Related provisions for INSPRU 3.1.59

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REC 2.11.1UKRP

Schedule to the Recognition Requirements Regulations, Paragraph 4(2)(g)

2Without prejudice to the generality of sub-paragraph [4(1)], the [UK RIE] must ensure that-

where the [UK RIE's]facilitiesinclude making provision for the safeguarding and administration of assets belonging to users of thosefacilities, satisfactory arrangements are made for that purpose.

REC 2.11.3GRP
In determining whether a UK recognised body has made satisfactory arrangements for the safeguarding and administration of assets belonging to the users of its facilities, the FCA3 may have regard to: 3(1) the level of protection which the arrangements provide against the risk of theft or other types or causes of loss;(2) whether the arrangements ensure that assets are only used or transferred in accordance with the instructions of the owner of those assets or in accordance with
REC 2.11.4GRP
Where a UK recognised body arranges for other persons to provide services for the safeguarding and administration services of assets belonging to users of its facilities, it will also need to satisfy the recognition requirement in Regulation 6 of the Recognition Requirements Regulations (see REC 2.2).

A firm must calculate its capital resources in accordance with table 13.15.3(1).

Table 13.15.3(1)

This table forms part of IPRU-INV 13.15.3R.

Capital resources


Sole traders: Partnerships

Paid-up share capital (excluding preference shares2 redeemable by shareholders2 within two years)

Eligible LLP members’ capital

Share premium account

Retained profits (see IPRU-INV 13.15.4R) and interim net profits (Note 1)

Revaluation reserves

Subordinated loans (see IPRU-INV 13.15.7R)

Debt capital

Balances on proprietor’s or partners’

- capital accounts2

- current accounts2

(see IPRU-INV 13.15.4R)

Revaluation reserves

Subordinated loans (see IPRU-INV 13.15.7R)


- Intangible assets

- Material current year losses

- Excess LLP members’ drawings


- Intangible assets

- Material current year losses

- Excess of current year drawings over current year profits2

Note 1

Retained profits must be audited and interim net profits must be verified by the firm's external auditor, unless the firm is exempt from the provisions of Part 16 of the Companies Act 2006 (section 477 (Small companies: Conditions for exemption from audit)) relating to the audit of accounts.

When calculating a firm’s capital resources, the following adjustments apply to retained profits or (for sole traders or partnerships) current accounts figures:(1) a firm must deduct any unrealised gains or, where applicable, add back in any unrealised losses on cash flow hedges of financial instruments measured at cost or amortised cost;(2) a firm must de-recognise any defined benefit asset; (3) a firm may substitute for a defined benefit liability its deficit reduction amount
Where a firm is a sole trader or a partnership:(1) it can use (to the extent necessary to make up any shortfall in the required resources) any of its personal assets (not being needed to meet liabilities arising from its personal activities and any business activities not regulated by the FCA);(2) the firm's total financial resources, from whatever source, must at all times be sufficient to cover its total liabilities.
A Category B firm must calculate:(1) the aggregate amount of its short-term subordinated loans and its preference shares which are not redeemable within two years; (2) the amount of the firm's total capital and reserves excluding preference share capital, less the amount of its intangible assets, multiplied by 400%.
The FCA considers that income-producing real estate (IPRE) is a particularly difficult asset class for which to build effective rating systems that are compliant with the requirements of the internal ratings based (IRB) approach.
As with all asset classes, firms should assess whether their IPRE model is EU CRR compliant and not whether it is the nearest they can get to compliance given the constraints imposed on their model development (eg, lack of data or resource constraints).
The FCA expects that a firm will only be compliant with the calibration requirements relating to model philosophy if it can demonstrate that:(1) the model philosophy is clearly articulated and justified. Justification should include analysis of the performance of assets, and the corresponding ratings assigned, over a change in economic conditions (ie, as long as period as possible); and(2) in addition to encapsulating this information in a coherent way in the calibration, the
IFPRU 4.11.19GRP
The FCA expects that a firm will1 be able to comply with certain other EU CRR requirements only where it can1demonstrate that:11(1) in relation to article 144(1)(e) of the EU CRR, where more than one model is used, the rationale, and the associated boundary issues, is clearly articulated and justified and the criteria for assigning an asset to a rating model are objective and clear;(2) in relation to article 173(1)(c) of the EU CRR, the firm has a process in place to ensure valuations
A firm must recognise an asset or liability, and measure its amount, in accordance with the relevant accounting principles applicable to it for the purpose of preparing its annual financial statements unless a rule requires otherwise.
The capital resources requirement for a social housing firm whose Part 4A permission is limited to carrying on the regulated activities of: (1) home financing;1 or11(2) home finance administration1(or both);11is that the firm's net tangible assets must be greater than zero.
If a social housing firm is carrying on home financing1or home finance administration1(and no other regulated activity), its net tangible assets must be greater than zero. However, if it carries on insurance distribution activity6 or home finance mediation activity1, there is no special provision and the capital resources requirement for firms carrying on designated investment business, insurance distribution activity or home finance mediation activity6 only applies to it as appropriate.
(1) The capital resources requirement for a firm carrying on only2home financing, 1which is not connected to regulated mortgage contracts, 2or home financing1and home finance administration1 which is not connected to regulated mortgage contracts2 (and no other regulated activity) is the higher of:111111(a) £100,000; and(b) 1% of:(i) its total assets plus total undrawn commitments and unreleased amounts under the home reversion plan1; less:(ii) excluded loans or amounts 1plus intangible
When calculating total assets, the firm may exclude a loan or plan 1which has been transferred to a third party only if it meets the following conditions:(1) the first condition is that the loan or the plan 1has been transferred in a legally effective manner by:(a) novation; or(b) legal or equitable assignment; or(c) sub-participation; or(d) declaration of trust; and(2) the second condition is that the home finance provider1:1(a) retains no material economic interest in the loan
BIPRU 12.2 provides that an ILAS BIPRU firm must ensure that its liquidity resources contain an adequate buffer of high quality, unencumbered assets. BIPRU 12.7 describes in more detail the nature of the assets that are eligible for inclusion in that buffer. The rules in this section provide that some types of assets are eligible for use only by a simplified ILAS BIPRU firm.
In deciding on the precise composition of its liquid assets buffer, a firm should ensure that it tailors the contents of the buffer to the needs of its business and the liquidity risk that it faces. In particular, a firm should ensure that it holds assets in its buffer which can be realised with the speed necessary to meet its liabilities as they fall due. In doing so, a firm should have regard to the currencies in which its liabilities are denominated and should take into account
BIPRU 12.7.10GRP
The appropriate regulator regards as encumbered any asset which the firm in question has provided as collateral. Therefore, where assets have been used as collateral in this way (for example, in a repo), they should not be included in the firms liquid assets buffer. However, any assets provided by the firm to a central bank as collateral which meet the requirements in BIPRU 12.7.9A R will be recognised as unencumbered by the for the purposes of BIPRU 12.7.9R (1). For the avoidance
BIPRU 12.7.11RRP
(1) For the purpose of BIPRU 12.7.9R (3), a firm1 must periodically realise a proportion of the assets in its liquid assets buffer through repo or outright sale to the market.1(2) [deleted]11(3) A firm must ensure that in carrying out such periodic realisation:(a) it does so without reference to the firm's day-to-day liquidity needs;(b) it realises in varying amounts the assets in its liquid assets buffer;(c) the cumulative effect of its periodic realisation over any twelve month
(1) The professional liability risks to be covered pursuant to Article 9(7) of Directive 2011/61/EU shall be risks of loss or damage caused by a relevant person through the negligent performance of activities for which the AIFM has legal responsibility. (2) Professional liability risks as defined in paragraph 1 shall include, without being limited to, risks of: (a) loss of documents evidencing title of assets of the AIF;
(1) This Article shall apply to AIFMs that choose to cover professional liability risks through additional own funds. (2) The AIFM shall provide additional own funds for covering liability risks arising from professional negligence at least equal to 0,01 % of the value of the portfolios of AIFs managed. The value of the portfolios of AIFs managed shall be the sum of the absolute value of all assets of all AIFs managed by the AIFM, including assets
For the purposes of this chapter, liquid assets are assets which: (1) are readily convertible to cash within one month; and(2) have not been invested in speculative positions.
Examples of liquid assets that are acceptable under IPRU-INV 11.3.17R include cash, readily realisable investments that are not held for short-term resale, and debtors.[Note: article 9(8) of AIFMD]
LR 15.6.2RRP
In addition to the requirements in LR 9.8 (Annual financial report), a closed-ended investment fund must include in its annual financial report:(1) a statement (including a quantitative analysis) explaining how it has invested its assets with a view to spreading investment risk in accordance with its published investment policy; (2) a statement, set out in a prominent position, as to whether in the opinion of the directors, the continuing appointment of the investment manager
LR 15.6.3RRP
A closed-ended investment fund that, as at the end of its financial year, has invested more than 20% of its assets in property must include in its annual financial report a summary of the valuation of its portfolio, carried out in accordance with LR 15.6.4 R.
LR 15.6.5RRP
The summary described in LR 15.6.3 R must include:(1) the total value of properties held at the year end;(2) totals of the cost of properties acquired;(3) the net book value of properties disposed of during the year; and(4) an indication of the geographical location and type of properties held at the year end.
LR 15.6.8RRP
A closed-ended investment fund must notify to 1a RIS within five business days of the end of each quarter a list of all investments in other listedclosed-ended investment funds, as at the last business day of that quarter, which themselves do not have stated investment policies to invest no more than 15% of their total assets in other listedclosed-ended investment funds.11
A firm or qualifying parent undertaking must notify the FCA immediately if its management body considers that any of the following have occurred:(1) the assets of the firm or qualifying parent undertaking have become less than its liabilities; or(2) the firm or qualifying parent undertaking is unable to pay its debts or other liabilities as they fall due; or(3) there are objective reasons to support a determination that (1) or (2) will occur in the near future; or(4) extraordinary
A firm or qualifying parent undertaking must notify the FCA by sending an e-mail to its usual supervisory contact.
In the light of IFPRU 2.2.4 G, a firm should make its assessment of adequate financial resources on realistic valuation bases for assets and liabilities, taking into account the actual amounts and timing of cash flows under realistic adverse projections.
Risks may be addressed through holding capital to absorb losses that unexpectedly materialise. The ability to pay liabilities as they fall due also requires liquidity. Therefore, in assessing the adequacy of a firm's financial resources, both capital and liquidity needs should be considered. A firm should also consider the quality of its financial resources, such as the loss-absorbency of different types of capital and the time required to liquidate different types of asset.
Where a firm is exposed to market risk, the time horizon over which stress tests and scenario analyses should be carried out will depend on, among other things, the maturity and liquidity of the positions stressed. For example, for the market risk arising from the holding of investments, this will depend upon:(1) the extent to which there is a regular, open and transparent market in those assets, which would allow fluctuations in the value of the investment to be more readily
The focus of the risk assessment is on the firm's funding2 obligations towards the pension scheme, not of the pension scheme’s risks themselves (i.e. the scheme's segregated2 assets and liabilities). A firm should include in its estimate of financial resources both its expected obligations to the pension scheme and any increase in obligations that may arise in a stress scenario.
In performing stress tests and scenario analyses, a firm should take into account the risk that its group may have to bring back on to its consolidated balance sheet the assets and liabilities of off-balance sheet entities as a result of reputational contagion, notwithstanding the appearance of legal risk transfer.
(1) 16A structured deposit is a kind of deposit.(2) A structured deposit is a deposit which is fully repayable at maturity on terms under which interest or a premium will be paid or is at risk, according to a formula involving factors such as:(a) an index or combination of indices; or(b) a financial instrument or combination of financial instruments; or(c) a commodity or combination of commodities or other physical or non-physical non-fungible assets; or(d) a foreign exchange
6Alternative finance investment bonds (defined in article 77A of the Regulated Activities Order and referred to in the Handbook as alternative debentures) are a form of Sharia compliant bond (known as sukuk in the plural or sakk in the singular) which are intended to be regulated in an equivalent manner to conventional debt securities, where appropriate. Sukuk arrangements allow assets to be held for the benefit of investors in certificates issued by a company. The benefits
The arrangements which grant rights under an alternative debenture arise where:(1) the arrangements provide for a person (the bond-holder) to pay a sum of money (the capital) to another (the bond-issuer);(2) the arrangements identify assets, or a class of assets, which the bond-issuer will acquire for the purpose of generating income or gains directly or indirectly (the bond assets);(3) the arrangements specify a period at the end of which they cease to have effect (the bond term);(4)
Different types of alternative debentures are permitted so that, for example:(1) the assets of the arrangement may be acquired before or after it commences;(2) the bond-holder may (but need not) be entitled under the arrangements to terminate them, or participate in terminating them before the end of the bond term;(3) the return may be fixed, floating or determined in some other way;(4) the amount of the redemption payment may (but need not) be subject to reduction in the event
  1. (1)

    The main provision within the definition of alternative debenture arrangements that seeks to ensure that only instruments that display the characteristics of a debt security can be alternative debentures is set out at PERG 2.6.11CG (5). It provides that the amount of additional payments under the arrangements must not exceed an amount which would, at the time the bond is issued, be a reasonable commercial return on a loan of capital. Where the return is not fixed at the outset, it is the maximum possible amount of the additional payments that must be considered in deciding this question. The following example demonstrates how this condition should be approached.

  2. Example

    ABC Ltd is a property development company. It wishes to increase its portfolio on a short-term basis. It issues 5-year sukuk to investors and uses the proceeds to buy the head lease of a commercial property. The rental income from the lease is distributed to investors in proportion to their holdings without a cap on the level of return. After 5 years, the head lease is sold on at a profit and the proceeds shared between investors.

    In this example, the investors participate directly in the success or failure of the underlying property business. The sakk is not really in the nature of a debt instrument. It is unlikely to be an alternative debenture as:

    • additional payments under the arrangements would exceed a reasonable commercial return on a loan of the capital.

      Further, where the return is not fixed at the outset, it is the maximum possible amount of the additional payments that must be considered. Here, the issue terms of the sukuk impose no upper limit on the amount of the periodic distributions: a sakk holder subscribing 1,000 may, in a year, get back 200 or 2,000 or nothing depending on the rental market. The maximum potential return is clearly in excess of a reasonable commercial return on a loan of 1,000; and

    • the arrangements have not been admitted to an official list or admitted to trading on a regulated market or recognised investment exchange (see PERG 2.6.11CG (6)).

  3. (2)

    If, in the above example, investors returns were capped at 500 per sakk per year, then this is the amount that must be considered in deciding whether the return exceeds a reasonable commercial return on a loan, even where the amounts actually received turn out to be far lower.

  4. (3)

    In applying the reasonable commercial return test, the sakk should be compared to a hypothetical loan to the issuer on similar terms and carrying similar risks. For example, a conventional security convertible into shares will normally carry a lower rate of interest because the conversion right has a value. The return on an exchangeable or convertible sakk should be measured against the return on an equivalent exchangeable or convertible debt security.

  5. (4)

    The risk to investors in sukuk may vary slightly from that of a conventional bond in some instances. This may be due to the fact that sukuk holders only have recourse to the bond assets or some other structural feature which results in the risk profile being higher. In such instances it may be justifiable for the rate of return to be slightly higher than that of a conventional loan.

  6. (5)

    As with any financial instrument, the pricing of sukuk will depend on the issuers view of the market at the time of issue and reasonable commercial return may vary depending on the issuer and the economic circumstances prevalent at the time of issue.

If a CRD implementation measure in another EEA State implements the discretion in point 53 of Part 1 of Annex VI of the Banking Consolidation Directive, a firm may apply the same treatment as that CRD implementation measure to exposures related to property leasing transactions concerning offices or other commercial premises situated in that EEA State and governed by statutory provisions whereby the lessor retains full ownership of the rented assets until the tenant exercises his
BIPRU 3.4.107RRP
(1) Covered bonds means covered bonds as defined in paragraph (1) of the definition in the glossary (Definition based on Article 22(4) of the UCITS Directive) and collateralised by any of the following eligible assets:(a) exposures to or guaranteed by central governments, central bank, public sector entities, regional governments and local authorities in the EEA;(b) (i) exposures to or guaranteed by non-EEA central governments, non-EEAcentral banks, multilateral development banks,
BIPRU 3.4.121RRP
Where BIPRU 3.4.116 R does not apply, a firm may determine the risk weight for a CIU as set out in BIPRU 3.4.123 R to BIPRU 3.4.125 R, if the following eligibility criteria are met:(1) one of the following conditions is satisfied:(a) the CIU is managed by a company which is subject to supervision in an EEA State; or(b) the following conditions are satisfied:(i) the CIU is managed by a company which is subject to supervision that is equivalent to that laid down in EU5 law; and5(ii)
BIPRU 3.4.127RRP
Tangible assets within the meaning of Article 4(10) of the Bank Accounts Directive must be assigned a risk weight of 100%.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 82]
BIPRU 3.4.132RRP
In the case of asset sale and repurchase agreements and outright forward purchases, the risk weight must be that assigned to the assets in question and not to the counterparties to the transactions.[Note: BCD Annex VI Part 1 point 88]
(1) A firm may take into account factors other than those identified in the overall Pillar 2 rule when it assesses the level of capital it wishes to hold. These factors might include external rating goals, market reputation and its strategic goals. However, a firm should be able to distinguish, for the purpose of its dialogue with the appropriate regulator, between capital it holds in order to comply with the overall financial adequacy rule, capital that it holds as a capital
A firm should assess its exposure to risks transferred through the securitisation of assets should those transfers fail for whatever reason. A firm should consider the effect on its financial position of a securitisation arrangement failing to operate as anticipated or of the values and risks transferred not emerging as expected.
A firm should assess, and monitor, in detail its exposure to sectoral, geographic, liability and asset concentrations. The appropriate regulator considers that concentrations in these areas increase a firm's exposure to credit risk. Where a firm identifies such concentrations it should consider the adequacy of its CRR.
When assessing liquidity risk, a firm should consider the extent to which there is a mismatch between assets and liabilities.
Some further areas to consider in developing the liquidity risk scenario might include:(1) any mismatching between expected asset and liability cash flows;(2) the inability to sell assets quickly;(3) the extent to which a firm's assets have been pledged; and(4) the possible need to reduce large asset positions at different levels of market liquidity and the related potential costs and timing constraints.
Where a securities firm deals in illiquid securities (for example, unlisted securities or securities listed on illiquid markets), or holds illiquid assets, potentially large losses can arise from trades that have failed to settle or because of large unrealised market losses. A securities firm may therefore consider the impact of liquidity risk on its exposure to:(1) credit risk; and(2) market risk.
LR 10.1.3RRP
In this chapter (except where specifically provided to the contrary) a reference to a transaction by a listed company:(1) (subject to paragraphs (3),(4) and (5)) includes all agreements (including amendments to agreements) entered into by the listed company or its subsidiary undertakings;(2) includes the grant or acquisition of an option as if the option had been exercised except that, if exercise is solely at the listed company's or subsidiary undertaking's discretion, the transaction
LR 10.1.4GRP
This chapter is intended to cover transactions that are outside the ordinary course of the listed company's business and may change a security holder's economic interest in the company's assets or liabilities (whether or not the change in the assets or liabilities is recognised on the company's balance sheet).
EG 10.3.1RP
1Where the FCA applies to the court under section 380(3) or sections 381(3) and (4) of the Act, the FCA may ask the court to exercise its inherent jurisdiction to make orders on an interim basis, restraining a person from disposing of, or otherwise dealing with, assets. To succeed in an application for such interim relief, the FCA will have to show a good arguable case for the granting of the injunction. The FCA will not have to show that a contravention has already occurred or
EG 10.3.2RP
1The FCA may request the court to exercise its inherent jurisdiction in cases, for example, where it has evidence showing that there is a reasonable likelihood that a person will contravene a requirement of the Act and that the contravention will result in the dissipation of assets belonging to investors.
EG 10.4.3RP
1The FCA'sown-initiative powers do not apply to unauthorised persons. This means that an application for an injunction is the only power by which the FCA may seek directly to prevent unauthorised persons from actual or threatened breaches or market abuse. The FCA will decide whether an application against an unauthorised person is appropriate, in accordance with the approach discussed in paragraph 10.2.2. The FCA may also seek an injunction to secure assets where it intends to
EG 10.4.5RP
1Where the FCA exercises its powers under section 380, section 381 and/or invokes the court's inherent jurisdiction to obtain an order restraining the disposal of assets, it may also apply to the court for a restitution order for the distribution of those assets.
Where:(1) an MCD regulated mortgage contract is denominated in the currency of the EEA State in which the consumer is resident ("currency A"); and(2) the consumer receives income or holds assets in currency A but also receives income or holds assets in another currency ("currency B");the MCD regulated mortgage contract will not be a foreign currency loan unless the credit is to be repaid wholly or in part from the income received or assets held in currency B.
The alternative currency referred to in MCOB 2A.3.1R (1) must be either:(1) the currency in which the consumer primarily receives income or holds assets from which the credit is to be repaid, as indicated at the time that the most recent affordability assessment in relation to the regulated mortgage contract was made; or(2) the currency of the EEA State in which the consumer either was resident at the time that the MCD regulated mortgage contract was entered into or is currently
LR 10.4.1RRP
(1) A listed company must notify a RIS as soon as possible after the terms of a class 2 transaction are agreed.(2) The notification must include:(a) details of the transaction, including the name of the other party to the transaction;(b) a description of the business carried on by, or using, the net assets the subject of the transaction;(c) the consideration, and how it is being satisfied (including the terms of any arrangements for deferred consideration);(d) the value of the
LR 10.4.2RRP
(1) A listed company must notify a RIS as soon as possible if, after the notification under LR 10.4.1 R, it becomes aware that:(a) there has been a significant change affecting any matter contained in that earlier notification; or(b) a significant new matter has arisen which would have been required to be mentioned in that earlier notification if it had arisen at the time of the preparation of that notification.(2) The supplementary notification must give details of the change
FIT 2.3.1GRP
In determining a person's financial soundness, the FCA1 will have regard, and an SMCR firm2 should also have regard, 1to any factors including, but not limited to:11(1) whether the person has been the subject of any judgment debt or award, in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, that remains outstanding or was not satisfied within a reasonable period;(2) whether, in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, the person has made any arrangements with their2 creditors, filed for bankruptcy, had
FIT 2.3.2GRP
The FCA1will not normally require a 1candidate to supply a statement of assets or liabilities. The fact that a person may be of limited financial means will not, in itself, affect their 1suitability to perform a controlled function. The FCA would expect an SMCR firm2 to take a similar view in assessing whether staff being assessed under FIT, are fit and proper.1111
(1) The winding up of an ICVC may be carried out under this section instead of by the court provided the ICVC is solvent and the steps required under regulation 21 the OEIC Regulations (The Authority's approval for certain changes in respect of a company) are fulfilled. This section lays down the procedures to be followed and the obligations of the ACD and any other directors of the ICVC. (2) The termination of a sub-fund may be carried out4 under this section, instead of by the
(1) An ICVC must not be wound up except:44(a) under this section; or4(b) as an unregistered company under Part V of the Insolvency Act 1986.4(1A) 4A sub-fund must not:(a) be terminated except under this section; or(b) wound up except under Part V of the Insolvency Act 1986 (as modified by regulation 33C of the OEIC Regulations) as an unregistered company.(2) An ICVC must not be wound up or a sub-fund terminated4 under this section if there is a vacancy in the position of ACD.
(1) 3The effect of COLL 7.3.10R6 is that the ACD must continue to prepare annual and half-yearly6 long reports and to make them available to unitholders in accordance with COLL 4.5.14 R.(2) Where there are outstanding unrealised assets, keeping unitholders appropriately informed may, for example, be carried out by providing updates at six-monthly or more frequent intervals.
COLL 7.3.11RRP
(1) Except to the extent that the ACD can show that it has complied with COLL 7.3.9 R (Duty to ascertain liabilities), the ACD is personally liable to meet any liability of an ICVC or a sub-fund, of which it is the ACD, wound up or terminated under this section (whether or not the ICVC has been dissolved or, in the case of the sub-fund, termination has been completed) that was not discharged before the completion of the winding up or termination.44(2) Where winding up an ICVC,