Related provisions for BIPRU 2.2.34
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A data series is unreliable if it has, for example, missing data points, or data points which contain stale data. Reliable data series may be difficult to obtain for new products (for example an instrument of longer dated tenor that did not previously trade) and for less liquid risk factors or positions. With regard to less liquid risk factors or positions, a firm may use a combination of prudent valuation techniques and alternative VaR estimation techniques to ensure there is
A firm with a complex portfolio is expected to demonstrate greater sophistication in its modelling and risk management than a firm with a simple portfolio. For example, a firm will be expected to consider, where necessary, varying degrees of liquidity for different risk factors, the complexity of risk modelling across time zones, product categories and risk factors. Some trade-off is permissible between the sophistication and accuracy of the model and the conservatism of underlying
Some further areas to consider in developing the liquidity risk scenario might include:(1) any mismatching between expected asset and liability cash flows;(2) the inability to sell assets quickly;(3) the extent to which a firm's assets have been pledged; and(4) the possible need to reduce large asset positions at different levels of market liquidity and the related potential costs and timing constraints.
Where a securities firm deals in illiquid securities (for example, unlisted securities or securities listed on illiquid markets), or holds illiquid assets, potentially large losses can arise from trades that have failed to settle or because of large unrealised market losses. A securities firm may therefore consider the impact of liquidity risk on its exposure to:(1) credit risk; and(2) market risk.
(1) A securities firm should also consider the impact of external factors on the levels of capital it needs to hold. Scenarios covering such external factors should relate to its strategy and business plan. A securities firm might wish to consider the questions in (2) to (7).(2) Whether it plans to participate in a one-off transaction that might strain temporarily or permanently its capital.(3) Whether the unevenness of its revenue suggests that it should hold a capital buffer.
SYSC 13 provides guidance on how to interpret SYSC 3.1.1 R and SYSC 3.2.6 R, which deal with the establishment and maintenance of systems and controls, in relation to the management of operational risk. Operational risk has been described by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision as "the risk of loss, resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems, or from external events". This chapter covers systems and controls for managing risks concerning any
In particular, where BIPRU 7.4.38R applies and the short position constitutes a material position compared to a firm's total commoditypositions, it should consider a further commodity PRR charge in respect of that position depending on the likelihood of a shortage of liquidity in that market.
Risks may be addressed through holding capital to absorb losses that unexpectedly materialise. The ability to pay liabilities as they fall due also requires liquidity. Therefore, in assessing the adequacy of a firm's financial resources, both capital and liquidity needs should be considered. A firm should also consider the quality of its financial resources such as the loss-absorbency of different types of capital and the time required to liquidate different types of asset. SYSC
The management report required by DTR 4.1.8 R must also give an indication of:(1) any important events that have occurred since the end of the financial year;(2) the issuer's likely future development;(3) activities in the field of research and development;(4) the information concerning acquisitions of own shares prescribed by Article 22 (2) of Directive 77/91/EEC;(5) the existence of branches of the issuer; and(6) in relation to the issuer's use of financial instruments and where
The structure of the facility must ensure that under all foreseeable circumstances a firm has effective ownership and control of all cash remittances from the receivables. When the obligor makes payments directly to a seller or servicer a firm must verify regularly that payments are forwarded completely and within the contractually agreed terms. Servicer means an entity that manages a pool of purchased receivables or the underlying credit exposures on a day-to-day basis. A firm
(1) A firm's risk management policies must take account of market risk, liquidity risk, and legal and operational risk that can be associated with CCR.(2) The firm must not undertake business with a counterparty without assessing its creditworthiness and must take due account of settlement and pre-settlement credit risk.(3) These risks must be managed as comprehensively as practicable at the counterparty level (aggregating CCRexposures with other credit exposures) and at the firm-wide