4(1) a description of the firm's objectives in relation to securitisation activity;(1A) the nature of other risks, including liquidity risk inherent in securitised assets;4(1B) the type of risks in terms of seniority
BIPRU 4.1.6GRP
The IRB approach is an alternative to the standardised approach for calculating a firm's credit risk capital requirements. It may be applied to all a firm'sexposures or to some of them, subject to various limitations on partial use as set out in BIPRU 4.2. Under the IRB approach capital requirements are based on a firm's own estimates of certain parameters together with other parameters set out in the Banking Consolidation Directive.
BIPRU 4.1.14GRP
(1) The FSA will only grant an IRB permission if it is satisfied that the firm's systems for the management and rating of credit risk exposures are sound and implemented with integrity and, in particular, that they meet the standards in BIPRU 4.2.2 R in accordance with the minimum IRB standards.(2) Under BIPRU 4.2.11 R, a firm applying for an IRB permission is required to demonstrate that it has been using for the IRB exposure classes in question rating systems that were broadly
BIPRU 4.1.15GRP
An IRB permission will modify GENPRU 2.1.51 R (Calculation of the credit risk capital requirement) by amending, to the extent set out in the IRB permission, the calculation of the credit risk capital requirement in accordance with BIPRU 4 and the other provisions of the Handbook relating to the IRB approach.
BIPRU 4.1.16RRP
A firm must calculate its credit risk capital component as the sum of:(1) (for exposures to which the standardised approach is applied) the credit risk capital component as calculated under BIPRU 3.1.5 R; and(2) (for exposures to which the IRB approach is applied to which the standardised approach would otherwise apply in accordance with BIPRU 3.1.5 R (Credit risk capital component)), 8% of the total of the firm'srisk weighted exposure amounts calculated in accordance with the
BIPRU 9.9.1RRP
To calculate the risk weighted exposure amount of a securitisation position, the relevant risk weight must be assigned to the exposure value of the position in accordance with BIPRU 9.9 - BIPRU 9.14 based on the credit quality of the position.[Note:BCD Article 96(1) (part) and Annex IX1, Part 4 point 1]
BIPRU 9.9.7RRP
Where a securitisation position is subject to funded or unfunded credit protection the risk weight to be applied to that position may be modified in accordance with BIPRU 5 (Credit risk mitigation) and, if applicable, BIPRU 4.10 (Credit risk mitigation under the IRB approach) read in conjunction with BIPRU 9.14.[Note:BCD Article 96(3)]
BIPRU 9.9.8RRP
(1) Where a firm has two or more overlapping positions in a securitisation the firm must, to the extent that the positions overlap, include in its calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts only the position, or portion of a position, producing the higher risk weighted exposure amounts. The firm may also recognise such an overlap between capital charges for specific risk in relation to positions in the trading book and capital charges for positions in the non-trading book,
BIPRU 9.9.9RRP
Subject to the provisions of GENPRU that deal with the deduction of securitisation positions at stage M in the relevant capital resources table, the risk weighted exposure amount must be included in the firm's total of risk weighted exposure amounts for the purposes of the calculation of its credit risk capital requirement.[Note:BCD Article 96(4)]
BIPRU 3.1.2GRP
BIPRU 3 implements:(1) Articles 78 to 80, paragraph (1) of Article 81, Article 83, Annex II and Parts 1 and 3 of Annex VI of the Banking Consolidation Directive;(2) Article 18 of the Capital Adequacy Directive so far as it applies Articles 78 to 80, paragraph (1) of Article 81, Article 83 and Parts 1 and 3 of Annex VI of the Banking Consolidation Directive to investment firms; and(3) Article 40 of the Capital Adequacy Directive for the purposes of the calculation of credit risk
BIPRU 3.1.3GRP
BIPRU 3.1 sets out how a firm should calculate the credit risk capital component, which is one of the elements that make up the credit risk capital requirement under GENPRU 2.1.51 R. Part of that calculation involves calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for exposures in the firm'snon-trading book. The rest of BIPRU 3 sets out how the firm should carry out that calculation.
BIPRU 3.1.5RRP
The credit risk capital component of a firm is 8% of the total of its risk weighted exposure amounts for exposures falling into BIPRU 3.1.6 R, calculated in accordance with BIPRU 3.
BIPRU 14.4.4RRP
(1) In the case of the non-trading book, a firm must treat an exposure falling into columns 2 and 3 of the table in BIPRU 14.4.3 R in accordance with the relevant provisions of the standardised approach to credit risk or the IRB approach, as the case may be.(2) In the case of the trading book, a firm must apply the treatment set out in BIPRU 14.4.5 R.[Note: CAD Annex II point 3 (part)]
BIPRU 14.4.5RRP
(1) In applying a risk weight to free deliveryexposures treated according to column 3 of the table in BIPRU 14.4.3 R, a firm using the IRB approach may assign PD to counterparties, for which they have no other non-trading bookexposure, on the basis of the counterparty's external rating.(2) A firm using own estimates of LGDs may apply the LGD set out in BIPRU 4.4.34 R to BIPRU 4.4.35 RBIPRU 4.4.35 R (IRB foundation approach: LGDs) to free deliveryexposures treated according to
BIPRU 14.4.7GRP
In cases of a system wide failure of a settlement or clearing system, a firm should refer to the emergency provisions in GEN 1.3. Where the requirements of GEN 1.3.2 R are met, until the situation is rectified failure of a counterparty to settle a trade will not be deemed a default for purposes of credit risk.[Note: CAD Annex II point 4]
BIPRU 1.2.6RRP
Term trading-related repo-style transactions that a firm accounts for in its non-trading book may be included in the trading book for capital requirement purposes so long as all such repo-style transactions are included. For this purpose, trading-related repo-style transactions are defined as those that meet the requirements of BIPRU 1.2.4 R, BIPRU 1.2.10 R and BIPRU 1.2.12 R, and both legs are in the form of either cash or securities includable in the trading book. Regardless
BIPRU 1.2.6AGRP
2Capital requirements for term trading-related repo-style transactions are the same whether the risks arise in the trading book as counterparty credit risk or in the non-trading book as credit risk.
BIPRU 1.2.16RRP
By way of derogation from 1BIPRU 1.2.14 R to BIPRU 1.2.15 R, when a firm hedges a non-trading book credit risk exposure using a credit derivative booked in its trading book (using an internal hedge), the non-trading book exposure is not deemed to be hedged for the purposes of calculating capital requirements unless the firm purchases from an eligible third party protection provider a credit derivative meeting the requirements set out in BIPRU 5.7.13 R (Additional requirements
BIPRU 1.2.17RRP
(1) Subject to (3), a firm may calculate its capital requirements for its trading book business in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk (or, if it has an IRB permission, the IRB approach) as it applies to the non-trading book where the size of the trading book business meets the following requirements:(a) the trading book business of the firm does not normally exceed 5% of its total business;(b) its total trading bookposition do not normally exceed €15 million;
BIPRU 1.2.35GRP
All positions that are in a firm'strading book require capital to cover position risk and may require capital to cover counterparty credit risk and to cover large exposures. Counterparty credit risk in the trading book is dealt with by BIPRU 14 and capital for large exposures is covered by BIPRU 10.
BIPRU 9.11.1RRP
Subject to BIPRU 9.11.5 R, the risk weighted exposure amount of a rated securitisation position or resecuritisation position2 must be calculated by applying to the exposure value the risk weight associated with the credit quality step with which the credit assessment has been determined to be associated, as prescribed in BIPRU 9.11.2 R .2[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 6]2
BIPRU 9.11.2RRP

Table:

This table belongs to BIPRU 9.11.1 R

2

Credit Quality step

1

2

3

4 (only for credit assessments other than short-term credit assessments)2

All other credit quality steps2

2

Securitisation positions2

2

20%

50%

100%

350%

1250%2

2Resecuritisation positions

40%

100%

225%

650%

1250%

[Note: For mapping of the credit quality step to the credit assessments of eligible ECAIs, refer to: www.fsa.gov.uk/pubs/international/ecais_securitisation.pdf ]

[Note: BCD, Annex IX, Part 4, point 6, Table 1]2

BIPRU 9.11.9RRP
For the treatment in BIPRU 9.11.8 R to be available,:(1) the securitisation position must be in an ABCP programme;(2) the securitisation position must be in a tranche which is economically in a second loss position or better in the securitisation and the first loss tranche must provide meaningful credit enhancement to the second loss tranche;(3) the securitisation position must be of a quality the equivalent of investment grade or better; and(4) the firm in question must not hold
BIPRU 9.11.10RRP
When the conditions in this paragraph have been met, and in order to determine its exposure value, a conversion figure of 50% may be applied to the nominal amount of a liquidity facility. The risk weight to be applied is the highest risk weight that would be applied to any of the securitised exposures under the standardised approach by a firm holding the exposures. Those conditions are as follows:11(1) the liquidity facility documentation must clearly identify and limit the circumstances
BIPRU 2.2.27GRP
(1) This paragraph applies to a proportional ICAAP in the case of a firm whose activities are complex.(2) A proportional approach to that firm'sICAAP should cover the matters identified in BIPRU 2.2.26 G, but is likely also to involve the use of models, most of which will be integrated into its day-to-day management and operation.(3) Models of the sort referred to in (2) may be linked so as to generate an overall estimate of the amount of capital that a firm considers appropriate
BIPRU 2.2.33GRP
A firm should assess, and monitor, in detail its exposure to sectoral, geographic, liability and asset concentrations. The FSA considers that concentrations in these areas increase a firm's exposure to credit risk. Where a firm identifies such concentrations it should consider the adequacy of its CRR.
BIPRU 2.2.41RRP
A firm with an IRB permission must ensure that there is no significant risk that it will not be able to meet its capital resource requirements for credit risk under GENPRU 2.1 (Calculation of capital resources requirements) at all times throughout an economic cycle, including the capital resources requirements for credit risk indicated by any stress test carried out under BIPRU 4.3.39 R to BIPRU 4.3.40 R (Stress tests used in assessment of capital adequacy for a firm with an IRB
BIPRU 2.2.45GRP
The countervailing factors and off-setting actions that a firm may rely on as referred to in BIPRU 2.2.44 G include, but are not limited to, projected balance sheet shrinkage, growth in capital resources resulting from retained profits between the date of the stress test and the projected start of the economic downturn, the possibility of raising new capital in a downturn, the ability to reduce dividend payments or other distributions, and the ability to allocate capital from
BIPRU 2.2.67GRP
Where a securities firm deals in illiquid securities (for example, unlisted securities or securities listed on illiquid markets), or holds illiquid assets, potentially large losses can arise from trades that have failed to settle or because of large unrealised market losses. A securities firm may therefore consider the impact of liquidity risk on its exposure to:(1) credit risk; and(2) market risk.
COLL 5.2.7GRRP
7A money-market instrument shall be regarded as normally dealt in on the money market if it:(1) has a maturity at issuance of up to and including 397 days;(2) has a residual maturity of up to and including 397 days;(3) undergoes regular yield adjustments in line with money market conditions at least every 397 days; or(4) has a risk profile, including credit and interest rate risks, corresponding to that of an instrument which has a maturity as set out in (1) or (2) or is subject
COLL 5.2.7IGRP
(1) 7The authorised fund manager should assess the liquidity of a money-market instrument in accordance with CESR's UCITS eligible assets guidelines with respect to article 4(1) of the UCITS eligible assets Directive.(2) Where an approved money-market instrument forms part of the scheme property of a qualifying money market fund, short-term money market fund or money market fund,12 the authorised fund manager should adequately monitor that the instrument continues to be of high
COLL 5.2.10ARRP
(1) 7(In addition to instruments admitted to or dealt in on an eligible market) a UCITS scheme may invest in an approved money-market instrument provided it fulfils the following requirements:(a) the issue or the issuer is regulated for the purpose of protecting investors and savings; and(b) the instrument is issued or guaranteed in accordance with COLL 5.2.10B R.[Note: article 50(1)(h)(i) to (iii)13 of the UCITS Directive]13(2) The issue or the issuer of a money-market instrument,
COLL 5.2.10CRRP
(1) 7In the case of an approved money-market instrument within COLL 5.2.10BR (1)(b) or issued by a body of the type referred to in COLL 5.2.10E G; or which is issued by an authority within COLL 5.2.10BR (1)(a)(ii) or a public international body within COLL 5.2.10BR (1)(a)(vi) but is not guaranteed by a central authority within COLL 5.2.10BR (1)(a)(i), the following information must be available:(a) information on both the issue or the issuance programme, and the legal and financial
COLL 5.2.19AGRP
(1) 7Collateralised debt obligations (CDOs) or asset-backed securities using derivatives, with or without an active management, will generally not be considered as embedding a derivative except if:(a) they are leveraged, i.e. the CDOs or asset-backed securities are not limited recourse vehicles and the investors' loss can be higher than their initial investment; or(b) they are not sufficiently diversified.(2) Where a transferable security or approved money-market instrument embedding
COLL 5.2.20RRP
(1) A transaction in a derivative must:(a) be in an approved derivative; or(b) be one which complies with COLL 5.2.23 R (OTC transactions in derivatives).(2) The underlying of a transaction in a derivative must consist of any one or more of the following to which the scheme is dedicated:(a) transferable securities permitted under COLL 5.2.8 R (3)(a) to (c) and COLL 5.2.8 R (3)(e)7;(b) approved money-market instruments7 permitted underCOLL 5.2.8 R (3)(a) to COLL 5.2.8 R (3)(d)7;77(c)