(c) holds shares or voting power in B or P as a result of which A is able to exercise significant influence over the management of B.
(3) for the purposes of calculations relating to (1) and (2), the holding of shares or voting power by a person ("A1") includes any shares or voting power held by another ("A2") if A1 and A2 are acting in concert.
(a) shares held for the sole purposes of clearing and settling within a short settlement cycle;
(b) shares held by a custodian or its nominee in its custodian capacity are disregarded, provided that the custodian or nominee is only able to exercise voting power attached to the shares in accordance with instructions given in writing;
(c) shares representing no more than 5% of the total voting power in B or P held by an investment firm, provided that:
(i) it holds the shares in the capacity of a market maker (as defined in article 4.1(8) of MIFID);
(iii) may only exercise the voting power under instructions given in writing, or has appropriate mechanisms in place for ensuring that individual portfolio management services are conducted independently of any other services.86