Related provisions for BIPRU 4.4.57

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BIPRU 3.4.1RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.2 R to BIPRU 3.4.9 R, exposures to central governments and central banks must be assigned a 100% risk weight.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 1]
BIPRU 3.4.2RRP
Subject to BIPRU 3.4.4 R, exposures to central governments and central banks for which a credit assessment by a nominated ECAI is available must be assigned a risk weight according to the table in BIPRU 3.4.3 R in accordance with the assignment by the appropriate regulator in accordance with the Capital Requirements Regulations 2006 of the credit assessments of eligible ECAIs to six steps in a credit quality assessment scale.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 2]
BIPRU 3.4.4RRP
Exposures to the European Central Bank must be assigned a 0% risk weight.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 3]
BIPRU 3.4.6RRP
When the competent authorities of a third country which apply supervisory and regulatory arrangements at least equivalent to those applied in the EEA assign a risk weight which is lower than that indicated in BIPRU 3.4.1 R to BIPRU 3.4.3 R to exposures to their central government and central bank denominated and funded in the domestic currency, a firm may risk weight such exposures in the same manner.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 5]
BIPRU 3.4.7RRP
An export credit agency credit assessment may be recognised by a firm for the purpose of determining the risk weight to be applied to an exposure under the standardised approach if either of the following conditions is met:(1) the credit assessment is a consensus risk score from export credit agencies participating in the OECD "Arrangement on Guidelines for Officially Supported Export Credits"; or(2) the export credit agency publishes its credit assessments, and the export credit
BIPRU 3.4.8RRP
Exposures for which a credit assessment by an export credit agency is recognised for risk weighting purposes must be assigned a risk weight according to the table in BIPRU 3.4.9 R.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 7]
BIPRU 3.4.10RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.15 R to BIPRU 3.4.19 R:(1) a firm must risk weightexposures to regional governments and local authorities in accordance with BIPRU 3.4.11 R to BIPRU 3.4.14 R and BIPRU 3.4.19A R; and8(2) the preferential treatment for short-term exposures specified in BIPRU 3.4.37 R, BIPRU 3.4.39 R and BIPRU 3.4.44 R must not be applied.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 8]
BIPRU 3.4.11RRP
(1) Exposures to regional governments and local authorities must be assigned a risk weight according to the credit quality step to which exposures to the central government of the jurisdiction in which the regional government or local authority is established are assigned in accordance with the table in BIPRU 3.4.12 R.(2) Exposures to an unrated regional government or local authority must not be assigned a risk weight lower than that applied to exposures to its central government.[Note:
BIPRU 3.4.12RRP
This table belongs to BIPRU 3.4.11 R.Credit quality step to which central government is assigned123456Risk weight of exposure20%50%100%100%100%150%
BIPRU 3.4.13RRP
For exposures to regional governments and local authorities established in countries where the central government is unrated, the risk weight must be not more than 100%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 27]
BIPRU 3.4.14RRP
For exposures to regional governments and local authorities with an original effective maturity of three months or less, the risk weight must be 20%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 28]
BIPRU 3.4.16GRP
The appropriate regulator will include a regional government or local authority in the list in BIPRU 3 Annex 2 R where there is no difference in risk between exposures to that body and exposures to the central government of the United Kingdom because of the specific revenue-raising powers of the regional government or local authority, and the existence of specific institutional arrangements the effect of which is to reduce the risk of default.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point
BIPRU 3.4.19RRP
When competent authorities of a third country jurisdiction which apply supervisory and regulatory arrangements at least equivalent to those applied in the EEA treat exposures to regional governments and local authorities as exposures to their central government, a firm may risk weightexposures to such regional governments and local authorities in the same manner.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 11]
BIPRU 3.4.19ARRP
8Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.17 R to BIPRU 3.4.19 R, an exposure to a regional government or local authority of an EEA State denominated and funded in the domestic currency of that regional government or local authority must be assigned a risk weight of 20%.[Note:BCD Annex VI Part 2(b)]
BIPRU 3.4.21RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.22 R to BIPRU 3.4.26 R, exposures to administrative bodies and non-commercial undertakings must be assigned a 100% risk weight.[Note:BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 12]
BIPRU 3.4.22RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.23 R to BIPRU 3.4.26 R, exposures to public sector entities must be assigned a 100% risk weight.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 13]
BIPRU 3.4.24RRP
In exceptional circumstances a firm may treat an exposure to a public sector entity established in the United Kingdom as an exposure to the central government of the United Kingdom if there is no difference in risk between exposures to that body and exposures to the central government of the United Kingdom because of the existence of an appropriate guarantee by the central government.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 15]
BIPRU 3.4.25RRP
Where a competent authority of another EEA State implements points 14 or 15 of Part 1 of Annex VI of the Banking Consolidation Directive by exercising the discretion to treat exposures to public sector entities as exposures to institutions or as exposures to the central government of the EEA State concerned, a firm may risk weightexposures to the relevant public sector entities in the same manner.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 16]
BIPRU 3.4.26RRP
When competent authorities of a third country jurisdiction, which apply supervisory and regulatory arrangements at least equivalent to those applied in the EEA, treat exposures to public sector entities as exposures to institutions, a firm may risk weightexposures to the relevant public sector entities in the same manner.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 17]
BIPRU 3.4.28RRP
An exposure to a multilateral development bank listed in point (a)9 of the definition in the Glossary must be assigned a 0% risk weight.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 20]9
BIPRU 3.4.30RRP
Exposures to the following international organisations must be assigned a 0% risk weight:(1) the EU;55(2) the International Monetary Fund; and(3) the Bank for International Settlements.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 22]
BIPRU 3.4.32RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.33 R to BIPRU 3.4.47 R, exposures to financial institutions authorised and supervised by the competent authorities responsible for the authorisation and supervision of credit institutions and subject to prudential requirements equivalent to those applied to credit institutions must be risk weighted as exposures to institutions.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 24]
BIPRU 3.4.33RRP
Exposures to an unrated institution must not be assigned a risk weight lower than that applied to exposures to its central government.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 25]
BIPRU 3.4.34RRP
Exposures to institutions with a residual maturity of more than three months 6for which a credit assessment by a nominated ECAI is available must be assigned a risk weight according to the table in BIPRU 3.4.35 R in accordance with the assignment by the appropriate regulator in accordance with the Capital Requirements Regulations 2006 of the credit assessments of eligible ECAIs to six steps in a credit quality assessment scale.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 29]
BIPRU 3.4.36RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.33 R, exposures to unrated institutions must be assigned a risk weight of 50%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 30]
BIPRU 3.4.37RRP
Exposures to an institution with a residual maturity of three months or less 6for which a credit assessment by a nominated ECAI is available must be assigned a risk weight according to the table in BIPRU 3.4.38 R in accordance with the assignment by the appropriate regulator in accordance with the Capital Requirements Regulations 2006 of the credit assessments of eligible ECAIs to six steps in a credit quality assessment scale.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 31]
BIPRU 3.4.38RRP
This table belongs to BIPRU 3.4.37 R.Credit quality step123456Risk weight20%20%20%50%50%150%
BIPRU 3.4.39RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.33 R, exposures to unrated institutions having an original effective maturity of three months or less must be assigned a 20% risk weight[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 32]
BIPRU 3.4.43GRP
2BIPRU 3 Annex 4 G2 contains a flow diagram guide to determining the risk weight to be applied to short-term exposures to institutions according to whether a short-term credit assessment is available.
BIPRU 3.4.44RRP
A firm may assign to an exposure to an institution formed under the law of the United Kingdom of a residual maturity of 3 months or less denominated and funded in pounds sterling a risk weight that is one category less favourable than the preferential risk weight, as described in BIPRU 3.4.5 R (Exposures in the national currency of the borrower), assigned to exposures to the central government of the United Kingdom.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 37]
BIPRU 3.4.45RRP
(1) Where a competent authority of another EEA State implements point 37 of Part 1 of Annex VI of the Banking Consolidation Directive by exercising the discretion to allow the treatment in that point, a firm may assign to the relevant national currency exposures the risk weight permitted by that CRD implementation measure.(2) When the competent authority of a third country which applies supervisory and regulatory arrangements at least equivalent to those applied in the EEA assigns
BIPRU 3.4.46RRP
No exposures of a residual maturity of 3 months or less denominated and funded in the national currency of the borrower may be assigned a risk weight less than 20%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 38]
BIPRU 3.4.48RRP
Where an exposure to an institution is in the form of minimum reserves required by the European Central Bank or by the central bank of an EEA State to be held by the firm, a firm may assign the risk weight that would be assigned to exposures to the central bank of the EEA State in question provided:(1) the reserves are held in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1745/2003 of the European Central Bank of 12 September 2003 or a subsequent replacement regulation or in accordance
BIPRU 3.4.50RRP
Exposures for which a credit assessment by a nominated ECAI is available must be assigned a risk weight according to the table in BIPRU 3.4.51 R in accordance with the assignment by the appropriate regulator in accordance with the Capital Requirements Regulations 2006 of the credit assessments of eligible ECAIs to six steps in a credit quality assessment scale.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 41]
BIPRU 3.4.52RRP
Unrated exposures must be assigned a 100% risk weight or the risk weight of its central government, whichever is the higher.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 42]
BIPRU 3.4.53RRP
Exposures that comply with the criteria listed in BIPRU 3.2.10 R must be assigned a risk weight of 75%. However a firm may treat such an exposure under BIPRU 3.2.24 R (100% risk weight).[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 43]
BIPRU 3.4.55RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.56 R to BIPRU 3.4.94 R, exposures fully secured by real estate property must be assigned a risk weight of 100%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 44]
BIPRU 3.4.56RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.85 R, an exposure or any part of an exposure fully and completely secured, to the satisfaction of the firm, by mortgages on residential property which is or shall be occupied or let by the owner or the beneficial owner in the case of personal investment companies must be assigned a risk weight of 35%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 45]
BIPRU 3.4.57RRP
Exposures fully and completely secured, to the satisfaction of the firm, by shares in Finnish residential housing companies, operating in accordance with the Finnish Housing Company Act of 1991 or subsequent equivalent legislation, in respect of residential property which is or shall be occupied or let by the owner must be assigned a risk weight of 35%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 46]
BIPRU 3.4.58RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.85 R, an exposure or any part of an exposure to a tenant under a property leasing transaction concerning residential property under which the firm is the lessor and the tenant has an option to purchase, must be assigned a risk weight of 35% provided that the firm is satisfied that the exposure of the firm is fully and completely secured by its ownership of the property.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 47]
BIPRU 3.4.63RRP
If a CRD implementation measure of another EEA State exercises the discretion in point 49 of Part 1 of Annex VI of the Banking Consolidation Directive to dispense with the condition corresponding to BIPRU 3.4.60 R (3) (The risk of the borrower should not materially depend upon the performance of the underlying property or project) , a firm may apply a risk weight of 35% to such exposures fully and completely secured by mortgages on residential property situated in that EEA State.[Note:
BIPRU 3.4.90RRP
Exposures fully and completely secured by shares in Finnish housing companies, operating in accordance with the Finnish Housing Company Act of 1991 or subsequent equivalent legislation, in respect of offices or other commercial premises may be assigned a risk weight of 50%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 52]
BIPRU 3.4.96RRP
Without prejudice to the provisions contained in BIPRU 3.4.97 R to BIPRU 3.4.101 R, the unsecured part of any item that is past due for more than 90 days (irrespective of the amount of that item or of the unsecured portion of that item) must be assigned a risk weight of:(1) 150% if value adjustments are less than 20% of the unsecured part of the exposure gross of value adjustments; and(2) 100% if value adjustments are no less than 20% of the unsecured part of the exposure gross
BIPRU 3.4.99RRP
Exposures indicated in BIPRU 3.4.56 R to BIPRU 3.4.63 R (Exposures secured by mortgages on residential property) must be assigned a risk weight of 100% net of value adjustments if they are past due for more than 90 days. If value adjustments are no less than 20% of the exposure gross of value adjustments, the risk weight to be assigned to the remainder of the exposure is 50%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 64]
BIPRU 3.4.101RRP
Exposures indicated in BIPRU 3.4.89 R to BIPRU 3.4.94 R (Exposures secured by mortgages on commercial real estate) must be assigned a risk weight of 100% if they are past due for more than 90 days.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 65]
BIPRU 3.4.102RRP
Non past due items to be assigned a 150% risk weight under BIPRU 3.4 and for which value adjustments have been established may be assigned a risk weight of:(1) 100% if value adjustments are no less than 20% of the exposure value gross of value adjustments; and(2) 50%, if value adjustments are no less than 50% of the exposure value gross of value adjustments.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 67]
BIPRU 3.4.104RRP
Exposures listed in BIPRU 3 Annex 3 R must be assigned a risk weight of 150%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 66]
BIPRU 3.4.105GRP
For the purposes of point 66 of Part 1 of Annex VI of the Banking Consolidation Directive, the exposures listed in BIPRU 3 Annex 3 R are in the view of the appropriate regulator associated with particularly high risk.
BIPRU 3.4.107RRP
(1) Covered bonds means covered bonds as defined in paragraph (1) of the definition in the glossary (Definition based on Article 22(4) of the UCITS Directive) and collateralised by any of the following eligible assets:(a) exposures to or guaranteed by central governments, central bank, public sector entities, regional governments and local authorities in the EEA;(b) (i) exposures to or guaranteed by non-EEA central governments, non-EEAcentral banks, multilateral development banks,
BIPRU 3.4.110RRP
Covered bonds must be assigned a risk weight on the basis of the risk weight assigned to senior unsecured exposures to the credit institution which issues them. The following correspondence between risk weights applies:(1) if the exposures to the institution are assigned a risk weight of 20%, the covered bond must be assigned a risk weight of 10%;(2) if the exposures to the institution are assigned a risk weight of 50%, the covered bond must be assigned a risk weight of 20%;(3)
BIPRU 3.4.111RRP
Risk weightedexposure amounts for securitisation positions must be determined in accordance with BIPRU 9.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 72]
BIPRU 3.4.112RRP
Exposures to institutions where BIPRU 3.4.34 R to BIPRU 3.4.39 R apply, and exposures to corporates6 for which a short-term credit assessment by a nominated ECAI is available must be assigned a risk weight according to the table in BIPRU 3.4.113 R in accordance with the mapping by the appropriate regulator in accordance with the Capital Requirements Regulations 2006 of the credit assessments of eligible ECAIs to six steps in a credit quality assessment scale.[Note: BCD Annex VI
BIPRU 3.4.115RRP
Without prejudice to BIPRU 3.4.116 R to BIPRU 3.4.125 R, exposures in CIUs must be assigned a risk weight of 100%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 74]
BIPRU 3.4.116RRP
Exposures in the form of CIUs for which a credit assessment by a nominated ECAI is available must be assigned a risk weight according to the table in BIPRU 3.4.117 R in accordance with the assignment by the appropriate regulator in accordance with the Capital Requirements Regulations 2006 of the credit assessments of eligible ECAIs to six steps in a credit quality assessment scale.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 75]
BIPRU 3.4.123RRP
Where a firm is aware of the underlying exposures of a CIU, it may look through to those underlying exposures in order to calculate an average risk weight for the CIU in accordance with the standardised approach.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 79]
BIPRU 3.4.124RRP
Where a firm is not aware of the underlying exposures of a CIU, it may calculate an average risk weight for the CIU in accordance with the standardised approach subject to the following rules: it will be assumed that the CIU first invests, to the maximum extent allowed under its mandate, in the standardised credit risk exposure classes attracting the highest capital requirement, and then continues making investments in descending order until the maximum total investment limit
BIPRU 3.4.133RRP
Where a firm provides credit protection for a number of exposures under terms that the nth default among the exposures triggers payment and that this credit event terminates the contract, and where the product has an external credit assessment from an eligible ECAI the risk weights prescribed in BIPRU 9 must be assigned. If the product is not rated by an eligible ECAI, the risk weights of the exposures included in the basket must be aggregated, excluding n-1 exposures, up to a
BIPRU 3.4.134RRP
The exposure value for leases must be the discounted minimum lease payments. Minimum lease payments are the payments over the lease term that the lessee is or can be required to make and any bargain option (i.e. an option the exercise of which is reasonably certain). Any guaranteed residual value fulfilling the set of conditions in BIPRU 5.7.1 R (Eligibility), regarding the eligibility of protection providers as well as the minimum requirements for recognising other types of guarantees
BIPRU 4.3.7RRP
The calculation of expected loss amounts in accordance with BIPRU 4.3.6 R must be based on the same input figures of PD, LGD and the exposure value for each exposure as being used for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 4. For defaultedexposures,where a firm uses its own estimate of LGDs, EL must be the firm's best estimate of expected loss (ELBE), for the defaultedexposure in accordance with BIPRU 4.3.122 R.[Note:BCD Article 88(2)]
BIPRU 4.3.57RRP
The following provisions also apply with respect to the definition of default:(1) for overdrafts, days past due commence once an obligor has breached an advised limit, has been advised a limit smaller than current outstandings, or has drawn credit without authorisation and the underlying amount is material;(2) an advised limit means a limit which has been brought to the knowledge of the obligor;(3) days past due for credit cards commence on the minimum payment due date;(4) in
BIPRU 4.3.131RRP
If a firm uses different estimates of conversion factors for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and internal purposes it must be documented. The firm must be able to demonstrate their reasonableness to the appropriate regulator.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 92]
BIPRU 4.10.4RRP
(1) Where the requirements of BIPRU 5.2.2 R - BIPRU 5.2.8 R are met the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts, and, as relevant, expected loss amounts, may be modified in accordance with BIPRU 5 as modified by BIPRU 4.10.(2) No exposure in respect of which credit risk mitigation is obtained must produce a higher risk weighted exposure amount or expected loss amount than an otherwise identical exposure in respect of which there is no credit risk mitigation.(3) Where the
BIPRU 4.10.15RRP
(1) For the recognition of receivables as collateral the requirements in this paragraph must be met.(2) The legal mechanism by which the collateral is provided must be robust and effective and ensure that the lender has clear rights over the proceeds.(3) A firm must take all steps necessary to fulfil local requirements in respect of the enforceability of security interests. There must be a framework which allows the lender to have a first priority claim over the collateral subject
BIPRU 4.10.19RRP
(1) Where the requirements set out in this paragraph are met, exposures arising from transactions whereby a firm leases property to a third party must be treated the same as loans collateralised by the type of property leased.(2) For the exposures arising from leasing transactions to be treated as collateralised by the type of property leased, the following conditions must be met:(a) the conditions set out or referred to in BIPRU 4.10.13 R or BIPRU 4.10.18 R as appropriate for
BIPRU 4.10.32RRP
(1) This rule sets out how the calculations under BIPRU 5.6.11 R (Using the supervisory volatility adjustments or the own estimates volatility adjustments approaches to master netting agreements covering repurchase transactions and/or securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions and/or other capital market driven transactions) must be modified under the IRB approach.(2) Where risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts are calculated under the IRB approach,
BIPRU 4.10.39RRP
Where risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts are calculated under the IRB approach, to be eligible a guarantor must be internally rated by a firm in accordance with the provisions of the minimum IRB standards.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 1 point 27]
BIPRU 4.10.51RRP
GA as calculated under BIPRU 5.8.11 R is then taken as the value of the protection for the purposes of calculating the effects of unfunded credit protection under the IRB approach.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 4 point 8 (part)]
BIPRU 4.6.7RRP
The level of risk differentiation must ensure that the number of exposures in a given grade or pool is sufficient to allow for meaningful quantification and validation of the loss characteristics at the grade or pool level. The distribution of exposures and obligors across grades or pools must be such as to avoid excessive concentrations.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 14]
BIPRU 4.6.9RRP
A firm must be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator that the process of assigning exposures to grades or pools provides for a meaningful differentiation of risk, provides for a grouping of sufficiently homogenous exposures, and allows for accurate and consistent estimation of loss characteristics at grade or pool level.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 15 (part)]
BIPRU 4.6.11RRP
(1) A firm must consider the following risk drivers when assigning exposures to grades or pools:(a) obligor risk characteristics;(b) transaction risk characteristics, including product or collateral types or both; and(c) delinquency.(2) In the case of (1)(b) a firm must explicitly address cases where several exposures benefit from the same collateral.(3) However:(a) a firm need not consider delinquency if this is compatible with its IRB permission; and(b) (in the case of a firm
BIPRU 4.6.26RRP
A firm must regard internal data for assigning exposures to grades or pools as the primary source of information for estimating loss characteristics. A firm may use external data (including pooled data) or statistical models for quantification provided a strong link can be demonstrated between:(1) the firm's process of assigning exposures to grades or pools and the process used by the external data source; and(2) the firm's internal risk profile and the composition of the external
BIPRU 4.6.27RRP
If a firm derives long run average estimates of PD and LGD for retail exposures from an estimate of total losses, and an appropriate estimate of PD or LGD, the process for estimating total losses must meet the minimum IRB standards1 for estimation of PD and LGD, and the outcome must be consistent with the concept of LGD as set out in BIPRU 4.3.99 R (Default weighted average).[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 70]
BIPRU 4.6.41RRP
Subject to BIPRU 4.6.43 R and BIPRU 4.6.44 R, the risk weighted exposure amounts for retail exposures must be calculated according to the formulae in the table in BIPRU 4.6.42 R.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 10 1st sentence]
BIPRU 4.6.42RRP
Table: Risk weighted exposure amounts for retail exposuresThis table belongs to BIPRU 4.6.41 RCorrelation (R)0.03 × (1 - EXP(-35*PD))/(1-EXP(-35)) + 0.16*[1-(1-EXP(-35*PD))/(1-EXP(-35))]Risk weight (RW)(LGD*N[(1-R)-0.5*G(PD)+(R/(1-R))0.5 *G(0.999)]-PD*LGD)* 12.5*1.06N(x)denotes the cumulative distribution function for a standard normal random variable (i.e. the probability that a normal random variable with mean zero and variance of one is less than or equal to x).G(z)denotes
BIPRU 4.6.57RRP
The risk weighted exposure amount for each exposure to retail SME as defined in BIPRU 4.6.2 R which meets the requirements set out in BIPRU 4.4.83 R and BIPRU 4.4.85 R may be calculated according to BIPRU 4.4.79 R (Double default).[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 11]
BIPRU 4.4.13RRP
Separate exposures to the same obligor must be assigned to the same obligor grade, irrespective of any differences in the nature of each specific transaction. Exceptions, where separate exposures are allowed to result in multiple grades for the same obligor are:(1) country transfer risk, this being dependent on whether the exposures are denominated in local or foreign currency;(2) where the treatment of associated guarantees to an exposure may be reflected in an adjusted assignment
BIPRU 4.4.39RRP
For all off-balance sheet items other than mentioned in BIPRU 4.4.37 R, BIPRU 4.4.45 R, BIPRU 4.4.71 R - BIPRU 4.4.78 R, BIPRU 4.6.44 R, BIPRU 4.8.28 R and BIPRU 4.8.29 R, the exposure value must be the following percentage of its value:(1) 100% if it is a full risk item;(2) 50% if it is a medium risk item;(3) 20% if it is a medium/low risk item; and(4) 0% if it is a low risk item.For the purposes of this rule the off-balance sheet items must be assigned to risk categories as
BIPRU 5.4.57RRP
The volatility estimates must be used in the day-to-day risk management process of a firm including in relation to its internal exposure limits.[Note:BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 53]
BIPRU 4.8.21RRP
The risk weights for dilution risk for purchased receivables (both corporate exposures and retail exposures) must be calculated according to this rule. The risk weights must be calculated according to the formula in BIPRU 4.4.58 R. However, for the purposes of that formula, the total annual sales referred to in BIPRU 4.4.59 R are the weighted average by individual exposures of the pool. The input parameters PD and LGD and the exposure value must be determined under the applicable
BIPRU 4.8.24RRP
In the case of retail exposures, for dilution risk of purchased receivables PD must be set equal to EL estimates for dilution risk. If a firm can decompose its EL estimates for dilution risk of purchased receivables into PDs and LGDs in a reliable manner, the PD estimate may be used.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 19]
BIPRU 4.8.25RRP
The following LGD values apply for purchased corporate exposure receivables:(1) for senior purchased corporate exposure receivables exposures where a firm cannot demonstrate that its PD estimates meet the minimum IRB standards, the value is 45%;(2) for subordinated purchased corporate exposure receivables exposures where a firm cannot demonstrate that its PD estimates meet the minimum IRB standards, the value is 100%; and(3) for dilution risk of purchased corporate exposure receivables,
BIPRU 4.8.26RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.4.34 R and BIPRU 4.8.25 R, for dilution risk and default risk if a firm is under its IRB permission using the advanced IRB approach for LGD estimates for corporate exposures and it can decompose its EL estimates for purchased corporate exposure receivables into PDs and LGDs in a reliable manner, the LGD estimate for purchased corporate exposure receivables may be used.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 9]
BIPRU 4.8.27RRP
For dilution risk of purchased retail exposure receivables an LGD value of 75% must be used. If a firm can decompose its EL estimates for dilution risk of purchased receivables into PDs and LGDs in a reliable manner, the LGD estimate may be used.[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 2 point 21]
BIPRU 4.8.30RRP
The expected loss amounts for dilution risk of purchased receivables must be calculated according to the following formula: expected loss (EL) = PD × LGD; andexpected loss amount = EL × exposure value.[Note: BCD Article 88(5) and Annex VII Part 1 point 35]
BIPRU 3.6.13RRP
Where no directly applicable credit assessment exists for a certain item, but a credit assessment exists for a specific issuing program or facility to which the item constituting the exposure does not belong or a general credit assessment exists for the issuer, then that credit assessment must be used if it produces a higher risk weight than would otherwise be the case or if it produces a lower risk weight and the exposure in question ranks pari passu or senior in all respects
BIPRU 3.6.20RRP
A credit assessment that refers to an item denominated in the obligor's domestic currency cannot be used to derive a risk weight for another exposure on that same obligor that is denominated in a foreign currency.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 3 point 16]
BIPRU 3.6.21RRP
Notwithstanding BIPRU 3.6.20 R, when an exposure arises through a firm's participation in a loan that has been extended by a multilateral development bank whose preferred creditor status is recognised in the market, the credit assessment on the obligors' domestic currency item may be used for risk weighting purposes.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 3 point 17]
BIPRU 3.2.10RRP
To be eligible for the retail exposure class, an exposure must meet the following conditions:(1) the exposure must be either to an individual person or persons, or to a small or medium sized entity;(2) the exposure must be one of a significant number of exposures with similar characteristics such that the risks associated with such lending are substantially reduced; and(3) the total amount owed to the firm, its parent undertakings and its subsidiary undertakings, including any
BIPRU 9.12.8RRP
For an originator, a sponsor, or for other firms which can calculate KIRB, the risk weighted exposure amounts calculated in respect of its positions in a securitisation may be limited to that which would produce an amount in respect of its credit risk capital requirement equal to the sum of 8% of the risk weighted exposure amount which would be produced if the securitised assets had not been securitised and were on the balance sheet of the firm plus the expected loss amounts of
BIPRU 9.12.10RRP
Under the ratings based method, the risk weighted exposure amount of a rated securitisation position4 or resecuritisation position4 must be calculated by applying to the exposure value the risk weight associated with the credit quality step with which the credit assessment is associated as prescribed in BIPRU 9.12.11 R multiplied by 1.06.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 46]44
BIPRU 9.12.11RRP
Table: This table belongs to BIPRU 9.12.10 R44Credit Quality StepSecuritisation positionsResecuritisation positionsCredit assessments other than short termShort-term credit assessmentsABCDE117%12%20%20%30%28%15%25%25%40%310%18%35%35%50%4212%20%40%65%520%35%60%100%635%50%100%150%7360%75%150%225%8100%200%350%9250%300%500%10425%500%650%11650%750%850%all other, unrated1250%[Note: For mapping of the credit quality step to the credit assessments of eligible ECAIs, refer to: http://www.fca.org.uk/your-fca/documents/fsa-ecais-securitisation
BIPRU 9.12.20RRP
(1) If:(a) a firm'sIRB permission allows it to use this treatment; and(b) the conditions in (2)(16) are satisfied,a firm may attribute to an unrated position in an asset backed commercial paper programme a derived rating as laid down in (3).(2) Positions in the commercial paper issued from the programme must be rated positions.(3) Under the ABCP internal assessment approach, the unrated position must be assigned by the firm to one of the rating grades described in (5). The position
BIPRU 9.12.22RRP
(1) Subject to any permission of the type described in BIPRU 9.12.28 G, the risk weight to be applied to the exposure amount must be:12.5 (S[L+T] - S[L]) / T(2) The remaining provisions of this paragraph define the terms used in the formulae in (1) and (3).(3) 2(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) In these expressions, Beta [x; a, b]refers to the cumulative beta distribution with parameters a and b evaluated at x.(16) T (the thickness of the tranche in which the
BIPRU 9.12.28GRP
(1) When it is not practical for the firm to calculate the risk weighted exposure amounts for the securitised exposures as if they had not been securitised and the position does not qualify for the ABCP internal assessment approach, a firm may apply to the appropriate regulator for a variation of its IRB permission under which, on an exceptional basis, it may temporarily apply the method in (2) for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for an unratedsecuritisation
BIPRU 11.5.4RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding compliance with BIPRU 3, BIPRU 4, 5, BIPRU 7, 5 and the overall Pillar 2 rule:(1) a summary of the firm's approach to assessing the adequacy of its internal capital to support current and future activities;(2) for a firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the standardised approach to credit risk, 8% of the risk weighted exposure amounts for each of the standardised credit risk exposure classes;(3)
BIPRU 11.5.6RRP
For equity exposures, the requirement under BIPRU 11.5.4 R (3) applies to:(1) each of the approaches ( the simple risk weight approach, the PD/LGD approach and the internal models approach) provided for in BIPRU 4.7.5 R to BIPRU 4.7.6 R, BIPRU 4.7.9 R to BIPRU 4.7.11 R, BIPRU 4.7.14 R to BIPRU 4.7.16 R, BIPRU 4.7.24 R to BIPRU 4.7.25 R;(2) exchange traded exposures, private equity exposures in sufficiently diversified portfolios, and other exposures;(3) exposures subject to supervisory
BIPRU 11.5.8RRP
A firm must disclose the following information regarding its exposure to credit risk and dilution risk:(1) the definitions for accounting purposes of past due and impaired;(2) a description of the approaches and methods adopted for determining value adjustments and provisions;(3) the total amount of exposures after accounting offsets and without taking into account the effects of credit risk mitigation, and the average amount of the exposures over the period broken down by different
BIPRU 11.5.11RRP
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts for specialised lending exposures in accordance with BIPRU 4.5.8 R to BIPRU 4.5.10 R or equity exposures in accordance with BIPRU 4.7.9 R to BIPRU 4.7.10 R (the simple risk weight approach) must disclose the exposures assigned:(1) to each category of the table in BIPRU 4.5.9 R; or(2) to each risk weight mentioned in BIPRU 4.7.9 R to BIPRU 4.7.10 R.[Note: BCD Annex XII Part 2 point 8]
BIPRU 11.5.16RRP
A firm must disclose the following information on its exposure to interest rate risk on positions not included in the trading book:(1) the nature of the interest rate risk and the key assumptions (including assumptions regarding loan prepayments and behaviour of non-maturity deposits), and frequency of measurement of the interest rate risk; and(2) the variation in earnings, economic value or other relevant measure used by the management for upward and downward rate shocks according
BIPRU 11.5.17RRP
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9 or capital resource requirements according to BIPRU 7.2.48A R to BIPRU 7.2.48K R4 must disclose the following information, where relevant separately for its trading book and non-trading book:4(1) a description of the firm's objectives in relation to securitisation activity;(1A) the nature of other risks, including liquidity risk inherent in securitised assets;4(1B) the type of risks in terms of seniority
BIPRU 4.2.2RRP
A firm's systems for the management and rating of credit risk exposures must be sound and implemented with integrity and, in particular, they must meet the following standards in accordance with the minimum IRB standards:(1) the firm'srating systems provide for a meaningful assessment of obligor and transaction characteristics, a meaningful differentiation of risk and accurate and consistent quantitative estimates of risk;(2) internal ratings and default and loss estimates used
BIPRU 4.2.11RRP
A firm must be able to demonstrate that it has been using for the IRB exposure classes in question rating systems that were broadly in line with the minimum IRB standards for internal risk measurement and management purposes for at least three years prior to the date of its IRB permission.[Note:BCD Article 84(3)]
BIPRU 4.2.18RRP
To the extent that a firm'sIRB permission permits this, implementation may be carried out sequentially across the different IRB exposure classes within the same business unit, across different business units in the same group or for the use of own estimates of LGDs or conversion factors for the calculation of risk weights for the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class.3[Note:BCD Article 85(1) (part)]
BIPRU 4.2.23RRP
Subject to BIPRU 4.2.17 R - BIPRU 4.2.20 R, BIPRU 4.2.22 R and BIPRU 4.2.26 R, a firm that has an IRB permission must not use the standardised approach for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts for the exposures to which the IRB approach applies under the IRB permission.[Note:BCD Article 85(4)]1
BIPRU 4.2.26RRP
(1) To the extent that its IRB permission permits this, a firm permitted to use the IRB approach in the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts3 for one or more IRB exposure classes may apply the standardised approach in accordance with this rule.3(2) A firm may apply the standardised approach to the IRB exposure class referred to in BIPRU 4.3.2 R (1) (Sovereigns) where the number of material counterparties is limited and it would be unduly burdensome
BIPRU 13.5.4RRP
(1) Transactions with a linear risk profile with a debt instrument as the underlying instrument must be mapped to an interest rate risk position for the debt instrument and another interest rate risk position for the payment leg.(2) Transactions with a linear risk profile that stipulate the exchange of payment against payment, including foreign exchange forwards, must be mapped to an interest rate risk position for each of the payment legs.(3) If the underlying debt instrument
BIPRU 13.5.25RRP
A firm must determine the exposure value net of collateral, as follows:exposure value = *max(CMV-CMC;(j)((i)(RPTij)-(l)(RPClj))*CCRMj)where:CMV = current market value of the portfolio of transactions within the netting set with a counterparty gross of collateral.That is, where:CMV = (i)(CMVi)where:CMVi = the current market value of transaction i;CMC = the current market value of the collateral assigned to the netting set.That is, where:CMC = (l)(CMCl)whereCMCl = the current market
BIPRU 5.7.1RRP
The following parties may be recognised as eligible providers of unfunded credit protection:(1) central governments and central banks;(2) regional governments or local authorities;(3) multilateral development banks;(4) international organisationsexposures which are assigned a 0% risk weight under the standardised approach;(5) public sector entities, claims on which are treated as claims on institutions or central governments under the standardised approach;(6) institutions;(7)
BIPRU 5.7.9RRP
Where an exposure is protected by a guarantee which is counter-guaranteed by a central government or central bank, a regional government or local authority or a public sector entity claims on which are treated as claims on the central government in whose jurisdiction they are established under the standardised approach, a multilateral development bank or an international organisation,1to which a 0% risk weight is assigned under or by virtue of the standardised approach, or a public
BIPRU 9.13.2RRP
A firm must calculate a risk weighted exposure amount in respect of the sum of the originators interest and the investors interest.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 17]
BIPRU 9.13.9RRP
For an originator subject to the capital requirement in BIPRU 9.13.1 R the total of the risk weighted exposure amounts in respect of its positions in the investors interest (as defined in BIPRU 9.13.4 R or BIPRU 9.13.6 R) and the risk weighted exposure amounts calculated under BIPRU 9.13.1 R must be no greater than the greater of:(1) the risk weighted exposure amounts calculated in respect of its positions in the investors interest (as so defined); and(2) the risk weighted exposure
BIPRU 5.6.19RRP
(1) A firm must be able to satisfy the appropriate regulator that the firm's risk management system for managing the risks arising on the transactions covered by the master netting agreement is conceptually sound and implemented with integrity and that, in particular, the minimum qualitative standards in (2) - (11) are met.(2) The internal risk-measurement model used for calculation of potential price volatility for the transactions is closely integrated into the daily risk-management
BIPRU 5.6.24RRP
The fully adjusted exposure value (E*) for a firm using the master netting agreement internal models approach must be calculated according to the following formula:E* = max {0, [(∑E -∑C) + (VaR output of the internal models)]}where(1) (where risk weighted exposure amounts are calculated under the standardised approach) E is the exposure value for each separate exposure under the agreement that would apply in the absence of the credit protection;(2) C is the value of the securities
BIPRU 4.9.2RRP
The following must be calculated in accordance with BIPRU 9 (Securitisation):(1) risk-weighted exposure amounts for securitisedexposures and for exposures belonging to the IRB exposure class referred to in BIPRU 4.3.2 R (6) (securitisation positions); and(2) the expected loss amounts for securitisedexposures.[Note: BCD Article 87(10) and Article 88(3)]
BIPRU 4.9.3RRP
Where a firm provides credit protection for a number of exposures under terms that the nth default among the exposures shall trigger payment and that this credit event shall terminate the contract, if the product has an external credit assessment from an eligible ECAI the risk weights set out in BIPRU 9 must be applied. If the product is not rated by an eligible ECAI, the risk weights of the exposures included in the basket must be aggregated, excluding n-1 exposures where the
BIPRU 4.9.6RRP
The risk weighted exposure amounts must be calculated according to the formula:Risk-weighted exposure amount = 100% * exposure value except for when the exposure is a residual value of leased properties1 in which case it must1 be calculated as follows:1/t * 100% * exposure value;where t is the greater of 1 and the nearest number of whole years of the lease remaining.1[Note: BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 27]1
BIPRU 4.9.8RRP
Where a firm has full recourse in respect of purchased receivables for default risk and for dilution risk, to the seller of the purchased receivables, BIPRU 4.8.21 R and BIPRU 4.8.30 R need not be applied. The exposure may instead be treated as a collateralised exposure.[Note: BCD Article 87(2) (part)]
BIPRU 4.9.11RRP
(1) Where exposures in the form of a CIU1 meet the criteria set out in BIPRU 3.4.121 R to BIPRU 3.4.122 R (Conditions for look through treatment under the standardised approach) and the firm is aware of all of the underlying exposures of the CIU, the firm must look through to those underlying exposures in order to calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts in accordance with the methods set out in BIPRU 4.BIPRU 4.9.12 R applies to the part of the underlying
BIPRU 4.9.12RRP
(1) Where exposures in the form of a CIU do not meet the criteria set out in BIPRU 3.4.121 R to BIPRU 3.4.122 R (Conditions for look through treatment under the standardised approach) or the firm is not aware of all of the underlying exposures of the CIU, a firm must look through to the underlying exposures and calculate risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts in accordance with the approach set out in BIPRU 4.7.9 R - BIPRU 4.7.12 R (Simple risk weights). If,
BIPRU 4.5.5RRP
A firm using the methods set out in BIPRU 4.5.8 R (Slotting) for assigning risk weights for specialised lending exposures is exempt from the requirement to have an obligor rating scale which reflects exclusively quantification of the risk of obligor default for these exposures. Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.4.7 R (Seven grades for exposures to sovereigns, institutions and corporates), a firm must have for these exposures four grades for non-defaulted obligors and one grade for defaulted
BIPRU 4.5.6RRP
(1) A firm using the methods set out in BIPRU 4.5.8 R (Slotting) for assigning risk weights for specialised lending exposures must assign each of these exposures to a grade in accordance with BIPRU 4 Annex 1 R, taking into account the following factors:(a) financial strength;(b) political and legal environment;(c) transaction and/or asset characteristics;(d) strength of the sponsor and developer including any public private partnership income stream; and(e) security package.(2)
BIPRU 4.5.8RRP
For specialised lending exposures in respect of which a firm cannot demonstrate that its PD estimates meet the minimum IRB standards it must assign risk weights to these exposures according to the table in BIPRU 4.5.9 R.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 6 (part)]
BIPRU 4.5.10RRP
A firm may generally assign preferential risk weights of 50% to exposures in category 1, and a 70% risk weight to exposures in category 2 if:(1) its IRB permission allows this; and(2) the firm's underwriting characteristics and other risk characteristics are substantially strong for the relevant category.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 6 (part)]
BIPRU 4.5.12RRP
The EL values for specialised lending exposures where a firm uses the methods set out in BIPRU 4.5.8 R for assigning risk weights must be assigned according to the table in BIPRU 4.5.13 R.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 31 (part)]
BIPRU 4.5.14RRP
Where a firm'sIRB permission authorises it generally to assign preferential risk weights as outlined in BIPRU 4.5.10 R of 50% to exposures in category 1, and 70% to exposures in category 2, the EL value for exposures in category 1 must be 0%, and for exposures in category 2 must be 0.4%.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 31 (part)]
BIPRU 9.11.4RRP
Subject to BIPRU 9.11.6 RBIPRU 9.11.12 R, the risk weighted exposure amount of an unratedsecuritisation position must be calculated by applying a risk weight of 1250%.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 7]
BIPRU 9.11.5RRP
For an originator or sponsor, the risk weighted exposure amounts calculated in respect of its positions in a securitisation may be limited to the risk weighted exposure amounts which would be calculated for the securitised exposures had they not been securitised subject to the presumed application of a 150% risk weight to all past due items and items belonging to regulatory high risk categories (see BIPRU 3.4.104 R and BIPRU 3 Annex 3 R) amongst the securitised exposures.[Note:BCD
BIPRU 9.11.6RRP
(1) A firm having an unratedsecuritisation position may apply the treatment set out in this paragraph for calculating the risk weighted exposure amount for that position provided the composition of the pool of exposuressecuritised is known at all times.(2) A firm may apply the weighted-average risk weight that would be applied to the securitised exposures referred to in (1) under the standardised approach by a firm holding the exposures multiplied by a concentration ratio.(3)