Related provisions for BIPRU 7.10.35
1 - 2 of 2 items.
A firm should not use the VaR model approach to calculate PRR unless it has a VaR model permission. If a firm does not have such a permission it should use the standard market risk PRR rules. Therefore, a firm needs to apply for a VaR model permission in order to calculate its PRR using a VaR model instead of (or in combination with) the standard market risk PRR rules.
A waiver or other permission allowing the use of models in the calculation of PRR will not be granted if that would be contrary to the Capital Adequacy Directive and any VaR model permission which is granted will only be granted on terms that are compatible with the Capital Adequacy Directive. Accordingly, the FSA is likely only to grant a waiver or other permission allowing the use of models in the calculation of PRR if it is a VaR model permission or a CAD 1 model waiver.
BIPRU 7.10 sets out the minimum standards that the FSA expects firms to meet before granting a VaR model permission. The FSA will not grant a VaR model permission unless it is satisfied that the requirements of BIPRU 7.10 are met and it is satisfied about the procedures in place at a firm to calculate the model PRR. In particular the FSA will not normally grant a VaR model permission unless it is satisfied about the quality of:(1) the internal controls and risk management relating
The FSA recognises that the nature of VaR models will vary between firms. The scope of and the requirements and conditions set out in a VaR model permission may therefore differ in substance or detail from BIPRU 7.10 in order to address individual circumstances adequately. However any differences will only be allowed if they are compliant with the Capital Adequacy Directive. A VaR model permission will implement any such variation by modifying BIPRU 7.10. A VaR model permission
Details of the general process for applying for a VaR model permission are set out in BIPRU 1.3 (Applications for advanced approaches). Because of the complexity of a VaR model permission, it is recommended that a firm discuss its proposed application with its usual contact at the FSA before it makes the application.
The VaR model review process may be conducted through a series of visits covering various aspects of a firm's control and IT environment. Before these visits the FSA may ask the firm to provide some information relating to the firm'sVaR model permission request accompanied by some specified background material. The VaR model review visits are organised on a timetable that allows the firm being visited sufficient time to arrange the visit and provide the appropriate pre-visit
As part of the process for dealing with an application for a VaR model permission the following may be reviewed: organisational structure and personnel; details of the firm's market position in the relevant products; revenue and risk information; valuation and reserving policies; operational controls; information technology systems; model release and control procedures; risk management and control framework; risk appetite and limit structure; future developments relevant to model
The FSA may complement its own review of a VaR model permission request with one or more reviews by a skilled person under section 166 of the Act (Reports by skilled persons). Such a review may also be used where a VaR model permission has been granted to ensure that the requirements BIPRU 7.10 and of the VaR model permission continue to be met.
A firm must use the VaR model approach to calculate the PRR for a position:(1) to the extent that the risks in relation to that position are within the scope of the VaR model permission (see BIPRU 7.10.136R (Link to standard PRR rules: Incorporation of the model output into the capital calculation)); and(2) if the position is of a type that comes within the scope of the VaR model permission.
In accordance with BIPRU 7.10.18R (1) a VaR model permission will set out the risk categories that it covers, which are expected to be one or more of the following types:(1) interest rate general market risk;(2) interest rate specific risk (in conjunction with interest rate general market risk);(3) equitygeneral market risk;(4) equityspecific risk (in conjunction with equitygeneral market risk);(5) CIU risk;(6) foreign currency risk; and(7) commodity risk.
Subject to BIPRU 7.10.31R, the calculation of VaR numbers must be based on an effective historical observation period that is the longest possible consistent with a prudent VaR number. That period must be at least one year or such longer period as may be set out in the firm'sVaR model permission. However if using that prescribed observation period does not result in a sufficiently prudent way of calculating a VaR measure or a component of a VaR measure the firm must shorten this
(1) If a weighting scheme or other similar method is used to calculate VaR numbers, then the effective observation period must be at least one year. Where a weighting scheme is used, the weighted average time lag of the individual observations must not be less than six Months.(2) If a specific observation period or weighted average time lag is specified in a firm'sVaR model permission, the firm must comply with that if it is longer than the period specified in (1).(3) However,
In aggregating VaR measures across risk or product categories, a firm must not use the square root of the sum of the squares approach unless the assumption of zero correlation between these categories is empirically justified. If correlations between risk categories are not empirically justified, the VaR measures for each category must simply be added in order to determine its aggregate VaR measure. But to the extent that a firm'sVaR model permission provides for a different way
Subject to BIPRU 7.10.53R (Model standards: Materiality), a VaR model should capture and accurately reflect all material risks arising on the underlying portfolio on a continuing basis insofar as those risks are within the scope of the VaR model permission. This should encompass general market risk and, to the extent that this comes within the scope of the VaR model permission, specific risk. A firm should ensure that the VaR model has sufficient risk factor granularity to be
(1) This paragraph contains guidance on the inclusion of CIUs in a VaR model.(2) The FSA may allow all types of CIU to be included within the scope of a firm'sVaR model permission.(3) BIPRU 7.10 does not distinguish between specific risk and general market risk for positions in CIUs. Therefore even if specific risk is not otherwise included within the scope of a firm'sVaR model permission, a firm should be able to demonstrate that its VaR model captures specific risk.(4) A firm
A firm'sVaR model must capture accurately all material price risks for positions within the scope of its VaRpermission, including risks relating to options or option-like positions. The firm must ensure that, if its VaR model does not accurately capture any material risk, the firm has capital resources adequate to cover that risk. These capital resources must be additional to those required to meet its capital resources requirement.
A firm should be able to demonstrate that it meets the risk management standards set out in the VaR model permission on a legal entity basis. This is particularly important for a subsidiary undertaking in a group subject to matrix management where the business lines cut across legal entity boundaries.
A firm must have the capacity to analyse and compare its clean profit and loss figures and clean hypothetical profit and loss figures to the VaR measure, both at the level of the whole portfolio covered by the VaR model permission and at the level of individual books that contain material amounts of risk.
The clean profit and loss figure for a particular business day is the firm's actual profit or loss for that day in respect of the trading activities within the scope of the firm'sVaR model permission, adjusted by stripping out:(1) fees and commissions;(2) brokerage;(3) additions to and releases from reserves which are not directly related to market risk (e.g. administration reserves); and(4) any inception profit exceeding an amount specified for this purpose in the firm'sVaR model
The FSA will review as part of a firm'sVaR model permission application the processes and documentation relating to the derivation of profit and loss used for backtesting. A firm's documentation should clearly set out the basis for cleaning profit and loss. To the extent that certain profit and loss elements are not updated every day (for example certain reserve calculations) the documentation should clearly set out how such elements are included in the clean profit and loss
A backtesting exception is deemed to have occurred for any business day if the clean profit and loss figure for that business day shows a loss, which in absolute magnitude, exceeds the one-day VaR measure for that business day. The only exception is if that business day is identified in the firm'sVaR model permission as giving rise to an excluded backtesting exception.
(1) This paragraph gives guidance on the process for excluding backtesting exceptions as referred to in BIPRU 7.10.103R.(2) The FSA will respond flexibly to backtesting exceptions. However, the FSA's starting assumption will be that a backtesting exception should be taken into account for the purpose of the calculation of plus factors. If the firm believes that a backtesting exception should not count for that purpose, then it should seek a variation of its VaR model permission
If a firm'sVaR model permission covers specific risk, the firm must validate its VaR model through backtesting aimed at assessing whether specific risk is being accurately captured. This backtesting must be carried out in accordance with the provisions of its VaR model permission. If the VaR model permission provides for this backtesting to be performed on the basis of relevant sub-portfolios, these must be chosen in a consistent manner.
Specific risk backtesting involves the backtesting of a standalone specific riskVaR measure against a profit and loss series determined by reference to exposure risk factors categorised as specific risk. Alternatively specific risk backtesting may take the form of regular backtesting of trading books and portfolios that are predominantly exposed to risk factors categorised as specific risk. The precise requirements for specific risk backtesting will be specified in the firm'sVaR
Where backtesting reveals severe problems with the basic integrity of the VaR model, the FSA may withdraw model recognition. In particular, if ten or more backtesting exceptions are recorded in a 250 business day period, the FSA may apply a plus factor greater than one or the FSA may consider revoking a firm'sVaR model permission. The FSA may also consider revoking a firm'sVaR model permission if ten or more specific riskbacktesting exceptions occur in such a period.
The model PRR is, for any business day (the "relevant" business day), calculated in accordance with the following formula:(1) the higher of:(a) the VaR number for the relevant business day; and(b) the average of its daily VaR numbers for each of the 60 business days ending with the relevant business day, multiplied by the multiplication factor for the relevant business day; and(2) (in the case of a VaR model permission that covers specific risk) the incremental default risk charge
The VaR number for any business day means the VaR measure, in respect of the previous business day's close-of-business positions in products coming within the scope of the VaR model permission, calculated by the VaR model and in accordance with BIPRU 7.10 and any methodology set out in the VaR model permission. The VaR number must not be calculated taking into account matters on the business day for which it is the VaR number.
The minimum multiplication factor will never be less than three. If the FSA does set the minimum multiplication factor above three the VaR model permission will have a table that sets outs the reasons for that add on and specify how much of the add on is attributable to each reason (see BIPRU 7.10.121R). If there are weaknesses in the VaR model that may otherwise be considered a breach of the minimum standards referred to in BIPRU 7.10.24R the FSA may apply such an add on to act
Typically, any add on will be due to a specific weakness in systems and controls identified during the FSA's review that the FSA does not consider material enough to justify withholding overall model recognition. The firm will be expected to take action to address the reasons for any add on. The FSA will then review these periodically and, where satisfactory action has been taken, the add on will be removed through a variation of the VaR model permission.
A VaR model permission will contain requirements for what the firm should report to the FSA and the procedures for reporting. The precise requirements will vary from VaR model permission to VaR model permission. BIPRU 7.10.129R-BIPRU 7.10.130R set out what the FSA regards as the standard requirements.
A firm must, no later than the number of business days after the end of each quarter specified in the VaR model permission for this purpose, submit, in respect of that quarter, a report to the FSA about the operation of the VaR model, the systems and controls relating to it and any changes to the VaR model and those systems and controls. Each report must outline as a minimum the following information in respect of that quarter:(1) methodological changes and developments to the
The information in BIPRU 7.10.131G will vary over time. It is therefore not included in a VaR model permission as a rule but for information only. The FSA will update that information regularly in accordance with information supplied under BIPRU 7.10.129R. That updating will not amount to a variation of the VaR model permission.
By modifying GENPRU 2.1.52 R (Calculation of the market risk capital requirement) to allow the firm to use the VaR model to calculate all or part of its PRR for certain positions, the FSA is treating it like an application rule. The modification means that the PRR calculation set out in BIPRU 7.10 supersedes the standard market risk PRR rules for products and risks coming within the scope of the VaR model permission.
(1) This rule applies to a position of a type that comes within the scope of a firm'sVaR model permission.(2) If, where the standard market risk PRR rules apply, a position is subject to a PRR charge and the firm'sVaR model permission says that it covers the risks to which that PRR charge relates, the firm must, for those risks, calculate the PRR for that position under the VaR model approach rather than under the standard market risk PRR rules.(3) If, where the standard market
The treatment of a convertible is an example of a situation in which BIPRU 7.10.140R applies. The table in BIPRU 7.3.3R (Table: Instruments which result in notional positions) shows that there are circumstances in which under the standard market risk PRR rules a firm should calculate an equity PRR and that there are circumstances in which a firm may choose between calculating an equity PRR and an interest rate PRR. BIPRU 7.10.140R would be relevant if a firm'sVaR model permission
If a firm'sVaR model permission covers interest rate general market risk but not interest rate specific risk, the firm must calculate the interest rate PRR so far as it relates to interest rate specific risk in accordance with the standard market risk PRR rules except that the firm must not use the basic interest rate PRR calculation in BIPRU 7.3.45R (Basic interest rate calculation for equity instruments).
If a firm'sVaR model permission covers equitygeneral market risk but not equityspecific risk, the firm must calculate the equity PRR so far as it relates to equityspecific risk in accordance with the standard market risk PRR rules except that the PRR for equityspecific risk must be calculated under the standard equity method.
(1) To the extent that a firm'sVaR model permission does not allow it to use an approach set out in BIPRU 7.10 the relevant provisions in BIPRU 7.10 do not apply to that firm.(2) If a provision of the Handbook refers to BIPRU 7.10, that reference must, in the case of a particular firm with a VaR model permission, be treated as excluding provisions of BIPRU 7.10 that do not apply under the VaR model permission and as taking into account any modifications to BIPRU 7.10 made by the
If a firm ceases to meet any of the requirements set out in BIPRU 7.10, the FSA's policy is that the VaR model permission should cease to have effect. In part this will be achieved by making it a condition of a firm'sVaR model permission that it complies at all times with the minimum standards referred to in BIPRU 7.10.26R - BIPRU 7.10.53R. Even if they are not formally included as conditions, the FSA is likely to consider revoking the VaR model permission if the requirements
A firm may change its VaR model to such extent as it sees fit, except that it must not make a change that (either on its own or together with other changes since the date of VaR model permission) would:(1) be inconsistent with VaR model permission or BIPRU 7.10; or(2) mean that backtesting in accordance with BIPRU 7.10 and the VaR model permission would result in the use of data that is inappropriate for the purposes of measuring the performance of the VaR model.