Related provisions for BIPRU 2.2.77

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To access the FCA Handbook Archive choose a date between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2004 (From field only).

The areas of responsibility for the credit risk control unit(s) must include the following:(1) testing and monitoring grades and pools;(2) production and analysis of summary reports from the firm'srating systems;(3) implementing procedures to verify that grade and pool definitions are consistently applied across departments and geographic areas;(4) reviewing and documenting any changes to the rating process, including the reasons for the changes;(5) reviewing the rating criteria
Notwithstanding BIPRU 4.3.16 R, a firm using pooled data according to BIPRU 4.3.92 R - BIPRU 4.3.94 R (Overall requirements for estimation) may outsource the following tasks:(1) production of information relevant to testing and monitoring grades and pools;(2) production of summary reports from the firm'srating systems;(3) production of information relevant to review of the rating criteria to evaluate if they remain predictive of risk;(4) documentation of changes to the rating
A firm must document the rationale for and analysis supporting its choice of rating criteria. A firm must document all major changes in the risk rating process, and such documentation must support identification of changes made to the risk rating process subsequent to the last review by the FSA. The organisation of rating assignment including the rating assignment process and the internal control structure must also be documented.[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 4 point 32]
Where a firm employs statistical models in the rating process, the firm must document its methodologies. This material must:(1) provide a detailed outline of the theory, assumptions and/or mathematical and empirical basis of the assignment of estimates to grades, individual obligors, exposures, or pools, and the data source(s) used to estimate the model;(2) establish a rigorous statistical process (including out-of-time and out-of-sample performance tests) for validating the model;
(1) This paragraph applies to the use of statistical models and/or other mechanical methods to assign exposures to obligor grades, obligor pools, facility grades or facility pools.(2) A firm must be able to demonstrate to the FSA that the model has good predictive power and that capital requirements are not distorted as a result of its use.(3) The input variables to the model must form a reasonable and effective basis for the resulting predictions. The model must not have material
(1) This paragraph contains guidance on BIPRU 4.3.51 R for the use of external models.(2) BIPRU 4.3.51 R (2) - BIPRU 4.3.51 R (8) also apply to mechanical methods to assign exposures or obligors to facility grades or pools and to a combination of models and mechanical methods.(3) The standards which a firm applies to an external model should not be lower than those for internal models. (4) The FSA will not accredit any individual model or vendor. The burden is on a firm to satisfy
If a firm uses a rating model to assign exposures to the borrower or facility grades, it may reflect the data on main drivers of risk parameters by its inclusion in the model as a risk driver or as part of a subsequent process that adjusts the output of that model to calculate the risk parameters PD, LGD, conversion factor and EL.
(1) If:(a) a firm's internal experience of exposures of a type covered by a model or other rating system is 20 defaults or fewer; and(b) in the firm's view, reliable estimates of PD cannot be derived from external sources of default data, including the use of market price related data, for all the exposures covered by the rating system;the firm must estimate PD for exposures covered by that rating system in accordance with this rule.(2) A firm must use a statistical technique
There are a number of general methodologies for calculating PRR using a VaR model. The FSA does not prescribe any one method of computing VaR measures. Moreover, it does not wish to discourage any firm from developing alternative risk measurement techniques. A firm should discuss the use of any alternative techniques used to calculate PRR with the FSA.
BIPRU 7.10.26RRP
The model PRR must be computed at least once every business day, using a 99% one-tailed confidence limit.
BIPRU 7.10.27GRP
A firm may meet the requirement in BIPRU 7.10.26R by using different model parameters and employing a suitable adjustment mechanism to produce a figure which is equivalent to the figure produced using the parameters set out in BIPRU 7.10.26R. For example, a firm's model may use a 95% one-tailed confidence limit if the firm has a mechanism to convert the output of the model to reflect a 99% one-tailed confidence limit.
3The incremental risk charge must be based on objective and up-to-date data.
3A firm must validate its approach to incremental risk charge. In particular, a firm must: (1) validate that its modelling approach for correlations and price changes is appropriate for its portfolio, including the choice and weights of its systematic risk factors;(2) perform a variety of stress tests (not limited to the range of events experienced historically), including sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis, to assess the qualitative and quantitative reasonableness of
3A firm must document its approach for the incremental risk charge clearly, setting out its correlation and other modelling assumptions.
3As part of its VaR model permission, the FSA may authorise a firm to use the all price risk measure to calculate an additional capital charge in relation to positions in its correlation trading portfolio if it meets the following minimum standards:(1) it adequately captures all price risks at a 99.9% confidence interval over a capital horizon of one year under the assumption of a constant level of risk, and adjusted, where appropriate, to reflect the impact of liquidity, concentrations,
BIPRU 7.10.56GRP
A firm with a complex portfolio is expected to demonstrate greater sophistication in its modelling and risk management than a firm with a simple portfolio. For example, a firm will be expected to consider, where necessary, varying degrees of liquidity for different risk factors, the complexity of risk modelling across time zones, product categories and risk factors. Some trade-off is permissible between the sophistication and accuracy of the model and the conservatism of underlying
BIPRU 7.10.127GRP
Firms who gained model recognition before 1 January 2007 will be permitted to calculate PRR for specific risk in accordance with the methodology they were permitted to use immediately before that date instead of capturing event and default risk in their models (see BIPRU TP 14 (Market risk: VaR models)). This treatment will not be available to a firm that gains model recognition after that date.
In relation to a firm whose activities are moderately complex, in carrying out its ICAAP, BIPRU 2.2.25 G (3) to (4) apply. In addition, it could:(1) having consulted the management in each major business line, prepare a comprehensive list of the major risks to which the business is exposed;(2) estimate, with the aid of historical data, where available, the range and distribution of possible losses which might arise from each of those risks and consider using shock stress tests
(1) This paragraph applies to a proportional ICAAP in the case of a firm whose activities are complex.(2) A proportional approach to that firm'sICAAP should cover the matters identified in BIPRU 2.2.26 G, but is likely also to involve the use of models, most of which will be integrated into its day-to-day management and operation.(3) Models of the sort referred to in (2) may be linked so as to generate an overall estimate of the amount of capital that a firm considers appropriate
If a firm adopts a top-down approach to developing its internal model, it should be able to allocate the outcome of the internal model to risks it has previously identified in relation to each separate legal entity, business unit or business activity, as appropriate. In relation to a firm which is a member of a group, GENPRU 1.2.53 R (Application of GENPRU 1.2 on a solo and consolidated basis: Processes and tests) sets out how internal capital identified as necessary by that firm'sICAAP
If a firm's internal model makes explicit or implicit assumptions in relation to correlations within or between risk types, or in relation to diversification benefits between business types, the firm should be able to explain to the FSA, with the support of empirical evidence, the basis of those assumptions.
The values assigned to inputs into a firm's model should be derived either stochastically, by assuming the value of an item can follow an appropriate probability distribution and by selecting appropriate values at the tail of the distribution, or deterministically, using appropriate prudent assumptions. For options or guarantees which change in value significantly in certain economic or demographic circumstances, a stochastic approach would normally be appropriate.
Without prejudice to other provisions in BIPRU 7.7, a position in a CIU is subject to a collective investment undertaking PRR (general market risk and specific risk) of 32%. Without prejudice to provisions in BIPRU 7.5.18R (Foreign currency PRR for CIUs) or, if the firm has a VaR model permission, BIPRU 7.10.44R (Commodity risks and VaR models) taken together with BIPRU 7.5.18R, where the modified gold treatment set out in those rules is used, a position in a CIU is subject to
(1) Where a firm is aware of the underlying investments of the CIU on a daily basis the firm may look through to those underlying investments in order to calculate the securities PRR for position risk (general market risk and specific risk) for those positions in accordance with the methods set out in the securities PRR requirements or, if the firm has a VaR model permission, in accordance with the methods set out in BIPRU 7.10 (Use of a Value at Risk Model).(2) Under this approach,
Where BIPRU 7.7 permits a firm to calculate the PRR charge for a position in a CIU using the rules in BIPRU 7 relating to the underlying investment, a firm that has:(1) a CAD 1 model waiver that covers positions in CIUs may use the rules as modified by that waiver; and(2) a VaR model permission that covers positions in CIUs may use its VaR model.
A firm is required under GENPRU 2.1.52 R (Calculation of the market risk capital requirement) to calculate its market risk capital requirement using the rules in BIPRU 7. However, the FSA may at the firm's request modify GENPRU 2.1.52 R to allow the firm to calculate all or part of the PRR for the positions covered by that model by using a CAD 1 model (for options risk aggregation and/or interest rate pre-processing) or a VaR model (value at risk model) instead. BIPRU 7.10 (Use
Waivers permitting the use of models in the calculation of PRR will not be granted if that would be contrary to the CAD. Any waiver which is granted will only be granted on terms that are compatible with the CAD. Accordingly, the only waivers permitting the use of models in calculating PRR that the FSA is likely to grant are CAD 1 model waivers and VaR model permissions.
The FSA does not specify the methodology that a firm should employ in order to produce the appropriate outputs from its options risk aggregation CAD 1 model. However, BIPRU 7.9.27G - BIPRU 7.9.43G provide details of how a firm could meet the requirement to capture gamma, vega and rho risks using a scenario matrix approach. Where a firm adopts the scenario matrix approach then the standards set out in BIPRU 7.9.27G - BIPRU 7.9.43G should be followed. The firm should also take into
There are a number of different methods of constructing pre-processing models but all should comply with BIPRU 7.9.45G - BIPRU 7.9.53G. All pre-processing models should generate positions that have the same sensitivity to defined interest rate changes as the underlying cash flows.
The risk weighted exposure amount is the potential loss on the firm'sequity exposures as derived using internal value-at-risk models subject to the 99th percentile, one-tailed confidence interval of the difference between quarterly returns and an appropriate risk-free rate computed over a long-term sample period, multiplied by 12.5. The risk weighted exposure amounts at the equity exposure portfolio2 level must not be less than the total of the sums2 of the minimum risk weighted
(1) A firm must meet the standards set out in (2) to (9) for the purpose of calculating capital requirements.(2) The estimate of potential loss must be robust to adverse market movements relevant to the long-term risk profile of the firm's specific holdings. The data used to represent return distributions must reflect the longest sample period for which data is available and be meaningful in representing the risk profile of the firm's specific equity exposures. The data used must
(1) With regard to the development and use of internal models for capital requirement purposes, a firm must establish policies, procedures, and controls to ensure the integrity of the model and modelling process. These policies, procedures, and controls must include the ones set out in the rest of this paragraph.(2) There must be full integration of the internal model into the overall management information systems of the firm and in the management of the non-trading bookequity
For an unrated position the supervisory formula method must be used except where a firm uses the ABCP internal assessment approach.[Note:BCD Annex IX Part 4 point 39]
In cases where both the ABCP internal assessment approach and the supervisory formula method are available, a firm should determine the most appropriate approach and apply that approach consistently.
Subject to any IRB permission of the type described in BIPRU 9.12.28 G, in the case of an originator or sponsor unable to calculate KIRB and which has not obtained approval to use the ABCP internal assessment approach, and in the case of other firms where they have not obtained approval to use the supervisory formula method or, for positions in ABCP programmes, the ABCP internal assessment approach, a risk weight of 1250% must be assigned to securitisation positions which are
(1) A firm may apply for an Article 129 permission or a waiver in respect of:(a) the IRB approach;(b) the advanced measurement approach;(c) the CCR internal model method; and(d) the VaR model approach.(2) A firm should apply for a waiver if it wants to:(a) apply the CAD 1 model approach; or2(b) apply the master netting agreement internal models approach; or2(c) disapply consolidated supervision under BIPRU 8 for its UK consolidation group or non-EEAsub-group; or2(d) apply the
Where a firm applies for a VaR model permission, the firm must state whether it is making an application for a waiver or an Article 129 permission.
(1) A firm must be able to satisfy the FSA that the firm's risk management system for managing the risks arising on the transactions covered by the master netting agreement is conceptually sound and implemented with integrity and that, in particular, the minimum qualitative standards in (2) – (11) are met.(2) The internal risk-measurement model used for calculation of potential price volatility for the transactions is closely integrated into the daily risk-management process of
The internal risk-measurement model must capture a sufficient number of risk factors in order to capture all material price risks.[Note: BCD Annex VIII Part 3 point 18]
Where there is considerable variation in the cost of the option depending on conditions at the time the option is exercised, and where that variation constitutes a material risk for the firm, it will generally be appropriate to use stochastic modelling. In this case prices from the asset model used in the stochastic approach should be benchmarked to relevant market asset prices before determining the value of the option. Where stochastic modelling is not undertaken, market option
Where the option offers a choice between two non-discretionary financial benefits (such as between a guaranteed cash sum or a guaranteed annuity value, or between a unit value and a maturity guarantee) and where there is a wide range of possible outcomes, the firm should normally model such liabilities stochastically. In carrying out such modelling firms should take into account the likely choices to be made by policyholders in each scenario. Firms should make and retain a record
If a firm uses separate models for the purpose of the IRB approach and for its internal purposes as referred to in BIPRU 4.2.2 R (2) it must be able to demonstrate the reasonableness of any differences between those models.
If a firm uses scorecards for its internal credit approval process and the models it uses for the purpose of the IRB approach are fundamentally different from those scorecards, a firm's demonstration of how this is compatible with BIPRU 4.2.2 R (2) might include demonstrating that estimates calculated under the IRB approach are used to change sanctioning decisions at an individual or portfolio level. Examples of this might include amending cut-offs, the application of policy rules,
Where rating agency experience or the output of a statistical default model are the primary component of PD estimation, a firm should consider whether it needs to make adjustments for other relevant information, such as internal experience, conservatism and cyclical effects. In making these adjustments, a firm should consider the extent to which it needs to take account of the potential for both under-recording of actual defaults experienced and divergence of actual experience

Table: Formulae for the calculation of risk weighted exposure amounts

This table belongs to BIPRU 4.4.57 R

Correlation (R)

0.12 × (1 - EXP(-50*PD))/(1-EXP(-50)) + 0.24*


Maturity factor (b)


(LGD*N[(1-R)-0.5*G(PD)+(R/(1-R))0.5 *G(0.999)]-PD*LGD)*



denotes the cumulative distribution function for a standard normal random variable (i.e. the probability that a normal random variable with mean zero and variance of one is less than or equal to x). G(z) denotes the inverse cumulative distribution function for a standard normal random variable (i.e. the value x such that N(x) = z).

PD = 0

For PD = 0, RW shall be: 0

PD = 1

For PD = 1:


for defaultedexposures where a firm applies the LGD values set out in BIPRU 4.4.32R and BIPRU 4.8.25R RW shall be: 0;


for defaultedexposures where a firm uses its own estimates of LGDs, RW shall be: Max {0, 12.5 *(LGD-ELBE)};

where ELBEmust be the firm's best estimate of expected loss for the defaultedexposure according to BIPRU 4.3.122 R.

[Note:BCD Annex VII Part 1 point 3]

3In carrying out the stress tests and scenario analyses required by BIPRU 7.1.17 R, a firm must incorporate and take into account any other relevant stress tests and scenario analyses that it is required to carry out under any other provision of the Handbook, and in particular under BIPRU 7.10.72 R where the firm has a VaR model permission.
A firm may use the commodity extended maturity ladder approach to calculate the commodity PRR for a particular commodity provided the firm:(1) has a diversified commodities portfolio;(2) undertakes significant commodities business;(3) is not yet in a position to use the VaR model approach to calculate commodity PRR; and(4) at least twenty business days before the date the firm uses that approach notifies the FSA in writing of:(a) its intention to use the commodity extended maturity
Any short-term credit assessment may only apply to the item the short-term credit assessment refers to, and it must not be used to derive risk weights for any other item.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 3 point 13]
A firm must ensure that its risk management functions are aware of the weaknesses of the models used and how best to reflect those in the valuation output.
BIPRU 11.5.17RRP
A firm calculating risk weighted exposure amounts in accordance with BIPRU 9 or capital resource requirements according to BIPRU 7.2.48A R to BIPRU 7.2.48K R4 must disclose the following information, where relevant separately for its trading book and non-trading book:4(1) a description of the firm's objectives in relation to securitisation activity;(1A) the nature of other risks, including liquidity risk inherent in securitised assets;4(1B) the type of risks in terms of seniority
A firm should not expect the FSA to accept as adequate any particular model that the firm develops or that the results from the model are automatically reflected in any individual capital guidance given to the firm for the purpose of determining adequate capital resources. However, the FSA will take into account the results of any sound and prudent model when giving individual capital guidance or considering applications for a waiver under section 148 of the Act of the capital
(1) 3A firm may use the supervisory formula method to calculate the appropriate PRA for specific risk where:(a) the firm is permitted to apply the supervisory formula method to the same position if it was held in its non-trading book in accordance with BIPRU 9.12; or(b) otherwise, the firm is expressly permitted by its VaR model permission to apply the supervisory formula method to calculate the appropriate PRA for specific risk.(2) The appropriate PRA under the supervisory formula