Related provisions for BIPRU 7.3.7

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BIPRU 7.10.2GRP
BIPRU 7.10 provides details of when the appropriate regulator expects to allow a firm to use a VaR model (value at risk model) for the purpose of calculating part or all of its PRR. It introduces the concept of a VaR model, the methodology behind it and the link to the standard market risk PRR rules. It then goes on to detail the application and review process. The bulk of BIPRU 7.10 specifies the model standards and risk management standards that firms will be required to meet
BIPRU 7.10.3GRP
The models described in BIPRU 7.10 are described as VaR models in order to distinguish them from CAD 1 models, which are dealt with in BIPRU 7.9 (Use of a CAD 1 model). A VaR model is a risk management model which uses a statistical measure to predict profit and loss movement ranges with a confidence interval. From these results PRR charges can be calculated. The standards described in BIPRU 7.10, and which will be applied by the appropriate regulator, are based on and implement
BIPRU 7.10.4GRP
The aim of the VaR model approach is to enable a firm with adequate risk management systems to be subject to a PRR requirement that is more closely aligned with the risks to which it is subject than the PRR requirements generated by the standard market risk PRR rules. This provides a firm with an incentive to measure market risks as accurately and comprehensively as possible. It is crucial that those responsible for managing market risk at a firm should be aware of the assumptions
BIPRU 7.10.5GRP
There are a number of general methodologies for calculating PRR using a VaR model. The appropriate regulator does not prescribe any one method of computing VaR measures. Moreover, it does not wish to discourage any firm from developing alternative risk measurement techniques. A firm should discuss the use of any alternative techniques used to calculate PRR with the appropriate regulator.
BIPRU 7.10.6GRP
A firm should not use the VaR model approach to calculate PRR unless it has a VaR model permission. If a firm does not have such a permission it should use the standard market risk PRR rules. Therefore, a firm needs to apply for a VaR model permission in order to calculate its PRR using a VaR model instead of (or in combination with) the standard market risk PRR rules.
BIPRU 7.10.7GRP
A waiver or other permission allowing the use of models in the calculation of PRR will not be granted if that would be contrary to the Capital Adequacy Directive and any VaR model permission which is granted will only be granted on terms that are compatible with the Capital Adequacy Directive. Accordingly, the appropriate regulator is likely only to grant a waiver or other permission allowing the use of models in the calculation of PRR if it is a VaR model permission or a CAD
BIPRU 7.10.8GRP
BIPRU 7.10 sets out the minimum standards that the appropriate regulator expects firms to meet before granting a VaR model permission. The appropriate regulator will not grant a VaR model permission unless it is satisfied that the requirements of BIPRU 7.10 are met and it is satisfied about the procedures in place at a firm to calculate the model PRR. In particular the appropriate regulator will not normally grant a VaR model permission unless it is satisfied about the quality
BIPRU 7.10.11GRP
In order for a VaR model permission to be granted, the appropriate regulator is likely to undertake a review to ensure that it is adequate and appropriate for the PRR calculation.
BIPRU 7.10.18RRP
A firm must use the VaR model approach to calculate the PRR for a position:(1) to the extent that the risks in relation to that position are within the scope of the VaR model permission (see BIPRU 7.10.136R (Link to standard PRR rules: Incorporation of the model output into the capital calculation)); and(2) if the position is of a type that comes within the scope of the VaR model permission.
BIPRU 7.10.23GRP
It is the appropriate regulator's view that, where a firm uses a VaR model for one risk category as described in BIPRU 7.10.19G, it is good practice to extend its model over time to calculate all of its PRR risk categories. A firm will typically be expected to have a realistic plan in place to do this.
BIPRU 7.10.24RRP
A firm must comply with the minimum standards set out in BIPRU 7.10.26R - BIPRU 7.10.53R in calculating the model PRR.
BIPRU 7.10.26RRP
The model PRR must be computed at least once every business day, using a 99% one-tailed confidence limit.
BIPRU 7.10.39RRP
In the case of general market risk and risks with respect to which the standard market risk PRR rules do not distinguish between general market risk and specific risk, a firm'sVaR model must capture a sufficient number of risk factors in relation to the level of activity of the firm and in particular the risks set out in BIPRU 7.10.40R - BIPRU 7.10.44R.
BIPRU 7.10.46RRP
(1) If a firm'sVaR model covers the calculation of PRR with respect to specific risk the firm must meet the VaR specific risk minimum requirements in addition to the other requirements of BIPRU 7.10.(2) The VaR model must explain the historical price variation in the portfolios concerned.(3) The VaR model must capture concentration in terms of magnitude and changes of composition of the portfolios concerned.(4) The VaR model must be robust to an adverse environment.(5) The VaR
BIPRU 7.10.54GRP
For example, BIPRU 7.10.53R might involve creating and documenting a prudent incremental PRR charge for the risk not captured in the VaR model and holding sufficient capital resources against this risk. In that case the firm should hold capital resources at least equal to its capital resources requirement as increased by adding this incremental charge to the model PRR. Alternatively the firm may make valuation adjustments through its profit and loss reserves to cover this material
BIPRU 7.10.59RRP
A firm must base its model PRR calculation on the output of the VaR model which is used for its internal risk management rather than one developed specifically to calculate its PRR.
BIPRU 7.10.75RRP
At least once a year, a firm must conduct, as part of its regular internal audit process, a review of its risk management process. This review must include both the activities of the business trading units and of the independent risk control unit, and must be undertaken by suitably qualified staff independent of the areas being reviewed. This review must consider, at a minimum:(1) the adequacy of the documentation of the risk management system and process;(2) the organisation
BIPRU 7.10.82RRP
A firm must ensure that it has adequate controls relating to:(1) the derivation of the model PRR;(2) the integrity of the backtesting programme, including the calculation of the profit and loss account;(3) the integrity and appropriateness of the VaR model, including the VaR model's geographic coverage and the completeness of data sources;(4) the VaR model's initial and ongoing development, including independent validation;(5) the valuation models, including independent validation;
BIPRU 7.10.113RRP
The model PRR is, for any business day (the "relevant" business day), calculated in accordance with the following formula:(1) the higher of:(a) the VaR number for the relevant business day; and(b) the average of its daily VaR numbers for each of the 60 business days ending with the relevant business day, multiplied by the multiplication factor for the relevant business day; and(2) (in the case of a VaR model permission that covers specific risk) the higher of:33(a) the incremental
BIPRU 7.10.114RRP
For any day that is not a business day, the model PRR is the amount for the prior business day.
BIPRU 7.10.117GRP
The following equation expresses BIPRU 7.10.113R mathematically:where:(1) PRRVaris a firm'smodel PRR;(2) VaRt represents the previous day's value-at-risk figure;(3) VaRt-i represents the value-at-risk calculated for ibusiness days earlier;(4) f is the multiplication factor for VaR3;3(5) SVARt represents the latest stressed VaR figure;33(6) SVARt-i represents the stressed VaR calculated for ibusiness days earlier;3(7) s is the multiplication factor for stressed VaR;3(8) y is the
BIPRU 7.10.124RRP
The table in BIPRU 7.10.125R sets out the plus factors to be added to the minimum multiplication factor, for VaR and stressed VaR,3 for any business day. It is based on the number of backtesting exceptions that occurred during the backtesting period as referred to in BIPRU 7.10.96R (Backtesting: Basic testing requirements) ending three business days preceding the business day for which the model PRR is being calculated.
BIPRU 7.10.127GRP
Firms who gained model recognition before 1 January 2007 will be permitted to calculate PRR for specific risk in accordance with the methodology they were permitted to use immediately before that date instead of capturing event and default risk in their models (see BIPRU TP 14 (Market risk: VaR models)). This treatment will not be available to a firm that gains model recognition after that date.
BIPRU 7.10.134GRP
By modifying GENPRU 2.1.52 R (Calculation of the market risk capital requirement) to allow the firm to use the VaR model to calculate all or part of its PRR for certain positions, the appropriate regulator is treating it like an application rule. The modification means that the PRR calculation set out in BIPRU 7.10 supersedes the standard market risk PRR rules for products and risks coming within the scope of the VaR model permission.
BIPRU 7.10.135RRP
To the extent that a position does not fall within the scope of a firm'sVaR model permission the firm must calculate the PRR under the standard market risk PRR rules1 or, as applicable, those provisions as modified by the firm'sCAD 1waiver.
BIPRU 7.10.136RRP
(1) This rule applies to a position of a type that comes within the scope of a firm'sVaR model permission.(2) Subject to BIPRU 7.10.136A R, if, 3where the standard market risk PRR rules apply, a position is subject to a PRR charge and the firm'sVaR model permission says that it covers the risks to which that PRR charge relates, the firm must, for those risks, calculate the PRR for that position under the VaR model approach rather than under the standard market risk PRR rules.3(3)
3A firm must calculate the market risk capital requirement for securitisation positions and positions in the correlation trading portfolio in accordance with the standard market risk PRR rules, with the exception of those positions subject to the all price risk measure.
BIPRU 7.10.137RRP
A firm may exclude from the VaR model approach immaterial risks within the scope of its VaR model approach. If a firm does so it must instead apply the standard market risk PRR rules to those risks.
BIPRU 7.10.138RRP
(1) If a firm calculates its market risk capital requirement using a combination of the standard market risk PRR rules and either the VaR model approach or the VaR model approach with the CAD 1 model approach the PRR from each method must be added together.(2) A firm must take appropriate steps to ensure that all of the approaches are applied in a consistent manner.
BIPRU 7.10.139GRP
An example of the effect of BIPRU 7.10.138R is that where a firm normally calculates the PRR for a particular portfolio using a VaR model, a firm should not switch to the standard market risk PRR rules purely to achieve a more attractive PRR.
BIPRU 7.10.140RRP
If:(1) the standard market risk PRR rules provide for a choice of which of the PRR charges to use or specify that one type must be used in some circumstances and that another type must be used in other circumstances;(2) one of those types is disapplied under BIPRU 7.10.136R; and(3) the other type is not disapplied;the firm:(4) must use the VaR model approach if under the standard market risk PRR rules the firm must use the standard market risk PRR rules in (2); and(5) may use
BIPRU 7.10.141GRP
The treatment of a convertible is an example of a situation in which BIPRU 7.10.140R applies. The table in BIPRU 7.3.3R (Table: Instruments which result in notional positions) shows that there are circumstances in which under the standard market risk PRR rules a firm should calculate an equity PRR and that there are circumstances in which a firm may choose between calculating an equity PRR and an interest rate PRR. BIPRU 7.10.140R would be relevant if a firm'sVaR model permission
BIPRU 7.10.142RRP
The standard market risk PRR rules for the option PRR are only disapplied to the extent that the derived positions arising under BIPRU 7.6.13R (Table: Derived positions) come within the scope of the VaR model permission.
BIPRU 7.10.143RRP
If a firm'sVaR model permission covers interest rate general market risk but not interest rate specific risk, the firm must calculate the interest rate PRR so far as it relates to interest rate specific risk in accordance with the standard market risk PRR rules except that the firm must not use the basic interest rate PRR calculation in BIPRU 7.3.45R (Basic interest rate calculation for equity instruments).
BIPRU 7.10.144RRP
If a firm'sVaR model permission covers equitygeneral market risk but not equityspecific risk, the firm must calculate the equity PRR so far as it relates to equityspecific risk in accordance with the standard market risk PRR rules except that the PRR for equityspecific risk must be calculated under the standard equity method.
BIPRU 7.6.1RRP
A firm must calculate its optionPRR by:(1) identifying which optionpositions must be included within the scope of the optionPRR calculation under BIPRU 7.6.3R - BIPRU 7.6.5R;(2) calculating the derived position in each option in accordance with BIPRU 7.6.9R - BIPRU 7.6.15R;(3) calculating the PRR for each derived position in accordance with BIPRU 7.6.16R - BIPRU 7.6.31R;(4) summing all of the PRRs calculated in accordance with (3).
BIPRU 7.6.2GRP
Firms are reminded that the table in BIPRU 7.2.4R (Instruments which result in notional positions for the purposes of the interest rate PRR) and the table in BIPRU 7.3.3R (Instruments which result in notional positions for the purposes of the equity PRR) also require an interest rate PRR to be calculated for options on equities, baskets of equities or equities indices. The interaction between BIPRU 7.6 and the rest of Chapter 7 is illustrated in BIPRU 7.6.33G.
BIPRU 7.6.3RRP
Except as permitted under BIPRU 7.6.5R, a firm'soption PRR calculation must include:(1) each trading bookposition in an option on an equity, interest rate or debt security;(2) each trading bookposition in a warrant on an equity or debt security;(3) each trading bookposition in a CIU; and(4) each trading book and non-trading bookposition in an option on a commodity, currency or gold.
BIPRU 7.6.5RRP
Table: Appropriate PRR calculation for an option or warrantThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.3ROption type (see BIPRU 7.6.18R) or warrantPRR calculationAmerican option, European option, Bermudan option, Asian option or warrant for which the in the money percentage (see BIPRU 7.6.6R) is equal to or greater than the appropriate position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.6.7R and BIPRU 7.6.8R)Calculate either an option PRR, or the most appropriate to the underlying position of: an equity
BIPRU 7.6.6RRP
(1) The in the money percentage is calculated in accordance with this rule.(2) For a call option:Current market price of underlying - Strike price of the option * 100Strike price of the option(3) For a put option:Strike price of option - Current market price of underlying * 100Strike price of the option(4) In the case of an option on a basket of securities a firm may not treat the option as being in the money by the relevant percentage so as to enable the firm not to apply an
BIPRU 7.6.7RRP
(1) The appropriate position risk adjustment for a position is that listed in the table in BIPRU 7.6.8R against the relevant underlying position.(2) If the firm uses the commodity extended maturity ladder approach or the commodity maturity ladder approach for a particular commodity under BIPRU 7.4 (Commodity PRR) the appropriate position risk adjustment for an option on that commodity is the outright rate applicable to the underlying position (see BIPRU 7.4.26R (Calculating the
BIPRU 7.6.9RRP
A firm must calculate the derived position specified in the table in BIPRU 7.6.13R for each position included in its option PRR calculation.
BIPRU 7.6.14RRP
A firm may treat (for the purpose of calculating an option PRR under BIPRU 7.6) an option strategy listed in the table in BIPRU 7.6.15R as the single position in a notional option specified against that strategy in the table in BIPRU 7.6.15R, if:(1) each element of the strategy is transacted with the same counterparty;(2) the strategy is documented as a single structure;(3) the underlying for each part of the composite position (including any actual holding of the underlying)
BIPRU 7.6.16RRP
A firm must calculate the option PRR for each individual derived optionposition using the method specified in the table in BIPRU 7.6.18R, or, if more than one method is permitted, using one of those methods.
BIPRU 7.6.17RRP
A firm must convert its positions into its base currency in accordance with the procedures that apply for whichever of the other PRR charges is appropriate (see BIPRU 7.2.1R(3), BIPRU 7.3.1R(2), BIPRU 7.4.1R(3), BIPRU 7.5.19R(2), BIPRU 7.5.20R(3) and BIPRU 7.7.1R(3)).
BIPRU 7.6.18RRP
Table: Option PRR: methods for different types of optionThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.16ROptionDescriptionMethodAmerican optionAn option that may be exercised at any time over an extended period up to its expiry date.Option standard method or option hedging method if appropriateEuropean optionAn option that can only be exercised at expiry.Bermudan optionA cross between an American option and European option. The Bermudan option can only be exercised at specific dates during
BIPRU 7.6.20RRP
Under the option standard method, the PRR for a purchased option or warrant is the lesser of:(1) the market value of the derived position (see BIPRU 7.6.9R) multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.6.8R); and(2) the market value of the option or warrant.
BIPRU 7.6.21RRP
Under the option standard method, the PRR for a written option or warrant is the market value of the derived position (see BIPRU 7.6.9R) multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.6.8R). This result may be reduced by the amount the option or warrant is out of the money (subject to a maximum reduction to zero).
BIPRU 7.6.22RRP
Under the option standard method, the PRR for underwriting or sub-underwriting an issue of warrants is the net underwriting position (or reduced net underwriting position) multiplied by the current market price of the underlying securities multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment, but the result can be limited to the value of the net underwriting position (or reduced net underwriting position) calculated using the issue price of the warrant.
BIPRU 7.6.23GRP
The option hedging method involves the option PRR being calculated on a combination of the option and its hedge.
BIPRU 7.6.24RRP
Under the option hedging method a firm must calculate the option PRR for individual positions as follows:(1) for an option or warrant on an equity, basket of equities or equity index and its equity hedge(s), the firm must, to the extent specified or permitted in the table in BIPRU 7.6.26R, use the calculation in the table in BIPRU 7.6.27R;(2) for an option or warrant on a debt security, basket of debt securities or debt security index and its debt security hedge(s), the firm must,
BIPRU 7.6.25RRP
(1) A firm may not use the option hedging method for:(a) an interest rate option and its hedge; or(b) a commodity option and its hedge; or(c) a CIUoption and its hedge.(2) A firm may only use the option hedging method if the item underlying the option or warrant is the same as the hedge of the option or warrant under the PRR identical product netting rules.
BIPRU 7.6.26RRP
Table: Appropriate treatment for equities, debt securities or currencies hedging optionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.24RHedgePRR calculation for the hedgeLimits (if hedging method is used)Naked positionAn equity (hedging an option or warrant)The equity must be treated in either BIPRU 7.3 (equity PRR) or the option hedging method (see the table in BIPRU 7.6.27R)The option hedging method must only be used up to the amount of the hedge that matches the notional amount underlying
BIPRU 7.6.27RRP
Table: The hedging method of calculating the PRR (equities, debt securities and gold)This table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.24R(1) - (3)PRROption or warrantpositionIn the money by more than the position risk adjustmentIn the money by less than the position risk adjustmentOut of the money or at the moneyLong in security or goldLong putZeroWpXShort callYYZShort in security or goldLong callZeroWcXShort putYYZWhere:Wp means{(position risk adjustment-100%) x The underlying position valued
BIPRU 7.6.28RRP
Table: The hedging method of calculating the PRR (currencies)This table belongs to BIPRU 7.6.24R(4)PRROptionpositionIn the money by more than 8%In the money by less than 8%Out of the money or at the moneyLong calls & long putsZeroWLXShort calls & short putsZeroYXWhere:WL means(1.08% x U)-The market value of the underlying positionU meansThe amount of the underlying currency that the firm will receive if the option is exercised, converted at the strike price into the currency that
BIPRU 7.6.29RRP
The option PRR for a digital option is the maximum loss of the option.
BIPRU 7.6.30RRP
The option PRR for a written cliquet option is the market value of the derived position (see BIPRU 7.6.9R) multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment (see BIPRU 7.6.8R) multiplied by F+1 (see the following provisions of this paragraph). This result may be reduced by the amount the option is out of the money (subject to a maximum reduction to zero). The option PRR for a written cliquet option is therefore defined by the following formula:[position risk adjustment *
BIPRU 7.6.32GRP
The application of an option PRR to a position does not prevent any of the other PRR charges from applying if they would otherwise do so. In particular if a firm applies an option PRR to an equityderivative an interest rate PRR will also generally apply.
BIPRU 7.6.33GRP
The following diagram illustrates the relationship between BIPRU 7.6 and the rest of BIPRU 7.
BIPRU 7.6.36GRP
(1) This paragraph gives an example of how the appropriate position risk adjustment should be calculated for the purpose of deciding whether or not an option on a CIU is sufficiently in the money for the firm to have a choice whether or not to apply an option PRR. This example assumes that there is no leveraging (see BIPRU 7.7.11R (CIU modified look through method)).(2) Say that the CIU contains underlying equityposition and the firm is using one of the CIU look through methods.
BIPRU 7.2.1RRP
(1) A firm must calculate its interest rate PRR under BIPRU 7.2 by:(a) identifying which positions must be included within the interest rate PRR calculation;(b) deriving the net position in each debt security in accordance with BIPRU 7.2.36R-BIPRU 7.2.41R;(c) including these net positions in the interest rate PRR calculation for general market risk and the interest rate PRR calculation for specific risk; and(d) summing all PRRs calculated for general market risk and specific risk.(2)
BIPRU 7.2.2GRP
The interest rate PRR calculation divides the interest rate risk into the risk of loss from a general move in market interest rates, and the risk of loss from an individual debt security's price changing for reasons other than a general move in market interest rates. These are called general market risk and specific risk respectively.
BIPRU 7.2.3RRP
A firm's interest rate PRR calculation must:(1) include all trading bookpositions in debt securities, preference shares and convertibles, except:(a) positions in convertibles which have been included in the firm'sequity PRR calculation;(b) positions fully deducted as a material holding under the calculations under the capital resources table, in which case the firm may exclude them; or(c) positions hedging an option which is being treated under BIPRU 7.6.26R (Table: Appropriate
BIPRU 7.2.4RRP
Table: Instruments which result in notional positionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.2.3R(2)InstrumentSeeFutures, forwards or synthetic futures on debt securitiesBIPRU 7.2.13 RFutures, forwards or synthetic futures on debt indices or basketsBIPRU 7.2.14RInterest rate futures or forward rate agreements (FRAs)BIPRU 7.2.18 RInterest rate swaps or foreign currencyswapsBIPRU 7.2.21RDeferred start interest rate swaps or foreign currencyswapsBIPRU 7.2.24RThe interest rate leg of an equityswap
BIPRU 7.2.5GRP
BIPRU 7.2.3R(1) includes a trading bookposition in debt security, preference share or convertible that is subsequently repo'd under a repurchase agreement or lent under a stock lending agreement. Clearly, if the security had initially been obtained via a reverse repurchase agreement or stock borrowing agreement, the security would not have been included in the PRR calculation in the first place.
BIPRU 7.2.7GRP
Firms are reminded that the table in BIPRU 7.6.5R (Table: Appropriate PRR calculation for an option or warrant) divides options and warrants on interest rates, debt securities and interest rate futures and swaps into:(1) those which must be treated under BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR); and(2) those which must be treated under either BIPRU 7.2 or BIPRU 7.6, the firm being able to choose whether BIPRU 7.2 or BIPRU 7.6 is used.
BIPRU 7.2.8GRP
Cliquets on equities, baskets of equities or equity indices do not attract an interest rate PRR. The table in BIPRU 7.2.4R excludes them from the scope of the interest rate PRR calculation in BIPRU 7.2 and BIPRU 7.3.45R excludes them from the basic interest rate PRR calculation in BIPRU 7.3 (Equity PRR and basic interest rate PRR for equity derivatives).
BIPRU 7.2.9GRP
The table in BIPRU 7.2.4R shows that equityderivatives are excluded from BIPRU 7.2's PRR calculation if they have been included in the basic interest rate PRR calculation in BIPRU 7.3 (see BIPRU 7.3.45R).
BIPRU 7.2.11RRP
(1) For the purposes of calculating interest rate PRR, unless specified otherwise, a firm must derive the value of notional positions as follows:(a) notional positions in actual debt securities must be valued as the nominal amount underlying the contract at the current market price of the debt security; and(b) positions in zero-specific-risk securities must be valued using one of the two methods in (2).(2) A firm must use one of the following two methods for all positions arising
BIPRU 7.2.12RRP
A firm must use BIPRU 7.2.11R(2)(a) in respect of any positions that it includes in the interest rate duration method.
BIPRU 7.2.23GRP
For a foreign currencyswap, the two notional zero-specific-risk securities would be denominated in different currencies. A foreign currencyswap is also included in the foreign currency PRR1 calculation.
BIPRU 7.2.32RRP
(1) Where included in the PRR calculation in BIPRU 7.2 (see the table in BIPRU 7.2.4R), options and warrants must be treated in accordance with this rule.(2) An option or warrant on a debt security, a basket of debt securities or a debt security index must be treated as a position in that debt security, basket or index.(3) An option on an interest rate must be treated as a position in a zero coupon zero-specific-risk security with a maturity equal to the sum of the time to expiry
BIPRU 7.2.35RRP
Table: Interest rate risk on other futures, forwards, options and swapsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.2.34R.InstrumentNotional positionsforeign currencyforward or futurea long position denominated in the currency purchasedanda short position denominated in the currency soldGold forward or futurea long position if the forward or future involves an actual (or notional) sale of goldora short position if the forward or future involves an actual (or notional) purchase of goldEquityforward
BIPRU 7.2.43RRP
(1) A firm must calculate the specific risk portion of the interest rate PRR for each debt security by multiplying the market value of the individual net position (ignoring the sign) by the appropriate position risk adjustment from the table in BIPRU 7.2.44R or as specified by BIPRU 7.2.45R - BIPRU 7.2.48L R or by BIPRU 7.11.13 R - BIPRU 7.11.17 R.33(2) Notional positions in zero-specific-risk securities do not attract specific risk.(3) For the purpose of (1), a firm may cap the
BIPRU 7.2.48ARRP
(1) 3Subject to (3), a firm must calculate the specific risk portion of the interest rate PRR for each securitisation and resecuritisationposition by multiplying the market value of the individual net position (ignoring the sign) by the appropriate position risk adjustment from the table in BIPRU 7.2.48D R or BIPRU 7.2.48E R, or in accordance with BIPRU 7.2.48F R, as applicable.(2) In calculating the specific risk capital charge of an individual net securitisation or resecuritisation
BIPRU 7.2.48CRRP
3When calculating the PRR of a protection seller in securitisation and resecuritisation credit derivatives, a firm must apply BIPRU 7.11.3 R.
BIPRU 7.2.52RRP
A firm must calculate the general market risk portion of the interest rate PRR for each currency using either:(1) the interest rate simplified maturity method;(2) the interest rate maturity method; or(3) the interest rate duration method.
BIPRU 7.2.54RRP
A firm must not use the interest rate duration method for index-linked securities. Instead, these securities must:(1) be attributed a coupon of 3%; and(2) be treated separately under either the interest rate simplified maturity method or the interest rate maturity method.
BIPRU 7.2.55GRP
The interest rate simplified maturity method weights individual net positions to reflect their price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The weights are related to the coupon and the residual maturity of the instrument (or the next interest rate re-fix date for floating rate items).
BIPRU 7.2.56RRP
Under the interest rate simplified maturity method, the portion of the interest rate PRR for general market risk equals the sum of each individual net position (long or short) multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment in the table in BIPRU 7.2.57R. A firm must assign its net positions to the appropriate maturity bands in the table in BIPRU 7.2.57R on the basis of residual maturity in the case of fixed-rate instruments and on the basis of the period until the interest
BIPRU 7.2.58GRP
The interest rate maturity method builds on the interest rate simplified maturity method by partially recognising offsetting positions. BIPRU 7.2.61G provides an illustration of the interest rate maturity method.
BIPRU 7.2.59RRP
Under the interest rate maturity method, the portion of the interest rate PRR for general market risk is calculated as follows:(1) Step 1: each net position is allocated to the appropriate maturity band in the table in BIPRU 7.2.57R and multiplied by the corresponding position risk adjustment;(2) Step 2: weighted long and short positions are matched within:(a) the same maturity band;(b) the same zone (using unmatched positions from (a)); and(c) different zones (using unmatched
BIPRU 7.2.61GRP
This paragraph sets out an example of a calculation under the interest rate maturity method. In this example, a firm with a £ sterling base currency is processing its euro denominated positions.
BIPRU 7.2.62GRP
The interest rate duration method produces a more accurate measure of interest rate risk than the maturity methods but it is also more complex to calculate.
BIPRU 7.2.63RRP
(1) A firm must use the following formula to calculate modified duration for the purpose of the interest rate duration method: (2) (3) For the purpose of the formulae in (1) and (2):(a) Ct=cash payment at time t(b) m=total maturity(c) r=yield to maturity. In the case of a fixed-rate debt security a firm must take the current mark to market of the debt security and thence calculate its yield to maturity, which is the implied discount rate for that instrument. In the case of a floating
BIPRU 7.2.64RRP
Under the interest rate duration method, the portion of the interest rate PRR for general market risk is calculated as follows:(1) Step 1: allocate each net position to the appropriate duration zone in the table in BIPRU 7.2.65R and multiply it by:(a) its modified duration (using the formula in BIPRU 7.2.63R); and(b) the appropriate assumed interest rate change in the table in BIPRU 7.2.65R;(2) Step 2: match weighted long and short positions:(a) within zones; and(b) across zones
BIPRU 7.2.65RRP
Table: Assumed interest rate change in the interest rate duration methodThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.2.64RZoneModified DurationAssumed interest rate change(percentage points)10 ≤ 12 months1.002> 12 months ≤ 3.6 years0.853> 3.6 years0.70
BIPRU 7.2.66RRP
If a firm uses the interest rate duration method it must do so on a consistent basis.
BIPRU 7.3.1RRP
(1) A firm must calculate its equity PRR by:(a) identifying which positions must be included within the PRR calculation (see BIPRU 7.3.2R);(b) deriving the net position in each equity in accordance with BIPRU 7.3.23R;(c) including each of those net positions in either the simplified equity method (see BIPRU 7.3.29R) or, subject to BIPRU 7.3.27R, the standard equity method (see BIPRU 7.3.32R); and(d) summing the PRR on each net position as calculated under the simplified equity
BIPRU 7.3.2RRP
A firm'sequity PRR calculation must:(1) include all trading bookpositions in equities, unless:(a) the position is fully deducted as a material holding under the calculations under the capital resources table, in which case the firm may exclude it; or(b) the position is hedging an option or warrant which is being treated under BIPRU 7.6.26R (Table: Appropriate treatment for equities, debt securities or currencies hedging options);(2) include notional positions arising from trading
BIPRU 7.3.3RRP
Table: Instruments which result in notional positionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.3.2R(2)InstrumentSeeDepository receiptsBIPRU 7.3.12RConvertibles where:(a) the convertible is trading at a market price of less than 110% of the underlying equity; and the first date at which conversion can take place is less than three months ahead, or the next such date (where the first has passed) is less than a year ahead; orBIPRU 7.3.13R(b) the conditions in (a) are not met but the firm includes
BIPRU 7.3.6GRP
Firms are reminded that the table in BIPRU 7.6.5R (Table: Appropriate PRR calculation for an option or warrant) divides equityoptions and warrants into:(1) those which must be treated under BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR); and(2) those which must be treated under either BIPRU 7.3 or BIPRU 7.6, the firm being able to choose whether BIPRU 7.3 or BIPRU 7.6 is used.
BIPRU 7.3.8GRP
Some of the instruments listed in the table in BIPRU 7.3.3R are also included in a firm'sinterest rate PRR calculation. For simplicity, a firm may use the interest rate PRR calculation in BIPRU 7.3 rather than the calculation in BIPRU 7.2 (Interest rate PRR). BIPRU 7.3.44G explains this in more detail.
BIPRU 7.3.11GRP
(1) An example of BIPRU 7.3.10R is as follows. The current market value of a particular equity is £2.50. If a firm contracts to sell this equity in five year's time for £3 it would treat the notional short equityposition as having a value of £2.50 when calculating the equity PRR.(2) In effect, the forward position has been treated as being equivalent to a spot position for the purposes of calculating equity PRR. To capture the risk that the forward price changes relative to the
BIPRU 7.3.13RRP
Where a convertible is included in BIPRU 7.3's PRR calculation (see the table in BIPRU 7.3.3R):(1) it must be treated as a position in the equity into which it converts; and(2) the firm'sequity PRR must be adjusted by making:(a) an addition equal to the current value of any loss which the firm would make if it did convert to equity; or(b) a deduction equal to the current value of any profit which the firm would make if it did convert to equity (subject to a maximum deduction equal
BIPRU 7.3.21RRP
If included in BIPRU 7.3's PRR calculation (see the table in BIPRU 7.3.3R), options must be treated as follows:(1) an option on a single equity must be treated as a notional position in that equity;(2) an option on a basket of equities or equity index must be treated as a future on that basket or index; and(3) an option on an equityfuture must be treated as:(a) a long position in that future, for purchased call options and written put options; and(b) a short position in that future,
BIPRU 7.3.29RRP
Under the simplified equity method, the PRR for each equity, equity index, or equity basket equals the market value of the net position (ignoring the sign) multiplied by the appropriate position risk adjustment from the table in BIPRU 7.3.30R. The result must be converted into the firm'sbase currency at current spot foreign currency rates.
BIPRU 7.3.30RRP
Table: simplified equity method position risk adjustmentsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.3.29RInstrumentPosition risk adjustmentSingle equities16%22Qualifying equity indices2 (see BIPRU 7.3.38R)28%All other equity indices or baskets16%22If it is necessary to distinguish between the specific risk position risk adjustment and the general market risk position risk adjustment, the specific risk position risk adjustment for the first and third rows is 8%2 and that for the second row
BIPRU 7.3.32RRP
Under the standard equity method, a firm must:(1) group equitypositions into country portfolios as follows:(a) a position in an individual equity belongs to:(i) the country it is listed in;(ii) any of the countries it is listed in, if more than one; or(iii) the country it was issued from, if unlisted;(b) a position in an equity basket or index that is treated under BIPRU 7.3.15R(2), is allocated to one or more country portfolios based on the countries to which the underlying equities
BIPRU 7.3.33RRP
Under the standard equity method, a firm must calculate a PRR for specific risk based on the net position in each equity, equity index or equity basket by multiplying its market value (ignoring the sign) by the appropriate position risk adjustment from the table in BIPRU 7.3.34R.
BIPRU 7.3.42RRP
(1) Under approach two as referred to in BIPRU 7.3.40R, the PRR for general market risk is calculated using the following formula:(2) In the formula in (1) CPi denotes the net value of ith country portfolio (converted to the firm'sbase currency using current spot foreign currency rates).(3) The conditions referred to in BIPRU 7.3.40R that must be met for a firm to be able to use approach two as referred to in BIPRU 7.3.40R are as follows:(a) at least four country portfolios are
BIPRU 7.3.44GRP
A basic interest rate PRR calculation is included in BIPRU 7.3 for a firm that does not wish to use the calculation in BIPRU 7.2 (Interest rate PRR). However, it tends to result in higher charges than the methods in BIPRU 7.2, largely because the interest rate PRR is calculated on each notional equityposition separately and then summed without offsetting long and short positions.
BIPRU 7.3.45RRP
This rule applies to a firm that does not include a forward, future, option or swap on an equity, basket of equities or equity index in the calculation of its interest rate PRR calculation under BIPRU 7.2 (Interest rate PRR). However it does not apply to cliquet as defined in BIPRU 7.6.18R (Table: Option PRR: methods for different types of option). A firm must calculate the interest rate PRR for a position being treated under this rule as follows:(1) multiply the market value
BIPRU 7.3.46GRP
Cliquets on equities, baskets of equities or equity indices do not attract an interest rate PRR. BIPRU 7.3.45R excludes them from the basic interest rate PRR calculation and the table in BIPRU 7.2.4R (Table: Instruments which result in notional positions) excludes them from the scope of the interest rate PRR calculation in BIPRU 7.2 (Interest rate PRR).
BIPRU 7.3.47RRP
Table: Percentages used in the basic interest rate PRR calculation for equity instrumentsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.3.45R(1)Time to expirationPercentage (%)0 ≤ 3 months0.20> 3 ≤ 6 months0.40> 6 ≤ 12 months0.70> 1 ≤ 2 years1.25> 2 ≤ 3 years1.75> 3 ≤ 4 years2.25> 4 ≤ 5 years2.75> 5 ≤ 7 years3.25> 7 ≤ 10 years3.75> 10 ≤ 15 years4.50> 15 ≤ 20 years5.25> 20 years6.00
BIPRU 7.3.48RRP
If a firm nets off positions in one or more of the equities constituting an equity index future, forward or CFD against one or more positions in the equity index future, forward or CFD itself, the firm must apply an additional equity PRR to the netted position to cover the risk of loss caused by the value of the future, forward or CFD not moving fully in line with that of its constituent equities. The same applies if a firm holds opposite positions in a future, forward or CFD
BIPRU 7.4.1RRP
A firm must calculate its commodity PRR by:(1) identifying which commodityposition must be included within the scope of the PRR calculation (see BIPRU 7.4.2R);(2) expressing each such position in terms of the standard unit of measurement of the commodity concerned;(3) expressing the spot price in each commodity in the firm'sbase currency at current spot foreign exchange rates;(4) calculating an individual PRR for each commodity (see BIPRU 7.4.20R); and(5) summing the resulting
BIPRU 7.4.2RRP
A firm'scommodity PRR calculation must, regardless of whether the positions concerned are trading book or non-trading bookpositions:(1) include physical commoditypositions;(2) (if the firm is the transferor of commodities or guaranteed rights relating to title to commodities in a repurchase agreement or the lender of commodities in a commodities lending agreement) include such commodities;(3) include notional positions arising from positions in the instruments listed in the table
BIPRU 7.4.3RRP
Gold positions are excluded from the scope of the commodity PRR. Instead, they are included within the scope of the foreign exchange PRR (BIPRU 7.5).
BIPRU 7.4.4RRP
Table: Instruments which result in notional positionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.4.2R(3)InstrumentSeeForwards, futures, CFDs, synthetic futures and options on a single commodity (unless the firm calculates a PRR on the option under BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR))BIPRU 7.4.8RA commitment to buy or sell a single commodity at an average of spot prices prevailing over some future periodBIPRU 7.4.10RForwards, futures, CFDs, synthetic futures and options on a commodity index (unless the firm
BIPRU 7.4.6GRP
Firms are reminded that the table in BIPRU 7.6.5R (Table: Appropriate PRR calculation for an option or warrant) divides commodity options into:(1) those which must be treated under BIPRU 7.6; and(2) those which must be treated under either BIPRU 7.4 or BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR), the firm being able to choose whether BIPRU 7.4 or BIPRU 7.6 is used.
BIPRU 7.4.7GRP
BIPRU 7.4.8R - BIPRU 7.4.19G convert the instruments listed in the table in BIPRU 7.4.4R into notional positions in the relevant commodities. These notional positions are expressed in terms of quantity (tonnes, barrels, etc), not value. The maturity of the position is only relevant where the firm is using the commodity maturity ladder approach or the commodity extended maturity ladder approach.
BIPRU 7.4.8RRP
Where a forward, future, CFD, synthetic future or option (unless already included in the firm'soption PRR calculation) settles according to:(1) the difference between the price set on trade date and that prevailing at contract expiry, the notional position:(a) equals the total quantity underlying the contract; and(b) has a maturity equal to the expiry date of the contract; and(2) the difference between the price set on trade date and the average of prices prevailing over a certain
BIPRU 7.4.13RRP
Commodity index futures and commodity index options (unless the option is included in the firm'soption PRR calculation), must be treated as follows:(1) Step 1: the total quantity underlying the contract must be either:(a) treated as a single notional commodityposition (separate from all other commodities); or(b) divided into notional positions, one for each of the constituent commodities in the index, of an amount which is a proportionate part of the total underlying the contract
BIPRU 7.4.19GRP
The table in BIPRU 7.4.17R also covers the case where one leg is unrelated to any commodity's price. This leg may be subject to a PRR under another part of BIPRU 7; for example, an interest rate based leg would have to be included in a firm'sinterest rate PRR calculation.
BIPRU 7.4.20RRP
A firm must calculate a commodity PRR for each commodity separately using either the commodity simplified approach (BIPRU 7.4.24R), the commodity maturity ladder approach (BIPRU 7.4.25R) or the commodity extended maturity ladder approach (BIPRU 7.4.32R).
BIPRU 7.4.23RRP
If a firm intends to rely on the approach in BIPRU 7.4.22R(1)(b):(1) it must notify the appropriate regulator in writing at least 20 business days prior to the date the firm starts relying on it; and(2) the firm must, as part of the notification under (1), provide to the appropriate regulator the analysis of price movements on which it relies.
BIPRU 7.4.24RRP
A firm which calculates a commodity PRR using the commodity simplified approach must do so by summing:(1) 15% of the net position multiplied by the spot price for the commodity; and(2) 3% of the gross position (long plus short, ignoring the sign) multiplied by the spot price for the commodity;(and for these purposes the excess of a firm's long (short) positions over its short (long) positions in the same commodity (including notional positions under BIPRU 7.4.4R) is its net position
BIPRU 7.4.25RRP
A firm using the commodity maturity ladder approach must calculate the commodity PRR following the steps in BIPRU 7.4.26R and then sum all spread charges, carry charges and outright charges that result. A firm must use a separate maturity ladder for each commodity.
BIPRU 7.4.28RRP
Table: Maturity bands for the maturity ladder approachThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.4.26RBandMaturity of positionBand 10 ≤ 1 monthBand 2> 1 month ≤ 3 monthsBand 3> 3 months ≤ 6 monthsBand 4> 6 months ≤ 1 yearBand 5> 1 year ≤ 2 yearsBand 6> 2 years ≤ 3 yearsBand 7> 3 years
BIPRU 7.4.29GRP
BIPRU 7.4.30G is an example illustrating the calculation of the commodity PRR on an individual commodity using the commodity maturity ladder approach (BIPRU 7.4.26R). After the firm has carried out the pre-processing required by BIPRU 7.4.26R(2) (that is, step 1), it follows steps 2 to 5 as shown below. Because the firm is using the commodity maturity ladder approach the spread rate is 3%, the carry rate is 0.6% and the outright rate is 15%. The example assumes that the spot price
BIPRU 7.4.30GRP
Table: Example illustrating the commodity maturity ladder approachThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.4.29G
BIPRU 7.4.31RRP
A firm may use the commodity extended maturity ladder approach to calculate the commodity PRR for a particular commodity provided the firm:(1) has a diversified commodities portfolio;(2) undertakes significant commodities business;(3) is not yet in a position to use the VaR model approach to calculate commodity PRR; and(4) at least twenty business days before the date the firm uses that approach notifies the appropriate regulator in writing of:(a) its intention to use the commodity
BIPRU 7.4.32RRP
A firm using the commodity extended maturity ladder approach must calculate its commodity PRR by:(1) following the same steps as in BIPRU 7.4.26R but using the rates from the table in BIPRU 7.4.33R rather than those in BIPRU 7.4.26R; and(2) summing all spread charges, carry charges and outright charge that result.
BIPRU 7.4.36RRP
Where a firm is:(1) treating a commodity index derivative as if it was based on a single separate commodity (see BIPRU 7.4.13R(1)(a)); and(2) using the commodity extended maturity ladder approach to calculate the commodity PRR for that commodity;it must determine which index constituent incurs the highest rate in the table in BIPRU 7.4.33R and apply that rate to the notional position for the purposes of BIPRU 7.4.32R.
BIPRU 7.4.39GRP
In particular, where BIPRU 7.4.38R applies and the short position constitutes a material position compared to a firm's total commoditypositions, it should consider a further commodity PRR charge in respect of that position depending on the likelihood of a shortage of liquidity in that market.
BIPRU 7.4.41RRP
The interest-rate and foreign-exchange risks not covered by other provisions of BIPRU 7.4 or by the provisions of BIPRU 7.2 (Interest rate PRR) or BIPRU 7.5 (Foreign currency PRR) must be included in the calculation of general market risk for traded debt securities and in the calculation of foreign currency PRR.
BIPRU 7.1.3RRP
A firm must calculate a PRR in respect of:(1) all its trading bookpositions;(2) all positions falling within BIPRU 7.5.3 R (Scope of the foreign exchange PRR calculation), whether or not in the trading book; and(3) all positions in commodities (including physical commodities) whether or not in the trading book;even if no treatment is provided for that position in the other sections of this chapter.
BIPRU 7.1.4RRP
A firm must calculate a PRR for any position falling into BIPRU 7.1.3 R using:(1) the PRR calculations contained in BIPRU 7; or(2) another method provided the firm is able to demonstrate that in all circumstances the calculation being employed results in a higher PRR for the position than would be required under (1).
BIPRU 7.1.5GRP
Positions in instruments which are non-trading book items should be treated under BIPRU 3 (Standardised credit risk), BIPRU 4 (The IRB approach) or BIPRU 13 (Financial derivatives, SFTs and long settlement transactions) unless deducted as an illiquid asset. If they fall into BIPRU 7.1.3R(2) or (3) they also give rise to a PRR charge.
BIPRU 7.1.6RRP
A firm must be able to monitor its total PRR on an intra-day basis, and, before executing any trade, must be able to re-calculate PRR to the level of detail necessary to establish whether or not the firm'scapital resources exceed its capital resources requirement.
BIPRU 7.1.7GRP
A firm may rely on intra-day limits for the purposes of BIPRU 7.1.6R.
BIPRU 7.1.8GRP
The methodologies which have been developed for calculating PRR charges have been based on existing instruments and assume instruments with standard characteristics. However, as a result of innovation and because there are instruments which, although based on a standard contract, contain structural features which would make the rules in the rest of this chapter inappropriate, flexible rules are required. The rules in this section about transactions for which no PRR treatment has
BIPRU 7.1.9RRP
Where a firm has a position for which no PRR treatment has been specified, it must calculate the PRR for that position in accordance with BIPRU 7.1.12R-BIPRU 7.1.13R.
BIPRU 7.1.10RRP
If BIPRU 7.1.9 R applies, a firm must document its policies and procedures for calculating the PRR for that position of that type in its trading book policy statement.
BIPRU 7.1.12RRP
A firm may calculate the PRR for a position falling into BIPRU 7.1.9R by applying by analogy the rules relating to the calculation of the interest rate PRR, the equity PRR, the commodity PRR, the foreign currency PRR2, the option PRR or the collective investment undertaking PRR if doing so is appropriate and if the position and PRR item are sufficiently similar to those that are covered by those rules.
BIPRU 7.1.13RRP
Where a firm has a position for which no PRR treatment has been specified and it is not applying BIPRU 7.1.12R, it must calculate a PRR of an appropriate percentage of the current value of the position calculated under GENPRU 1.3 (Valuation).
BIPRU 7.1.14RRP
(1) If a firm has a position:(a) in a PRR item in non-standard form; or(b) that is part of a non-standard arrangement; or(c) that, taken together with other positions (whether or not they are subject to PRRcharges under BIPRU 7), gives rise to a non-standard market risk;the firm must notify the appropriate regulator of that fact and of details about the position, PRR item, arrangements and type of risk concerned.(2) Except as (1) provides to the contrary, (1) applies to a position
BIPRU 7.1.15RRP
If a firm has a position or combination of positions falling into BIPRU 7.1.14R and the PRR relating to that position or positions materially underestimates the market risk incurred by the firm to which they give rise, the firm must calculate the PRR for that position or positions under BIPRU 7.1.13R.
BIPRU 7.7.1RRP
A firm must calculate its CIU PRR by:(1) identifying which CIUpositions must be included within the scope of the PRR calculation (see BIPRU 7.7.2R);(2) identifying which CIUpositions are to be subject to the CIU PRR and which positions are to be subject to one of the other PRR charges;(3) converting on a daily basis net positions into the firm'sbase currency at the prevailing spot exchange rate before their aggregation;(4) calculating an individual PRR for each position in a CIU
BIPRU 7.7.2RRP
(1) A firm'sPRR calculation must include all trading bookpositions in CIUs.(2) A firm'sCIU PRR calculation must include all trading bookpositions in CIUs unless they are treated under one of the CIU look through methods and included in the PRR calculations for the relevant underlying investments or subject to an option PRR.(3) A firm'sPRR calculation for CIUs must include notional positions arising from trading bookpositions in options or warrants on collective investmentunde
BIPRU 7.7.3RRP
Unless noted otherwise, no netting is permitted between the underlying investments of a CIU and other positions held by a firm for the purposes of calculating the PRR charge for a position in a CIU.
BIPRU 7.7.4RRP
A firm may rely on a third party to calculate and report PRR capital requirements for position risk (general market risk and specific risk) for positions in CIUs falling within BIPRU 7.7.9R and BIPRU 7.7.11R, in accordance with the methods set out in BIPRU 7.7, provided that the correctness of the calculation and the report is adequately ensured.
BIPRU 7.7.5RRP
Without prejudice to other provisions in BIPRU 7.7, a position in a CIU is subject to a collective investment undertaking PRR (general market risk and specific risk) of 32%. Without prejudice to provisions in BIPRU 7.5.18R (Foreign currency PRR for CIUs) or, if the firm has a VaR model permission, BIPRU 7.10.44R (Commodity risks and VaR models) taken together with BIPRU 7.5.18R, where the modified gold treatment set out in those rules is used, a position in a CIU is subject to
BIPRU 7.7.6RRP
A firm may determine the securities PRR requirement for positions in CIUs which meet the criteria set out in BIPRU 7.7.7R, by one of the following methods:(1) the standard CIU look through method (BIPRU 7.7.4R and BIPRU 7.7.7R - BIPRU 7.7.10R); or(2) the modified CIU look through method (BIPRU 7.7.4R, BIPRU 7.7.7R - BIPRU 7.7.8R and BIPRU 7.7.11R - BIPRU 7.7.12R).
BIPRU 7.7.9RRP
(1) Where a firm is aware of the underlying investments of the CIU on a daily basis the firm may look through to those underlying investments in order to calculate the securities PRR for position risk (general market risk and specific risk) for those positions in accordance with the methods set out in the securities PRR requirements or, if the firm has a VaR model permission, in accordance with the methods set out in BIPRU 7.10 (Use of a Value at Risk Model).(2) Under this approach,
BIPRU 7.7.10RRP
(1) A firm may calculate the securities PRR for position risk (general market risk and specific risk) for positions in CIUs in accordance with the methods set out in the securities PRR requirements or, if the firm has a VaR model permission, in accordance with the methods set out in BIPRU 7.10 (Use of a Value at Risk Model), to assumed positions representing those necessary to replicate the composition and performance of the externally generated index or fixed basket of equities
BIPRU 7.7.11RRP
Where a firm is not aware of the underlying investments of the CIU on a daily basis, the firm may calculate the securities PRR for position risk (general market risk and specific risk) in accordance with the methods set out in the securities PRR requirements, subject to the following conditions:(1) it must be assumed that the CIU first invests to the maximum extent allowed under its mandate in the asset classes attracting the highest securities PRR for position risk (general market
BIPRU 7.7.13GRP
Where BIPRU 7.7 permits a firm to calculate the PRR charge for a position in a CIU using the rules in BIPRU 7 relating to the underlying investment, a firm that has:(1) a CAD 1 model waiver that covers positions in CIUs may use the rules as modified by that waiver; and(2) a VaR model permission that covers positions in CIUs may use its VaR model.
BIPRU 7.5.1RRP
A firm must calculate its foreign currencyPRR by:(1) identifying which foreign currency and gold positions to include in the PRR calculation;(2) calculating the net open position in each currency in accordance with this section (including where necessary the base currency calculated in the same way as it is for foreign currencies) and in gold;(3) calculating the open currency position for foreign currencies as calculated under BIPRU 7.5.19R and the net gold position (see BIPRU
BIPRU 7.5.3RRP
A firm'sforeign currency PRR calculation must include the following items regardless of whether they are trading book or non-trading bookpositions:(1) all gold positions;(2) all spot positions in foreign currency (that is, all asset items less all liability items, including accrued interest, in the foreign currency in question);(3) all forward positions in foreign currency;(4) all CRD financial instruments and other items which are denominated in a foreign currency;(5) irrevocable
BIPRU 7.5.4RRP
(1) The following are excluded from a firm'sforeign currency PRR calculation:(a) foreign currency assets which have been deducted in full from the firm'scapital resources under the calculations under the capital resources table;(b) positions hedging (a);(c) positions that a firm has deliberately taken in order to hedge against the adverse effect of the exchange rate on the ratio of its capital resources to its capital resources requirement; and(d) transactions to the extent that
BIPRU 7.5.5RRP
Table: instruments which result in notional foreign currency positionsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.5.3R(6).InstrumentsSeeForeign currencyfutures, forwards, synthetic futures and CFDsBIPRU 7.5.11RForeign currencyswapsBIPRU 7.5.13RForeign currency options or warrants (unless the firm calculates a PRR on the option or warrant under BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR)).BIPRU 7.5.15RGold futures, forwards, synthetic futures and CFDsBIPRU 7.5.16RGold options (unless the firm calculates a PRR on
BIPRU 7.5.6GRP
Firms are reminded that the table in BIPRU 7.6.5R (Table: Appropriate PRR calculation for an option or warrant) divides foreign currencyoptions and warrants into:(1) those which must be treated under BIPRU 7.6 (Option PRR); and(2) those which must be treated under either BIPRU 7.5 or BIPRU 7.6, the firm being able to choose whether BIPRU 7.5 or BIPRU 7.6 is used.
BIPRU 7.5.14GRP
(1) The following example illustrates BIPRU 7.5.13R. In this example a firm enters into a five year foreign currencyswap where it contracts to pay six month US$ Libor on $100 in return for receiving 6% fixed on €100. The present values of each leg are $100 and €98 respectively.(2) In the non-trading book, this swap would be treated as a combination of a €100 long position and a $100 short position.(3) In the trading book, this swap would be treated as a combination of a €98 long
BIPRU 7.5.15RRP
Where included in BIPRU 7.5's PRR calculation (see the table in BIPRU 7.5.5R), a foreign currencyoption or warrant must be treated as a foreign currencyforward.
BIPRU 7.5.17RRP
If included in the PRR calculation under BIPRU 7.5 (see the table in BIPRU 7.5.5R), a gold option must be treated as a gold forward.
BIPRU 7.5.18RRP
(1) This rule deals with positions in CIUs.(2) The actual foreign currencypositions of a CIU must be included in a firm'sforeign currency PRR calculation under BIPRU 7.5.1 R1.(3) A firm may rely on third party reporting of the foreign currencypositions in the CIU, where the correctness of this report is adequately ensured.(4) If a firm is not aware of the foreign currencypositions in a CIU, the firm must assume that the CIU is invested up to the maximum extent allowed under the
BIPRU 7.11.2RRP
BIPRU 7.11.3R - BIPRU 7.11.11R relate to the treatment of the protection seller for the purpose of calculating the securities PRR. Positions are determined in accordance with BIPRU 7.11.4R - BIPRU 7.11.11R.
BIPRU 7.11.3RRP
(1) When calculating the PRR of the protection seller, unless specified differently by other rules and subject to (2), the notional amount of the credit derivative contract must be used. For the purpose of calculating the specific riskPRR charge, other than for total return swaps, the maturity of the credit derivative contract is applicable instead of the maturity of the obligation.4(2) When calculating the PRR of the protection seller, a firm may choose to replace the notional
BIPRU 7.11.9RRP
A first-asset-to-default credit derivative creates a position for the notional amount in an obligation of each reference entity. If the size of the maximum credit event payment is lower than the PRR requirement under the method in the first sentence of this rule, the maximum payment amount may be taken as the PRR requirement for specific risk.
BIPRU 7.11.10RRP
A second-asset-to-default credit derivative creates a position for the notional amount in an obligation of each reference entity less one (that with the lowest specific riskPRR requirement). If the size of the maximum credit event payment is lower than the PRR requirement under the method in the first sentence of this rule, this amount may be taken as the PRR requirement for specific risk.
BIPRU 7.11.13RRP
(1) BIPRU 7.11.14R - BIPRU 7.11.17R relate to specific riskPRR for trading bookpositions hedged by credit derivatives for the purposes of the calculation of the securities PRR.(2) A firm may take an allowance for protection provided by credit derivatives for the purposes in (1) in accordance with the principles set out in the rules referred to in (1).(3) [deleted]44
BIPRU 7.11.14RRP
(1) A firm may take full allowance when the value of two legs always move in the opposite direction and broadly to the same extent.(2) This will be the case in the following situations:(a) the two legs consist of completely identical instruments; or(b) a long cash position is hedged by a total rate of return swap (or vice versa) and there is an exact match between the reference obligation and the underlying exposure (i.e., the cash position).(3) The maturity of the swap itself
BIPRU 7.11.15RRP
An 80% offset may be applied when the value of two legs always move in the opposite direction and where there is an exact match in terms of the reference obligation, the maturity of both the reference obligation and the credit derivative, and the currency of the underlying exposure. In addition, key features of the credit derivative contract must not cause the price movement of the credit derivative materially to deviate from the price movements of the cash position. To the extent
BIPRU 7.11.16RRP
(1) A firm may take partial allowance when the value of two legs usually move in the opposite direction. This would be the case in the situations set out in (2) - (4).(2) The first situation referred to in (1) is that the position falls under BIPRU 7.11.16 R (2)(b) but there is an asset mismatch between the reference obligation and the underlying exposure. However, the positions meet the following requirements:(a) the reference obligation ranks pari passu with or is junior to
BIPRU 7.11.17RRP
In all situations not falling under BIPRU 7.11.14 R - BIPRU 7.11.16 R, a firm must assess a specific riskPRR charge against both sides of the positions.
BIPRU 7.11.20RRP
The specific risk portion of the interest rate PRR for credit derivatives in the trading book4 must be calculated in accordance withBIPRU 7.2.43 R to BIPRU 7.2.46A G (Specific risk calculation), BIPRU 7.2.48A R to BIPRU 7.2.48K R (Specific risk: securitisations and re-securitisations), BIPRU 7.2.48L R (Specific risk: Correlation trading portfolio), BIPRU 7.2.49 R to BIPRU 7.2.51 G (Definition of a qualifying debt security)4 and the other provisions of BIPRU 7.11, as applicabl
BIPRU 7.9.1GRP
A firm is required under GENPRU 2.1.52 R (Calculation of the market risk capital requirement) to calculate its market risk capital requirement using the rules in BIPRU 7. However, the appropriate regulator may at the firm's request modify GENPRU 2.1.52 R to allow the firm to calculate all or part of the PRR for the positions covered by that model by using a CAD 1 model (for options risk aggregation and/or interest rate pre-processing) or a VaR model (value at risk model) instead.
BIPRU 7.9.5GRP
Waivers permitting the use of models in the calculation of PRR will not be granted if that would be contrary to the CAD. Any waiver which is granted will only be granted on terms that are compatible with the CAD. Accordingly, the only waivers permitting the use of models in calculating PRR that the appropriate regulator is likely to grant are CAD 1 model waivers and VaR model permissions.
BIPRU 7.9.7GRP
Table: Types of CAD 1 modelThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.9.6GOptions risk aggregation modelsInterest rate pre-processing modelsBrief description and eligible instrumentsAnalyse and aggregate options risks for: interest rate options;equityoptions;foreign currencyoptions;commodity options; andCIUoptions.May be used to calculate duration weighted positions for: interest rate futures;forward rate agreements (FRAs);forward commitments to buy or sell debt securities;options, swaps or
BIPRU 7.9.10GRP
In order to consider a CAD 1 model waiver request, the appropriate regulator may undertake a review to ensure that it is adequate and appropriate for the PRR calculation.
BIPRU 7.9.15GRP
If the appropriate regulator grants a CAD 1 model waiver, the waiver direction will specify the particular rule which has been modified, and set out the requirements subject to which the waiver has been granted. These requirements may include:(1) the details of the calculation of PRR;(2) the CAD 1 model waiver methodology to be employed;(3) the products covered by the model (e.g. option type, maturity, currency); and(4) any notification requirements relating to the CAD 1 model
BIPRU 7.9.23GRP
A firm should take appropriate steps to ensure that it has adequate controls relating to:(1) the derivation of the PRR from the CAD 1 model output;(2) CAD 1 model development, including independent validation;(3) reserving;(4) valuation (see GENPRU 1.3 (Valuation)), including independent validation; and(5) the adequacy of the IT infrastructure.
BIPRU 7.9.34GRP
Table: underlying price/rate shiftsThis table belongs to BIPRU 7.9.33GUnderlying asset classShiftEquities±8%Foreign currency±8%Commodities±15%, (but a firm may use the percentages applicable under the commodity extended maturity ladder approach if it would qualify under BIPRU 7.4 (Commodity PRR) to use that approach).Interest rates±100bp (but a firm may use the sliding scale of shifts by maturity as applicable to the interest rate duration method).CIU±32%, (but a firm may use
BIPRU 7.9.41GRP
Once the effect of delta has been removed from the matrix, the values left in the matrix relate to gamma and vega risk. A firm'sPRR in relation to gamma and vega risk on the individual option is the absolute of the most negative cell in the scenario matrix produced. Where all cells are positive the PRR is zero. The total PRR for the gamma and vega risk on the portfolio of options is a simple sum of the individual requirements. This amount should then be fed into a firm'sPRR c
BIPRU 7.9.42GRP
The values that have been obtained for the delta-equivalent positions of instruments included in the scenario matrix should then be treated in the same way as positions in the underlying. Where the delta obtained relates to interest rate position risk, the delta equivalent positions may be fed into the firm's interest rate pre-processing model to the extent that the positions fall within the scope of interest rate pre-processing models as set out in BIPRU 7.9.7G and provided that
BIPRU 7.9.53GRP
Instead of using the approach in BIPRU 7.9.52G a firm may use an approach based on the interest rate maturity method, making appropriate adjustments to the sensitivity figures.
BIPRU 7.8.1GRP
BIPRU 7.8 sets out the method for calculating a net underwriting position or reduced net underwriting position, which is then included in the PRR calculation in other parts of BIPRU 7. It also deals with concentration risk. BIPRU 7.8 only relates to new securities, which is defined in BIPRU 7.8.12R.
BIPRU 7.8.7GRP
The net underwriting position or reduced net underwriting position arising from underwriting or sub-underwriting a rights or warrants issue should be calculated using the current market price of the underlying security for the purposes of the equity PRR or option PRR. However, the PRR will be limited to the value of the net underwriting position calculated using the initial issue price of the rights or warrants. Where there is no market price because the rights or warrants are
BIPRU 7.8.27RRP
To calculate the reduced net underwriting position a firm must apply the reduction factors in the table in BIPRU 7.8.28R to the net underwriting position (calculated under BIPRU 7.8.17R) as follows:(1) in respect of debt securities, a firm must calculate two reduced net underwriting positions; one for inclusion in the firm'sinterest rate PRRspecific risk calculation (BIPRU 7.2.43R), the other for inclusion in its interest rate PRRgeneral market risk calculation (BIPRU 7.2.52R);
BIPRU 11.5.4RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding compliance with BIPRU 3, BIPRU 4, 5, BIPRU 7, 5 and the overall Pillar 2 rule:(1) a summary of the firm's approach to assessing the adequacy of its internal capital to support current and future activities;(2) for a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, 8% of the risk weighted exposure amounts for each of the standardised credit risk exposure classes;(3)
BIPRU 11.5.12RRP
A firm must disclose its capital resources requirements separately for each risk referred to in (1), (2) and (3):44(1) in respect of its trading-book business, its:(a) interest rate PRR;(b) equity PRR;1(c) option PRR;(d) collective investment schemesPRR;(e) counterparty risk capital component; and(f) [deleted]6(2) in respect of all of its business activities, its:(a) commodity PRR; and(b) foreign currency PRR; and41(3) its specific interest-rate risk of securitisation positions.4[Note:
BIPRU 1.2.17RRP
(1) Subject to (3), a firm may calculate its capital requirements for its trading book business in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk (or, if it has an IRB permission, the IRB approach) as it applies to the non-trading book where the size of the trading book business meets the following requirements:(a) the trading book business of the firm does not normally exceed 5% of its total business;(b) its total trading bookposition do not normally exceed €15 million;
SUP 8.3.9GRP
If the appropriate regulator7 believes that a particular waiver given to a firm may have relevance to other firms, it may publish general details about the possible availability of the waiver. For example, IPRU(INV) 3-80(10)G explains that a firm that wishes to use its own internal model to calculate its position risk requirement (PRR) will need to apply for a waiver of the relevant rules.7
GENPRU 1.2.70GRP
Where a firm is exposed to market risk, the6 time horizon over which stress tests and scenario analyses 6should be carried out will 6depend on, among other things,6 the maturity and liquidity of the positions stressed. For example, for the market risk arising from the holding of investments, this will 6depend upon:6666(1) the extent to which there is a regular, open and transparent market in those assets, which would allow fluctuations in the value of the investment to be more