Related provisions for BIPRU 4.2.14
1 - 19 of 19 items.
A firm must document the design and operational details of its rating systems. The documentation must evidence compliance with the minimum IRB standards and the firm'sIRB permission, and address topics including portfolio differentiation, rating criteria, responsibilities of parties that rate obligors and exposures, frequency of assignment reviews, and management oversight of the rating process.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 31]
A firm must ensure that all documentation relating to its rating systems or otherwise required by the rules governing the IRB approach are stored, arranged and indexed in such a way that the firm would be able to make them all available to the appropriate regulator, or to make any class or description of them specified by the appropriate regulator available to the appropriate regulator, immediately on demand or within a short time thereafter.
A rating system comprises all of the methods, processes, controls, data collection and IT systems that support the assessment of credit risk, the assignment of exposures to grades or pools (rating), and the quantification of default and loss estimates for a certain type of exposure.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 1]
A firm must have robust systems in place to validate the accuracy and consistency of rating systems, processes, and the estimation of all relevant risk parameters (PD, LGD, conversion factors and EL). A firm must be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator that the internal validation process enables it to assess the performance of internal rating and risk estimation systems consistently and meaningfully.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 110]
(1) A firm must validate its rating systems. Its validation process must include, as a minimum, the elements set out in (2) - (8).(2) A firm must establish and define standards of objectivity, accuracy, stability and conservatism that it designs its ratings systems to meet. It must have processes that establish whether its rating systems meet those standards.(3) A firm must establish and define standards of accuracy of calibration (i.e. whether outcomes are consistent with estimate)
Internal audit or another comparable independent auditing unit must review at least annually the firm'srating systems and its operations, including the operations of the firm and the estimation of PDs, LGDs, ELs and conversion factors. Areas of review must include adherence to all applicable minimum requirements.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 131]
(1) This paragraph applies to the use of statistical models and/or other mechanical methods to assign exposures to obligor grades, obligor pools, facility grades or facility pools.(2) A firm must be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator that the model has good predictive power and that capital requirements are not distorted as a result of its use.(3) The input variables to the model must form a reasonable and effective basis for the resulting predictions. The model
A firm should be able to demonstrate to the appropriate regulator:(1) how, with respect to each rating system, both assignment of ratings and estimates of PD, LGD and conversion factors are affected by:(a) movements in the economic cycle; and(b) other cyclical effects which are material to levels of default, loss or the amount of exposures at default for the exposures covered by the rating system; and(2) the level of conservatism inherent in its ratings, as provided for by BI
Estimation of PD through the use of a technique set out in BIPRU does not remove the need to make conservative adjustments, where necessary, related to the expected range of estimation errors so that capital requirements produced by the relevant model or other rating system are not understated.
(1) If:(a) a firm's internal experience of exposures of a type covered by a model or other rating system is 20 defaults or fewer; and(b) in the firm's view, reliable estimates of PD cannot be derived from external sources of default data, including the use of market price related data, for all the exposures covered by the rating system;the firm must estimate PD for exposures covered by that rating system in accordance with this rule.(2) A firm must use a statistical technique
A firm must use LGD estimates that are appropriate for an economic downturn if those are more conservative than the long-run average. To the extent a rating system is expected to deliver constant realised LGDs by grade or pool over time, a firm must make adjustments to its estimates of risk parameters by grade or pool to limit the capital impact of an economic downturn.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 74]
A firm must use conversion factor estimates that are appropriate for an economic downturn if those are more conservative than the long-run average. To the extent a rating system is expected to deliver realised conversion factors at a constant level by grade or pool over time, a firm must make adjustments to its estimates of risk parameters by grade or pool to limit the capital impact of an economic downturn.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 88]
An obligor grade means for the purpose of BIPRU 4 as it applies to the sovereign, institution and corporate IRB exposure class a risk category within a rating system's obligor rating scale, to which obligors are assigned on the basis of a specified and distinct set of rating criteria, from which estimates of PD are derived. A firm must document both the relationship between obligor grades in terms of the level of default risk each grade implies and the criteria used to distinguish
In addition to complying with the material in BIPRU 4.3.54 R (Data maintenance) a firm must collect and store:(1) complete rating histories on obligors and recognised guarantors;(2) the dates the ratings were assigned;(3) the key data and methodology used to derive the rating;(4) the person responsible for the rating assignment;(5) the identity of obligors and exposures that defaulted;(6) the date and circumstances of such defaults;(7) data on the PDs and realised default rates
To the extent that a firm uses data on internal default experience for the estimation of PDs it must be able to demonstrate in its analysis that the estimates are reflective of underwriting standards and of any differences in the rating system that generated the data and the current rating system. Where underwriting standards or rating systems have changed, a firm must add a greater margin of conservatism in its estimate of PD.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 63]
1A facility grade means for the purpose of the advanced IRB approach a risk category within a rating system's facility scale to which exposures are assigned on the basis of a specified and distinct set of rating criteria from which own estimates of LGDs are derived. The grade definition must include both a description of how exposures are assigned to the grade and of the criteria used to distinguish the level of risk across grades.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 10]
A firm's systems for the management and rating of credit risk exposures must be sound and implemented with integrity and, in particular, they must meet the following standards in accordance with the minimum IRB standards:(1) the firm'srating systems provide for a meaningful assessment of obligor and transaction characteristics, a meaningful differentiation of risk and accurate and consistent quantitative estimates of risk;(2) internal ratings and default and loss estimates used
(1) This paragraph provides guidance on BIPRU 4.2.2 R and in particular BIPRU 4.2.2 R (1).(2) The information that a firm produces or uses for the purpose of the IRB approach should be reliable and take proper account of the different users of the information produced (customers, shareholders, regulators and other market participants).(3) A firm should establish quantified and documented targets and standards, against which it should test the accuracy of data used in its rating
This paragraph provides further guidance on BIPRU 4.2.2 R and in particular BIPRU 4.2.2 R (2). In the appropriate regulator's view risk management has an essential role in informing risk decisions. However, an essential role does not necessarily mean an exclusive role or even always a primary role. There may be justifiable differences between the IRB approach and the firm's use of rating systems for its internal purposes as referred to in BIPRU 4.2.2 R (2). For example, internal
A firm must be able to demonstrate that it has been using for the IRB exposure classes in question rating systems that were broadly in line with the minimum IRB standards for internal risk measurement and management purposes for at least three years prior to the date of its IRB permission.[Note:BCD Article 84(3)]
(1) To the extent that its IRB permission permits this, a firm permitted to use the IRB approach in the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts3 for one or more IRB exposure classes may apply the standardised approach in accordance with this rule.3(2) A firm may apply the standardised approach to the IRB exposure class referred to in BIPRU 4.3.2 R (1) (Sovereigns) where the number of material counterparties is limited and it would be unduly burdensome
A firm should understand where its rating systems lie on the PiT/TTC spectrum to enable it to estimate how changes in economic conditions will affect its IRB own funds requirements and it should be able to compare the actual default rates incurred against the default rate expected over the same period given the economic conditions pertaining, as implied by its PD estimate.
(1) The appropriate regulator will only grant an IRB permission if it is satisfied that the firm's systems for the management and rating of credit risk exposures are sound and implemented with integrity and, in particular, that they meet the standards in BIPRU 4.2.2 R in accordance with the minimum IRB standards.(2) Under BIPRU 4.2.11 R, a firm applying for an IRB permission is required to demonstrate that it has been using for the IRB exposure classes in question rating systems
An IRB permission will set out firm-specific material. This will generally include:(1) details about the firm's methodology for carrying out the IRB approach, including the models and rating systems that a firm should use;(2) reporting requirements; and(3) requirements about internal control structure.
The FCA expects a firm to ensure that all documentation relating to its rating systems (including any documentation referenced in this chapter or required by the EU CRR that relate to the IRB approach) is stored, arranged and indexed in such a way that it could make them all, or any subset thereof, available to the FCA immediately on demand or within a short time thereafter.
In addition to complying with BIPRU 4.3.54 R (Data maintenance) a firm must collect and store:(1) data used in the process of allocating exposures to grades or pools;(2) data on the estimated PDs, LGDs and conversion factors associated with grades or pools of exposures;(3) the identity of obligors and exposures that defaulted;(4) for defaultedexposures, data on the grades or pools to which the exposure was assigned over the year prior to default and the realised outcomes on LGD
(1) If a firm applies for an IRB permission or for a variation of an IRB permission that permits the treatment in BIPRU 4.5.10 R it should demonstrate that its standards exceed those of the slotting criteria provided for in BIPRU 4.5 and result in ratings that are stronger than the benchmarks referred to in (3).(2) If a firm has an IRB permission that permits the treatment in BIPRU 4.5.10 R it should continue to be able to demonstrate the matters in (1) to the appropriate regulator
In the case of a portfolio for which there is insufficient default experience to provide any confidence in statistical measures of discriminative power, the FCA expects a firm to use other methods. For example, analysis of whether the firm's rating systems and an external measurement approach (eg, external ratings) rank common obligors in broadly similar ways. Where such an approach is used, the FCA would expect a firm to ensure it does not systematically adjust its individual
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the IRB approach must disclose the following information:(1) the scope of the firm'sIRB permission;(2) an explanation and review of:(a) the structure of internal rating systems and relation between internal and external ratings;(b) the use of internal estimates other than for calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the IRB approach;(c) the process for managing and recognising credit risk
The governance arrangements that apply to the governing body, the senior management and any designated committee of a firm in relation to the IRB approach also apply to the body or persons with equivalent powers with respect to the UK consolidation group or non-EEA sub-group. Where the parent undertaking and its subsidiary undertakings use rating systems on a unified basis, the approval and reporting process described in BIPRU 4.3.12 G (Approval and reporting arrangements for
Table of application, notification, vetting and other fees payable to the FCA3231Part 1: Application, notification and vetting fees3131(1) Fee payer(2) Fee payable (£)37Due date(a) Any applicant for Part 4A permission (including an incoming firm applying for top-up permission) whose fee is not payable pursuant to sub- paragraph (zza)52 of this table26(1) Unless (2),41 (3) or (4)41 applies, in1 respect of a particular application, the highest of the tariffs set out in FEES 3 Annex