Related provisions for BIPRU 7.9.27

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BIPRU 7.6.1RRP
A firm must calculate its optionPRR by:(1) identifying which optionpositions must be included within the scope of the optionPRR calculation under BIPRU 7.6.3R - BIPRU 7.6.5R;(2) calculating the derived position in each option in accordance with BIPRU 7.6.9R - BIPRU 7.6.15R;(3) calculating the PRR for each derived position in accordance with BIPRU 7.6.16R - BIPRU 7.6.31R;(4) summing all of the PRRs calculated in accordance with (3).
BIPRU 7.6.2GRP
Firms are reminded that the table in BIPRU 7.2.4R (Instruments which result in notional positions for the purposes of the interest rate PRR) and the table in BIPRU 7.3.3R (Instruments which result in notional positions for the purposes of the equity PRR) also require an interest rate PRR to be calculated for options on equities, baskets of equities or equities indices. The interaction between BIPRU 7.6 and the rest of Chapter 7 is illustrated in BIPRU 7.6.33G.
BIPRU 7.6.3RRP
Except as permitted under BIPRU 7.6.5R, a firm'soption PRR calculation must include:(1) each trading bookposition in an option on an equity, interest rate or debt security;(2) each trading bookposition in a warrant on an equity or debt security;(3) each trading bookposition in a CIU; and(4) each trading book and non-trading bookposition in an option on a commodity, currency or gold.
BIPRU 7.6.5RRP
Table: Appropriate PRR calculation for an option or warrantThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.3ROption type (see BIPRU 7.6.18R) or warrantPRR calculationAmerican option, European option, Bermudan option, Asian option or warrant for which the in the money percentage (see BIPRU 7.6.6R) is equal to or greater than the appropriate position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.6.7R and BIPRU 7.6.8R)Calculate either an option PRR, or the most appropriate to the underlying position of: an equity
BIPRU 7.6.6RRP
(1) The in the money percentage is calculated in accordance with this rule.(2) For a call option:Current market price of underlying - Strike price of the option * 100Strike price of the option(3) For a put option:Strike price of option - Current market price of underlying * 100Strike price of the option(4) In the case of an option on a basket of securities a firm may not treat the option as being in the money by the relevant percentage so as to enable the firm not to apply an
BIPRU 7.6.7RRP
(1) The appropriate position risk adjustment for a position is that listed in the table in BIPRU 7.6.8R against the relevant underlying position.(2) If the firm uses the commodity extended maturity ladder approach or the commodity maturity ladder approach for a particular commodity under BIPRU 7.4 (Commodity PRR) the appropriate position risk adjustment for an option on that commodity is the outright rate applicable to the underlying position (see BIPRU 7.4.26R (Calculating the
BIPRU 7.6.10RRP
A firm may calculate a derived position for its net position in an option or a warrant, if the relevant options or warrants are identical or may be treated as identical under BIPRU 7.6.11R or BIPRU 7.6.12R.
BIPRU 7.6.11RRP
A firm may treat options or warrants as identical if they have the same strike price, maturity (except for an interest rate cap or floor - see BIPRU 7.6.12R) and underlying.
BIPRU 7.6.13RRP
Table: Derived positionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.9RUnderlyingOption (or warrant)Derived positionEquityOption (warrant) on a single equity or option on a future/forward on a single equityA notional position in the actual equity underlying the contract valued at the current market price of the equity.Option (warrant) on a basket of equities or option on a future/forward on a basket of equitiesA notional position in the actual equities underlying the contract valued at the
BIPRU 7.6.14RRP
A firm may treat (for the purpose of calculating an option PRR under BIPRU 7.6) an option strategy listed in the table in BIPRU 7.6.15R as the single position in a notional option specified against that strategy in the table in BIPRU 7.6.15R, if:(1) each element of the strategy is transacted with the same counterparty;(2) the strategy is documented as a single structure;(3) the underlying for each part of the composite position (including any actual holding of the underlying)
BIPRU 7.6.15RRP
Table: Option strategiesThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.14ROption strategy (and an example)Notional option (and rule it must be treated under)Bull Spread(e.g. buy 100 call and sell 101 call)One purchased option(treat under BIPRU 7.6.20R)Bear Spread(e.g. sell 100 put and buy 101 put)One written option(treat under BIPRU 7.6.21R)Synthetic Long Call(e.g. long underlying and buy 100 put)One purchased option(treat under BIPRU 7.6.20R or BIPRU 7.6.24R)Synthetic Short Call(e.g. short
BIPRU 7.6.16RRP
A firm must calculate the option PRR for each individual derived optionposition using the method specified in the table in BIPRU 7.6.18R, or, if more than one method is permitted, using one of those methods.
BIPRU 7.6.18RRP
Table: Option PRR: methods for different types of optionThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.16ROptionDescriptionMethodAmerican optionAn option that may be exercised at any time over an extended period up to its expiry date.Option standard method or option hedging method if appropriateEuropean optionAn option that can only be exercised at expiry.Bermudan optionA cross between an American option and European option. The Bermudan option can only be exercised at specific dates during
BIPRU 7.6.20RRP
Under the option standard method, the PRR for a purchased option or warrant is the lesser of:(1) the market value of the derived position (see BIPRU 7.6.9R) multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.6.8R); and(2) the market value of the option or warrant.
BIPRU 7.6.21RRP
Under the option standard method, the PRR for a written option or warrant is the market value of the derived position (see BIPRU 7.6.9R) multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.6.8R). This result may be reduced by the amount the option or warrant is out of the money (subject to a maximum reduction to zero).
BIPRU 7.6.22RRP
Under the option standard method, the PRR for underwriting or sub-underwriting an issue of warrants is the net underwriting position (or reduced net underwriting position) multiplied by the current market price of the underlying securities multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment, but the result can be limited to the value of the net underwriting position (or reduced net underwriting position) calculated using the issue price of the warrant.
BIPRU 7.6.23GRP
The option hedging method involves the option PRR being calculated on a combination of the option and its hedge.
BIPRU 7.6.24RRP
Under the option hedging method a firm must calculate the option PRR for individual positions as follows:(1) for an option or warrant on an equity, basket of equities or equity index and its equity hedge(s), the firm must, to the extent specified or permitted in the table in BIPRU 7.6.26R, use the calculation in the table in BIPRU 7.6.27R;(2) for an option or warrant on a debt security, basket of debt securities or debt security index and its debt security hedge(s), the firm must,
BIPRU 7.6.25RRP
(1) A firm may not use the option hedging method for:(a) an interest rate option and its hedge; or(b) a commodity option and its hedge; or(c) a CIUoption and its hedge.(2) A firm may only use the option hedging method if the item underlying the option or warrant is the same as the hedge of the option or warrant under the PRR identical product netting rules.
BIPRU 7.6.26RRP
Table: Appropriate treatment for equities, debt securities or currencies hedging optionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.24RHedgePRR calculation for the hedgeLimits (if hedging method is used)Naked positionAn equity (hedging an option or warrant)The equity must be treated in either BIPRU 7.3 (equity PRR) or the option hedging method (see the table in BIPRU 7.6.27R)The option hedging method must only be used up to the amount of the hedge that matches the notional amount underlying
BIPRU 7.6.27RRP
Table: The hedging method of calculating the PRR (equities, debt securities and gold)This table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.24R(1) - (3)PRROption or warrantpositionIn the money by more than the position risk adjustmentIn the money by less than the position risk adjustmentOut of the money or at the moneyLong in security or goldLong putZeroWpXShort callYYZShort in security or goldLong callZeroWcXShort putYYZWhere:Wp means{(position risk adjustment-100%) x The underlying position valued
BIPRU 7.6.28RRP
Table: The hedging method of calculating the PRR (currencies)This table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.24R(4)PRROptionpositionIn the money by more than 8%In the money by less than 8%Out of the money or at the moneyLong calls & long putsZeroWLXShort calls & short putsZeroYXWhere:WL means(1.08% x U)-The market value of the underlying positionU meansThe amount of the underlying currency that the firm will receive if the option is exercised, converted at the strike price into the currency that
BIPRU 7.6.29RRP
The option PRR for a digital option is the maximum loss of the option.
BIPRU 7.6.30RRP
The option PRR for a written cliquet option is the market value of the derived position (see BIPRU 7.6.9R) multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.6.8R) multiplied by F+1 (see the following provisions of this paragraph). This result may be reduced by the amount the option is out of the money (subject to a maximum reduction to zero). The option PRR for a written cliquet option is therefore defined by the following formula:[position risk adjustment *
BIPRU 7.6.31RRP
If the pay-out to the holder of a quanto option is fixed at the inception of the transaction a firm must add 8% to the position risk adjustment when applying the option standard method.
BIPRU 7.6.33GRP
The following diagram illustrates the relationship between BIPRU 7.6 and the rest of BIPRU 7.
BIPRU 7.6.35RRP
For the purpose of identifying the appropriate treatment for the purpose of BIPRU 7.6.5R, the underlying position for the purpose of BIPRU 7.6.8R and the derived position under BIPRU 7.6.13R a firm may choose between treating an option on a CIU as being:(1) a position in the CIU itself; or(2) (if the conditions in BIPRU 7.7 (Position risk requirements for collective investment undertakings) for the use of the method in question are satisfied) positions in the underlying investments
BIPRU 7.6.36GRP
(1) This paragraph gives an example of how the appropriate position risk adjustment should be calculated for the purpose of deciding whether or not an option on a CIU is sufficiently in the money for the firm to have a choice whether or not to apply an option PRR. This example assumes that there is no leveraging (see BIPRU 7.7.11R (CIU modified look through method)).(2) Say that the CIU contains underlying equityposition and the firm is using one of the CIU look through methods.
BIPRU 7.9.7GRP
Table: Types of CAD 1 modelThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.9.6GOptions risk aggregation modelsInterest rate pre-processing modelsBrief description and eligible instrumentsAnalyse and aggregate options risks for: interest rate options;equityoptions;foreign currencyoptions;commodity options; andCIUoptions.May be used to calculate duration weighted positions for: interest rate futures;forward rate agreements (FRAs);forward commitments to buy or sell debt securities;options, swaps or
BIPRU 7.9.8GRP
Currently the appropriate regulator only envisages allowing recognition for options on CIUs if the CIU satisfies one of the following conditions:(1) it is a regulated collective investment scheme; or(2) the firm can demonstrate that it has characteristics that are similar to or better than an undertaking in (1) from the point of view of transparency and liquidity.
BIPRU 7.9.15GRP
If the appropriate regulator grants a CAD 1 model waiver, the waiver direction will specify the particular rule which has been modified, and set out the requirements subject to which the waiver has been granted. These requirements may include:(1) the details of the calculation of PRR;(2) the CAD 1 model waiver methodology to be employed;(3) the products covered by the model (e.g. option type, maturity, currency); and(4) any notification requirements relating to the CAD 1 model
BIPRU 7.9.25GRP
For a firm to obtain a CAD 1 model waiver for its options risk aggregation model, it should have in place an appropriate options valuation model.
BIPRU 7.9.26GRP
The appropriate regulator does not specify the methodology that a firm should employ in order to produce the appropriate outputs from its options risk aggregation CAD 1 model. However, BIPRU 7.9.27G - BIPRU 7.9.43G provide details of how a firm could meet the requirement to capture gamma, vega and rho risks using a scenario matrix approach. Where a firm adopts the scenario matrix approach then the standards set out in BIPRU 7.9.27G - BIPRU 7.9.43G should be followed. The firm
BIPRU 7.9.28GRP
The scenario matrix approach may be employed for all types of options on all types of underlying asset.
BIPRU 7.9.29GRP
(1) This paragraph provides an outline of the initial steps to be taken when using the scenario matrix approach.(2) A value for an option should be obtained using the firm'soptions valuation model.(3) The inputs into the options valuation model for implied volatility of the underlying asset and the price of the underlying asset should then be altered so that a new value for the option is obtained (details of the amount by which the implied volatility and the price of the underlying
BIPRU 7.9.30GRP
The alteration to the implied volatility (known as the implied volatility shift) referred to in BIPRU 7.9.29G (3) may be a proportional shift. The size of the shift depends on the remaining life of the option and the asset class of the underlying. The table in BIPRU 7.9.32G sets out the shifts that should be applied where a proportional shift is used. Alternatively, a firm may use a single shift across all maturities or use an absolute rather than a proportional implied volatility
BIPRU 7.9.32GRP
Table: proportional implied volatility shiftsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.9.30GRemaining life of optionProportional shiftEquities, foreign currency and commoditiesInterest rates and CIUs≤ 1 month30%30%> 1 ≤ 3 months20%20%> 3 ≤ 6 months15%15%> 6 ≤ 9 months12%12%> 9 ≤ 12 months9%9%> 1 ≤ 2 years6%9%> 2 ≤ 4 years4.5%9%> 4 years3%9%
BIPRU 7.9.36GRP
The minimum size of the scenario matrix should be 3x7, that is, three observations for implied volatility (including the actual implied volatility) and seven observations for the price of the underlying (including the actual price of the underlying). A firm should be able to justify its choice of granularity. Greater granularity may be required where the portfolio contains, for example, a large proportion of barrier options.
BIPRU 7.9.37GRP
(1) A different scenario matrix should be set up for each underlying asset type in accordance with this paragraph.(2) For equities (including single equities, baskets and indices) there should be a separate matrix for each national market or non-decomposed basket or non-decomposed multi-national index.(3) For foreign currency products there should be a separate matrix for each currency pair where appropriate.(4) For commodity products there should be a separate matrix for each
BIPRU 7.9.38GRP
A firm may offset gamma and vega exposures arising from the products listed in BIPRU 7.9.37G (5) where it can demonstrate that it trades different types of interest rate-related options as a portfolio and takes steps to control the basis risk between different types of implied volatility. To the extent that this is the case an individual matrix is not required for each of the products listed in BIPRU 7.9.37G (5) and a combined scenario matrix may be used.
BIPRU 7.9.39GRP
Where it is imprudent fully to offset long-dated and short-dated vega exposure owing to the risk of non-parallel shifts in the yield curve, a firm should use an appropriate number of scenario matrices to take account of non-parallel shifts in the yield curve according to the maturity of the option or underlying.
BIPRU 7.9.40GRP
Following the steps outlined in BIPRU 7.9.29G, a firm then removes the portion of the values in the matrix that can be attributed to the effect that delta has had on the change in the value of the option (a process known as delta-stripping).
BIPRU 7.9.41GRP
Once the effect of delta has been removed from the matrix, the values left in the matrix relate to gamma and vega risk. A firm'sPRR in relation to gamma and vega risk on the individual option is the absolute of the most negative cell in the scenario matrix produced. Where all cells are positive the PRR is zero. The total PRR for the gamma and vega risk on the portfolio of options is a simple sum of the individual requirements. This amount should then be fed into a firm'sPRR c
BIPRU 7.9.43GRP
In using the scenario matrix approach, none of the steps followed will take specific account of a firm's exposure to rho risk. Where a firm can demonstrate that for interest rate-related options the rho sensitivity is effectively included in the delta sensitivities produced, there is no separate capital requirement relating to rho. For all other options except commodity options, a firm should calculate a rho sensitivity ladder by currency using its CAD 1 model and either feed
INSPRU 1.2.62RRP
When a firm establishes its mathematical reserves in respect of a long-term insurance contract, the firm must include an amount to cover any increase in liabilities which might be the direct result of its policyholder exercising an option under, or by virtue of, that contract of insurance. Where the surrender value of a contract is guaranteed, the amount of the mathematical reserves for that contract at any time must be at least as great as the value guaranteed at that time.
INSPRU 1.2.63GRP
An option exists where a policyholder is given a choice between alternative forms of benefit, for example, a choice between receiving a cash benefit upon maturity or an annuity at a guaranteed rate. In some cases, the contract may designate one or other of these alternatives as the principal benefit and any other as an option. This designation, in itself, is not one of substance in the context of reserving since it does not affect the policyholder's choices. Other forms of option
INSPRU 1.2.64GRP
The firm should provide for the benefit which the firm anticipates the policyholder is most likely to choose. P2ast experience may be used as a guide, but only if this is likely to give a reasonable estimate of future experience. For example, past experience of the take-up of a cash payment option instead of an annuity would not be a reliable guide, if, in the past, market rates exceeded those guaranteed in the annuity but no longer do so. Similarly, past experience on the take-up
INSPRU 1.2.65GRP
Many options are long-term and need careful consideration. Improving longevity, for example, can increase the value of guaranteed annuity options vesting further in the future. firms also need to have regard to the fact that policyholder behaviour can change in the future as policyholders become more aware of the value of their options. The impact on policyholder behaviour of possible changes in taxation should also be considered.
INSPRU 1.2.66GRP
In accordance with INSPRU 1.2.7 R and INSPRU 1.2.13 R, take-up rates for guaranteed annuity options should be assessed on a prudent basis with assumptions that include margins for adverse deviation (see INSPRU 1.2.13 R to INSPRU 1.2.19 G) that take account of current experience and the potential for future change. The firm should reserve for option take-up at least at a prudent margin over current experience for options shortly to vest. For longer term options where the option
INSPRU 1.2.67GRP
Where there is considerable variation in the cost of the option depending on conditions at the time the option is exercised, and where that variation constitutes a material risk for the firm, it will generally be appropriate to use stochastic modelling. In this case prices from the asset model used in the stochastic approach should be benchmarked to relevant market asset prices before determining the value of the option. Where stochastic modelling is not undertaken, market option
INSPRU 1.2.68GRP
Where the option offers a choice between two non-discretionary financial benefits (such as between a guaranteed cash sum or a guaranteed annuity value, or between a unit value and a maturity guarantee) and where there is a wide range of possible outcomes, the firm should normally model such liabilities stochastically. In carrying out such modelling firms should take into account the likely choices to be made by policyholders in each scenario. Firms should make and retain a record
INSPRU 1.2.69GRP
The value of a contract with an option is greater than the value of a similar contract without the option, that is, the option has value whether it is expected to be exercised or not. Although in theory a firm can rebalance its investments to match the expected cost of the option to the firm (including the time value of the option), this takes time to achieve and the market may move more quickly than the firm is able to respond. Also, there are likely to be transaction costs.
COBS 19.4.1RRP
In this section:(1) ‘intended retirement date’ means:(a) the date (according to the most recent recorded information available to the provider) when the scheme member intends to retire, or to bring the benefits in the scheme into payment, whichever is the earlier; or(b) if there is no such date, the scheme member's state pension age;(2) ‘open market options' means the options available to a scheme member3 to use the proceeds of a personal pension scheme, stakeholder pension scheme,
COBS 19.4.3RRP
The firm must:(1) remind the retail client about the open market options statement;33(2) tell the client what sum of money will be available to exercise open market options;33(3) remind the client about the availability of the pensions guidance; and3(4) make a recommendation that the client seeks appropriate guidance or advice to understand their options at retirement;3at least six weeks before the client’s intended retirement date.
COBS 19.4.5RRP
(1) 3Where a firm communicates with a retail client about the retail client'spersonal pension scheme, stakeholder pension scheme, FSAVC, retirement annuity contract or pension buy-out contract which is provided by the firm, unless the circumstances in (2) apply, the firm must3:(a) refer to the availability of the pensions guidance;3(b) offer to provide the client with information about how to access the pensions guidance; and3(c) [deleted]3(d) include3 a recommendation that the
COBS 19.4.6GRP
3An example of behaviour that is likely to contravene the client's best interests rule or Principle 6 and may contravene other Principles is for a firm to actively discourage a retail client from using the pensions guidance, for example by:(1) leading the client to believe that using the pensions guidance is unnecessary or would not be beneficial; or(2) obscuring the statement about the availability of the pensions guidance or any other information relevant to the exercise of
COBS 19.4.8RRP
3A firm is not required to provide the information specified in COBS 19.4.7 R where it is provided in accordance with COBS 14.2.1 R.
IFPRU 6.1.6GRP
A firm that wishes to use own estimates for delta for the purposes of the standardised approach for options, should provide the FCA with confirmation that it meets the minimum standards set out in IFPRU 6.1.8 G to IFPRU 6.1.15 R (Minimum standards for own estimates of delta) for each type of option for which it calculates delta. Where a firm meets the minimum standards, it can expect to be permitted to use own estimates of delta for the relevant option.
IFPRU 6.1.7GRP
If a firm is unable to provide assurance with regard to a particular option type which is currently within its permissions, a capital add-on may be applied and a rectification plan agreed. If a firm is unable to comply with the rectification plan within the mandated time-frame, further supervisory measures may be taken. This may include variation of a firm's Part 4A permission so that it is no longer allowed to trade those particular types of options for which it does not meet
IFPRU 6.1.8GRP
The level of sophistication of the pricing models used to calculate own estimates of delta for use in the standardised approach for options should be proportionate to the complexity and risk of each option, and the overall risk of the firm's options trading business. In general, it is considered that the risk of sold options will be higher than the risk of the same options when bought.
IFPRU 6.1.11GRP
A firm should use generally accepted industry standard pricing models for the calculation of own deltas where these are available, such as for relatively simple options.
IFPRU 6.1.14GRP
A firm should ensure its risk management functions are aware of weaknesses of the model used to calculate deltas. Where weaknesses are identified, the firm should ensure that estimates of delta result in prudent own funds requirements being held. The outcome should be prudent across the whole portfolio of options and underlying positions at a given time.
PERG 2.6.14GRP
To keep clear distinctions between the different specified investment categories, instruments giving entitlements to investments are not to be regarded as options, futures or contracts for differences.
PERG 2.6.19DGRP
9This specified investment comprises emissions allowances that are auctioned as financial instruments or two-day emissions spots (together, emissions auction products).
PERG 2.6.20GRP
The specified investment category of options comprises:444(1) 4options to acquire or dispose of securities or contractually based investments, currency and certain precious metals and options to acquire or dispose of such options. Options to buy or sell other types of commodity will only fall within this specified investment category if they are options to buy or sellfutures, or options to buy or sellcontracts for differences, which are based on other commodities. But options
PERG 2.6.20AGRP
4It follows therefore that options not falling within PERG 2.6.20G (1), for example physically settled options on non-precious metals, such as copper options, will not be options unless they meet the conditions in PERG 2.6.20G (2). Moreover, where the option in question is one to which PERG 2.6.20G (2) applies, it will be an option only in relation to the investment services and activities, or ancillary services where relevant, provided by that person. The same applies in the
PERG 2.6.22AGRP
4As with options, there is an additional category of instruments which are futures only when they are the object of investment services or activities provided or performed by certain persons. These are contracts as described in PERG 2.6.21 G:(1) that would not be regarded as having been entered into for investment purposes because they fail one of the tests mentioned in PERG 2.6.22 G;(2) that fall within paragraphs 5, 6, 7 or 10 of Annex 1 to MiFID (see PERG 13, Q32 to Q34 for
PERG 2.6.24GRP
There are a number of exclusions. These include a case where the parties intend that the profit is to be secured or the loss to be avoided by taking delivery of property. This avoids overlap with the specified investment categories of options and futures. Also excluded are index-linked deposits and rights under certain contracts connected with the National Savings Bank or National Savings products. There is also provision to ensure that the specified investment category of contracts
BIPRU 7.2.3RRP
A firm's interest rate PRR calculation must:(1) include all trading bookpositions in debt securities, preference shares and convertibles, except:(a) positions in convertibles which have been included in the firm'sequity PRR calculation;(b) positions fully deducted as a material holding under the calculations under the capital resources table, in which case the firm may exclude them; or(c) positions hedging an option which is being treated under BIPRU 7.6.26R (Table: Appropriate
BIPRU 7.2.4RRP
Table: Instruments which result in notional positionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.2.3R(2)InstrumentSeeFutures, forwards or synthetic futures on debt securitiesBIPRU 7.2.13 RFutures, forwards or synthetic futures on debt indices or basketsBIPRU 7.2.14RInterest rate futures or forward rate agreements (FRAs)BIPRU 7.2.18 RInterest rate swaps or foreign currencyswapsBIPRU 7.2.21RDeferred start interest rate swaps or foreign currencyswapsBIPRU 7.2.24RThe interest rate leg of an equityswap
BIPRU 7.2.7GRP
Firms are reminded that the table in BIPRU 7.6.5R (Table: Appropriate PRR calculation for an option or warrant) divides options and warrants on interest rates, debt securities and interest rate futures and swaps into:(1) those which must be treated under BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR); and(2) those which must be treated under either BIPRU 7.2 or BIPRU 7.6, the firm being able to choose whether BIPRU 7.2 or BIPRU 7.6 is used.
BIPRU 7.2.32RRP
(1) Where included in the PRR calculation in BIPRU 7.2 (see the table in BIPRU 7.2.4R), options and warrants must be treated in accordance with this rule.(2) An option or warrant on a debt security, a basket of debt securities or a debt security index must be treated as a position in that debt security, basket or index.(3) An option on an interest rate must be treated as a position in a zero coupon zero-specific-risk security with a maturity equal to the sum of the time to expiry
BIPRU 7.2.34RRP
Other futures, forwards, options and swaps treated under BIPRU 7.2 must be treated as positions in zero-specific-risk securities, each of which:(1) has a zero coupon;(2) has a maturity equal to that of the relevant contract; and(3) is long or short according to the table in BIPRU 7.2.35R.
BIPRU 7.2.35RRP
Table: Interest rate risk on other futures, forwards, options and swapsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.2.34R.InstrumentNotional positionsforeign currencyforward or futurea long position denominated in the currency purchasedanda short position denominated in the currency soldGold forward or futurea long position if the forward or future involves an actual (or notional) sale of goldora short position if the forward or future involves an actual (or notional) purchase of goldEquityforward
BIPRU 7.2.42ARRP
3A correlation trading portfolio may only consist of securitisation positions and nth-to-default credit derivatives that meet the following criteria:(1) the positions are neither resecuritisation positions, nor options on a securitisation position, nor any other derivatives of securitisationexposures that do not provide a pro-rata share in the proceeds of a securitisationtranche;(2) all reference instruments are either single-name instruments, including single-name credit derivatives,
BIPRU 7.5.5RRP
Table: instruments which result in notional foreign currency positionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.5.3R(6).InstrumentsSeeForeign currencyfutures, forwards, synthetic futures and CFDsBIPRU 7.5.11RForeign currencyswapsBIPRU 7.5.13RForeign currency options or warrants (unless the firm calculates a PRR on the option or warrant under BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR)).BIPRU 7.5.15RGold futures, forwards, synthetic futures and CFDsBIPRU 7.5.16RGold options (unless the firm calculates a PRR on
BIPRU 7.5.6GRP
Firms are reminded that the table in BIPRU 7.6.5R (Table: Appropriate PRR calculation for an option or warrant) divides foreign currencyoptions and warrants into:(1) those which must be treated under BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR); and(2) those which must be treated under either BIPRU 7.5 or BIPRU 7.6, the firm being able to choose whether BIPRU 7.5 or BIPRU 7.6 is used.
BIPRU 7.5.15RRP
Where included in BIPRU 7.5's PRR calculation (see the table in BIPRU 7.5.5R), a foreign currencyoption or warrant must be treated as a foreign currencyforward.
BIPRU 7.5.17RRP
If included in the PRR calculation under BIPRU 7.5 (see the table in BIPRU 7.5.5R), a gold option must be treated as a gold forward.
BIPRU 7.3.2RRP
A firm'sequity PRR calculation must:(1) include all trading bookpositions in equities, unless:(a) the position is fully deducted as a material holding under the calculations under the capital resources table, in which case the firm may exclude it; or(b) the position is hedging an option or warrant which is being treated under BIPRU 7.6.26R (Table: Appropriate treatment for equities, debt securities or currencies hedging options);(2) include notional positions arising from trading
BIPRU 7.3.3RRP
Table: Instruments which result in notional positionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.3.2R(2)InstrumentSeeDepository receiptsBIPRU 7.3.12RConvertibles where:(a) the convertible is trading at a market price of less than 110% of the underlying equity; and the first date at which conversion can take place is less than three months ahead, or the next such date (where the first has passed) is less than a year ahead; orBIPRU 7.3.13R(b) the conditions in (a) are not met but the firm includes
BIPRU 7.3.6GRP
Firms are reminded that the table in BIPRU 7.6.5R (Table: Appropriate PRR calculation for an option or warrant) divides equityoptions and warrants into:(1) those which must be treated under BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR); and(2) those which must be treated under either BIPRU 7.3 or BIPRU 7.6, the firm being able to choose whether BIPRU 7.3 or BIPRU 7.6 is used.
BIPRU 7.3.21RRP
If included in BIPRU 7.3's PRR calculation (see the table in BIPRU 7.3.3R), options must be treated as follows:(1) an option on a single equity must be treated as a notional position in that equity;(2) an option on a basket of equities or equity index must be treated as a future on that basket or index; and(3) an option on an equityfuture must be treated as:(a) a long position in that future, for purchased call options and written put options; and(b) a short position in that future,
BIPRU 7.3.45RRP
This rule applies to a firm that does not include a forward, future, option or swap on an equity, basket of equities or equity index in the calculation of its interest rate PRR calculation under BIPRU 7.2 (Interest rate PRR). However it does not apply to cliquet as defined in BIPRU 7.6.18R (Table: Option PRR: methods for different types of option). A firm must calculate the interest rate PRR for a position being treated under this rule as follows:(1) multiply the market value
BIPRU 7.10.21GRP
The broad classes of position referred to in BIPRU 7.10.20G are as follows:(1) linear products, which comprise securities with linear pay-offs (e.g. bonds and equities) and derivative products which have linear pay-offs in the underlying risk factor (e.g. interest rate swaps, FRAs, total return swaps);(2) European, American and Bermudan put and call options (including caps, floors and swaptions) and investments with these features (see BIPRU 7.6.18R (Table: Option PRR: methods
BIPRU 7.10.25GRP
The appropriate regulator accepts that the scope and nature of VaR models varies across firms. This means that different firms are likely to calculate different estimates of market risk for the same portfolio. Systematic differences are due to length of data series, choice of methodology (historical or Monte Carlo simulation or variance-covariance method or a hybrid of these), differences in aggregating risks within and across broad risk factors, the treatment of options and other
BIPRU 7.10.39ARRP
3A firm must incorporate risk factors that are included in its pricing model in its VaR model. A firm'sVaR model must capture nonlinearities for options and other products, as well as correlation risk and basis risk. Where proxies for risk factors are used they must show a good track record for the actual position held. In addition, BIPRU 7.10.40 R to BIPRU 7.10.44 R apply for individual risk types.
BIPRU 7.10.53RRP
A firm'sVaR model must capture accurately all material price risks for positions within the scope of its VaRpermission, including risks relating to options or option-like positions. The firm must ensure that, if its VaR model does not accurately capture any material risk, the firm has capital resources adequate to cover that risk. These capital resources must be additional to those required to meet its capital resources requirement.
BIPRU 7.10.55GRP
A firm is expected ultimately to move towards full revaluation of option positions. For portfolios containing path dependent options, an instantaneous price shock applied to a static portfolio will be acceptable provided that the risks not captured by such an approach are not material. Where a risk is immaterial and does not justify further capital resources, that immaterial risk should still be documented.
BIPRU 7.10.55LRRP
(1) 3The incremental risk charge must reflect the nonlinear impact of options, structured credit derivatives and other positions with material nonlinear behaviour with respect to price changes.(2) The firm must also consider the amount of model risk inherent in the valuation and estimation of price risks associated with those products.
INSPRU 3.2.7RRP
The generation of additional capital or income falls within INSPRU 3.2.6R (1) where it arises from:(1) taking advantage of pricing imperfections in relation to the acquisition and disposal (or disposal and acquisition) of rights in relation to assets the same as, or equivalent to, admissible assets or permitted links1; or(2) receiving a premium for selling a covered call option or its equivalent, the underlying of which is an admissible asset or permitted link1, even if that additional
INSPRU 3.2.22GRP
The second purpose of cover is that it prevents excessive gearing in the investment portfolio by the use of options and their equivalent. A firm is required to cover all obligations under an admissible transaction including obligations that would arise only at the option of the firm, e.g. the liability to pay the exercise price under a bought option.
INSPRU 3.2.32GRP
Examples of cover by assets for the purposes of INSPRU 3.2.16 R:(1) a bought put option (or a sold call option) on 1000 1 shares (fully paid) of ABC plc is covered by an existing holding in the fund of 1000 1 shares (fully paid) of ABC plc;(2) a bought call option (or sold put option) on 1000 ordinary 1 shares (fully paid) of ABC plc is covered by cash (or its equivalent) which is sufficient in amount to meet the purchase price of the shares on exercise of the option;(3) a bought
INSPRU 3.2.33GRP
Examples of cover by offsetting transactions for the purpose of INSPRU 3.2.25 R would include a bought future which is guaranteed to deliver to the firm at the relevant time sufficient assets to cover liabilities under a sold call option.
BIPRU 7.7.2RRP
(1) A firm'sPRR calculation must include all trading bookpositions in CIUs.(2) A firm'sCIU PRR calculation must include all trading bookpositions in CIUs unless they are treated under one of the CIU look through methods and included in the PRR calculations for the relevant underlying investments or subject to an option PRR.(3) A firm'sPRR calculation for CIUs must include notional positions arising from trading bookpositions in options or warrants on collective investmentunde
BIPRU 7.7.14GRP
An option on a CIU should be treated in accordance with BIPRU 7.6.35R to BIPRU 7.6.37G (Options on a CIU).
REC 3.14.3RRP
Where a UK recognised body proposes to provide (or to cease to provide) clearing facilitation services3 in respect of:3(1) a specified investment (other than a security or an option in relation to a security); or (2) a type of security or a type of option in relation to a security;it must give the FCA3notice of that event and the information specified for the purposes of this rule in REC 3.14.6 R, at the same time as that proposal is first formally communicated to its members
REC 3.14.5GRP
Securities falling within the same article in Part III of the Regulated Activities Order which may be given the same generic description (for example, shares admitted to the UKofficial list) will normally be regarded as being of the same type. Options in relation to the same type of security will normally be regarded as being options of the same type.
LR 20.1.2GRP
Miscellaneous securities include warrants and options and other similar securities.
LR 10.1.3RRP
In this chapter (except where specifically provided to the contrary) a reference to a transaction by a listed company:(1) (subject to paragraphs (3),(4) and (5)) includes all agreements (including amendments to agreements) entered into by the listed company or its subsidiary undertakings;(2) includes the grant or acquisition of an option as if the option had been exercised except that, if exercise is solely at the listed company's or subsidiary undertaking's discretion, the transaction
BIPRU 13.5.6RRP
This table belongs to BIPRU 13.5.5 R.Transaction or instrumentCalculation of size of risk positionTransaction with linear risk profile except for debt instruments.The effective notional value (market price multiplied by quantity) of the underlying financial instruments (including commodities) converted to the firm's domestic currency.Debt instruments and payment legs.The effective notional value of the outstanding gross payments (including the notional amount) converted to the
BIPRU 13.5.7RRP
A firm may use the following formulae to determine the size and sign of a risk position:(1) for all instruments other than debt instruments:effective notional value, or delta equivalentnotional value = pref((V)/(p))where:(a) Pref = price of the underlying instrument, expressed in the reference currency;(b) V = value of the financial instrument (in the case of an option this is the option price; in the case of a transaction with a linear risk profile this is the value of the underlying
BIPRU 7.4.4RRP
Table: Instruments which result in notional positionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.4.2R(3)InstrumentSeeForwards, futures, CFDs, synthetic futures and options on a single commodity (unless the firm calculates a PRR on the option under BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR))BIPRU 7.4.8RA commitment to buy or sell a single commodity at an average of spot prices prevailing over some future periodBIPRU 7.4.10RForwards, futures, CFDs, synthetic futures and options on a commodity index (unless the firm
BIPRU 7.4.8RRP
Where a forward, future, CFD, synthetic future or option (unless already included in the firm'soption PRR calculation) settles according to:(1) the difference between the price set on trade date and that prevailing at contract expiry, the notional position:(a) equals the total quantity underlying the contract; and(b) has a maturity equal to the expiry date of the contract; and(2) the difference between the price set on trade date and the average of prices prevailing over a certain
PERG 8.12.26GRP
Provided the conditions in PERG 8.12.25 G are met, the exemption in article 20 applies to any non-real time financial promotion. However, there is an additional condition where the subject matter of the financial promotion is shares or options, futures or contracts for differences relating to shares and the financial promotion identifies directly a person who issues or provides such an investment. In such cases, the exemption is subject to a disclosure requirement which is itself
PERG 8.12.33GRP
The main purpose of the exemption appears to be to guard against the possibility that, during the course of a broadcast interview or a live website presentation, a financial promotion is made inadvertently by a director or employee of a company or other business undertaking when he is not acting in the capacity of a journalist (see PERG 8.12.25 G). The exemption applies if the financial promotion relates only to:(1) shares of the undertaking or of another undertaking in the same
PERG 8.14.21GRP
This exemption disapplies the restriction in section 21 of the Act from non-real time financial promotions or solicited real time financial promotions which are made to a person who the communicator believes on reasonable grounds to be a certified high net worth individual and which relate to certain investments. These investments must be either:7(1) shares in or debentures or alternative debentures7 of an unlisted company; or(2) warrants,certificates representing certain securities,
PERG 8.14.41GRP
Several exemptions, including article 43 of the Financial Promotion Order (Members and creditors of certain bodies corporate), apply only in relation to relevant investments being shares or debentures or alternative debentures7 in the body corporate or a member of its group, or warrants or certificates representing certain securities relating to such shares or debentures or alternative debentures.7 In the FCA's view, an exchangeable debt security which is partly a debenture or