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GENPRU 2 Annex 8 Guidance on applications for waivers relating to Implicit items

G Implicit items under the Act

1

The capital resources table does not permit implicit items to be included in the calculation of a firm's capital resources, except subject to a waiver under section 148 of the Act. Article 27(4) of the Consolidated Life Directive states that implicit items can be included in the calculation of a firm's capital resources, within limits, provided that the supervisory authority agrees. Certain implicit items, however, are not eligible for inclusion beyond 31 December 2009 (see paragraph 5). The FSA may be prepared to grant a waiver from the capital resources table to allow implicit items, in line with the purpose of the Consolidated Life Directive, and provided the conditions as set out in article 27(4) of the Consolidated Life Directive are met. Such a waiver would allow an implicit item to count towards the firm's capital resources available to count against its capital resources requirement (CRR) set out for realistic basis life firms in GENPRU 2.1.18 R and for regulatory basis only life firms in GENPRU 2.1.23 R. An implicit item may potentially count as tier one capital (but not core tier one capital) or tier two capital. Where a waiver is granted allowing an implicit item as tier one capital, the value of the implicit item so allowed must be included at stage B of the capital resources table. If the application of the value of the implicit item is restricted by GENPRU 2.2.29 R, which requires that at least 50% of a firm's tier one capital resources must be accounted for by core tier one capital, the remainder may be included at stage G of the calculation in the capital resources table, subject to GENPRU 2.2.31 G. An implicit item treated as tier two capital will also be included at stage G of the calculation, again subject to GENPRU 2.2.81 R. Article 29(1) of the Consolidated Life Directive requires that implicit items be excluded from the capital eligible to cover the guarantee fund. Under GENPRU 2.2.33 R a firm must meet the guarantee fund from the sum of the items listed at stages A, B, G and H of the capital resources table less the sum of the items listed at stage E of the capital resources table. The FSA will only grant an implicit items waiver if the waiver includes a modification to GENPRU 2.2.33 R to ensure that the implicit item does not count towards meeting the guarantee fund.

2

Under section 148 of the Act, the FSA may, on the application of a firm, grant a waiver from PRU. There are general requirements that must be met before any waiver can be granted. As explained in SUP 8, the FSA may not give a waiver unless the FSA is satisfied that:

(1)

compliance by the firm with the rules will be unduly burdensome, or would not achieve the purpose for which the rules were made; and

(2)

the waiver would not result in undue risk to persons whose interests the rules are intended to protect.

3

The FSA will assess compliance with the requirements in the light of all the relevant circumstances. This will include consideration of the costs incurred by compliance with a particular rule or whether a rule is framed in a way that would make compliance difficult in view of the firm's circumstances. For example, the firm may demonstrate that if an implicit item were not allowed, the firm would either have to suffer increased (and unwarranted) costs in injecting further capital resources or operate with a lower equity backing ratio (see case studies in paragraph 43). Even if a firm can demonstrate a case for an implicit item waiver, it should not assume that the FSA will grant the waiver requested, or that any waiver will be granted for the full amount of the implicit item which could be granted, as set out in this annex. The FSA will consider each application on its own merits, and taking into account all relevant circumstances, including the financial situation and business prospects of the firm.

4

Implicit items are economic reserves which are contained within the long-term insurance business provisions. Article 27(4) of the Consolidated Life Directive identifies three types of implicit item, in respect of: future profits, zillmerisation and hidden reserves. This annex is intended to amplify the guidance in SUP 8 relating to the granting of waivers for implicit items and to provide guidance on other aspects. Whilst this guidance applies to applications for waivers for implicit items generally, for a realistic basis life firm, to the extent that an implicit item is allocated to a with-profits fund, this guidance relates to implicit items for the purposes of determining the regulatory value of assets (see INSPRU 1.4.24 R).

5

The Consolidated Life Directive (reflecting the changes introduced by the Solvency 1 Directive) requires member states to end a firm's ability to take into account future profits implicit items by (at the latest) 31 December 2009. Until then, the maximum amount of the implicit item relating to future profits permitted under the Consolidated Life Directive is limited to 50% of the product of the estimated annual profits and the average period to run (not exceeding six years) on the policies in the portfolio. The Consolidated Life Directive further limits the maximum amount of these economic reserves that can be counted to 25% of the lesser of the available solvency margin and the required solvency margin. The changes introduced by the Solvency 1 Directive take effect for financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2004. However, the Consolidated Life Directive allows for a transitional period of five years, which runs from 20 March 2002 (the publication date of the Solvency 1 Directive), for Firms to become fully compliant with these new requirements. firms will need to consider the potential impact of these changes when engaging in future capital planning. When applying for an implicit item waiver a firm should provide the FSA with a plan showing how the firm intends to maintain its capital adequacy over the period to 31 December 2009. firms should also be aware that the FSA will typically only grant waivers for a maximum of 12 months.

Future Profits

6

The future profits implicit item allows firms to take credit for margins in the mathematical reserves to the extent that these are expected to emerge from in force business. The future profit from in force business should be assessed, in the first instance, on prudent assumptions, to demonstrate that there is an 'economic reserve'. Having demonstrated that it exists, the amount should be limited to an amount calculated using a formula that takes into account the actual profit which has emerged over the last five years (see paragraph 28).

Zillmerisation

7

Zillmerisation is an allowance for acquisition costs that are expected, under prudent assumptions, to be recoverable from future premiums. firms can make a direct adjustment to their reserves for zillmerisation, subject to the rules on mathematical reserves. However, where no such adjustment has been made, the FSA will consider an application for a waiver to take into account an implicit item.

Hidden reserves

8

Hidden reserves are reserves resulting from the underestimation of assets (other than mathematical reserves).

Process for applying for a waiver, including limits applicable when a waiver is granted

9

This annex sets out the procedures to be followed and the form of calculations and data which should be submitted by firms to the FSA. This guidance should also be read in conjunction with the general requirements relating to the waiver process described in SUP 8. The FSA expects that applications for waivers in respect of future profits and zillmerising will not normally be considered to pass the "not result in undue risk to persons whose interests the rules are intended to protect" test unless the relevant criteria set out in this guidance have been satisfied and an application for such a waiver may require further criteria to be satisfied for this test to be passed. As set out below, waivers in respect of either zillmerising or hidden reserves will not normally be given except in very exceptional circumstances.

Timing

10

A long-term insurer may apply to the FSA for a waiver in respect of implicit items. A waiver will not apply retrospectively (see SUP 8.3.6 G). Consequently, applications intended for a particular accounting reference date will normally need to be made well before that reference date. Applications by firms must be made to the FSA in writing and include the relevant details specified under SUP 8.3.3 D. Given the uncertainty in predicting the future, waivers will normally be granted for a maximum of 12 months at a time and any further applications will need to be made accordingly.

11

The information that will be required to enable an application to be considered as set out below, should normally include a demonstration of how the capital resources requirement is to be met, with and without the waiver. Clearly, up-to-date information may not be available before the financial year-end. In some cases information from the previous year-end's return may be used, as long as any known significant changes in the structure of the firm, or the assumptions used, have been taken into account.

12

If the application for a waiver is granted, when a firm submits its next return the amount of the implicit item shown should not exceed that supported by the firm's calculations as at the valuation date. In the event that the amount of the future profits item calculated by the firm based on these updated assumptions is less than the amount calculated at the time of the firm's waiver application, the lower figure should be used in the return.

13

An implicit item in respect of zillmerising or hidden reserves is related to the basis on which liabilities or assets have been valued. In the case of hidden reserves, as explained below, the granting of a waiver will be dependent on the overall capital resources of the firm. Waivers in respect of these implicit items will, therefore, only be made in relation to the position shown in a particular set of returns and it will be essential for firms to submit applications to the FSA well in advance of the latest date for the submission of the relevant return.

14

Waivers may be withdrawn by the FSA at any time (e.g. where the FSA considers the amount in respect of which a waiver has been given can no longer be justified). This may be as a result of changes in the firm's position or as a result of queries arising on scrutiny of the returns.

Information to be submitted

15

An application for a capital resources (which includes an application for an extension to or other variation of a waiver) should be prepared using the standard application form for a waiver (see SUP 8 Annex 2). In addition, the application should be accompanied by full supporting information to enable the FSA to arrive at a decision on the merits of the case. In particular, the application should state clearly the nature and the amounts of the implicit items that a firm wishes to count against its capital resources requirement and whether it proposes to treat the implicit item as tier one capital or tier two capital. In order to assess an application, the FSA needs information as to the make-up of the firm's capital resources, the quality of the capital items which have been categorised into each tier of capital and a breakdown of capital both within and outside the firm's long-term insurance fund or funds and between the firm's with-profits funds and non-profit funds. An explanation as to the appropriateness of the proposed treatment of the implicit item under the capital resources table should also be provided, including a demonstration that, in allowing for implicit items, there has been no double counting of future margins and that the basis for valuing such margins is prudent.

16

The FSA recognises that the assessment of the insurance technical provisions reflects the contractual obligations of the firm. Implicit items are therefore margins over and above an economic assessment in these technical provisions only. Non-contractual "constructive" obligations arising from a firm's regulatory duty to treat customers fairly e.g. regarding future terminal bonuses, are not fully captured by the technical provisions. A firm must instead be satisfied that it has sufficient capital resources at all times to meet its obligations under Principle 6. The granting of a capital resources for an implicit item does not in any way detract from this requirement and a firm will need to be satisfied that this condition is still met.

17

As a minimum, applications for a future profits implicit item should be supported by the information contained in Forms 13, 14, 18, 19, 40, 41, 42, 48, 49, the answers to questions 1 to 12 of the abstract of the valuation report, Appendix 9.4 of IPRU(INS), the abstract of the valuation report for the realistic valuation, Appendix 9.4A of IPRU(INS) and Forms 51, 52, 53, 54 and 58. For a zillmerisation implicit item, only those items noted above forming part of the abstract valuation report will normally be needed. Applications for a waiver in respect of a hidden reserves implicit item will normally be considered only if accompanied by the information which is contained in the annual regulatory returns. In particular, the balance sheet forms, long-term insurance business revenue accounts, and abstract of the valuation report as set out in Appendices 9.1, 9.3 and 9.4 of IPRU(INS) should be provided. This is not to say that a full regulatory return must be provided in the specified format, simply that the information contained in these forms should be provided. Where appropriate, the information may be summarised.

18

The following supporting information relating to the calculation of the amounts claimed should be supplied for each type of implicit item in respect of which a waiver is sought: Future profits: in addition to information related to the prospective calculation and retrospective calculation described below, the profits reported in each of the last five financial years up to the date of the most recent available valuation under rule 9.4 of IPRU(INS) which has been submitted to the FSA prior to, or together with, the application, and the amounts and nature of any exceptional items left out of account; the method used for calculating the average period to run and the results for each of the main categories of business, both before and after allowing for premature termination (where the calculation has been made in two stages); and the basis on which this allowance has been made. Zillmerising: the categories of contracts for which an item has been calculated and the percentages of the relevant capital sum in respect of which an adjustment has been made. Hidden reserves: particulars, with supporting evidence, of the undervaluation of assets for which recognition is sought.

Continuous monitoring by firms

19

Firms should take into account any material changes in financial conditions or other relevant circumstances that may have an impact on the level of future profits that can prudently be taken into account. firms should also re-evaluate whether an application to vary an implicit item waiver should be made whenever circumstances have changed. In the event that circumstances have changed such that an amendment is appropriate, the firm must contact the FSA as quickly as possible in accordance with Principle 11. (See SUP 8.5.1 R). In this context, the FSA would expect notice of any matter that materially impacts on the firm's financial condition, or any waivers granted.

Future profits - factors to take into account when submitting calculations to support waiver applications

20

Where an application is made in respect of a firm which has separate with-profits funds and non-profit funds, the firm should ensure that the capital resources requirement in respect of the non-profit fund is not covered by future profits attributable to policyholders arising in the with-profits fund. Furthermore, for a realistic basis life firm the amount of the implicit item allocated to each with-profits fund should be calculated separately, as the amount allocated to each with-profits fund will be taken into consideration in the calculation of the with-profits insurance capital component (see INSPRU 1.4.24 R).

21

firms need to assess prospective future profit (i.e. how much can reasonably be expected to arise) and compare this to maximum limits (in article 27(4) of the Consolidated Life Directive), which relate to past profits.

Future profits - prospective calculation

22

The application for a waiver should be supported by details of a prospective calculation of future profits arising from in-force business. The information supplied to the FSA should include a description of the method used in the calculation and of the assumptions made, together with the results arising. From 31 December 2009 at the latest, future profits implicit items will no longer be permitted under the Consolidated Life Directive. Where a firm first applies for an implicit item waiver after GENPRU 2.2 comes into effect, under the prospective calculation a firm should only take into consideration future profits that are expected to emerge in the period up to 31 December 2009. Implicit item waivers granted before GENPRU 2.2 comes into effect will continue to operate under the terms of those waivers, but an application to vary the terms of such a waiver, for example to extend the effective period, is an application for a new waiver for which a firm should usually only take into consideration future profits that are expected to emerge in the period up to 31 December 2009.

Assumptions

23

The assumptions made should be prudent, rather than best estimate, assumptions of future experience (that is, the prudent assumptions should allow for the fair market price for assuming that risk including associated expenses). In particular, it would not normally be considered appropriate for the projected return on any asset to be taken to be higher than the risk-free yield (that is, assessed by reference to the yield arrived at using a model of future risk free yields properly calibrated from the forward gilts market). It may also be appropriate to bring future withdrawals into account on a suitably prudent basis. For with-profits business, the assumptions for future investment returns should not capitalise future bonus loadings except where the with-profits policyholders share in risks other than the investment performance of the fund. Furthermore, the rate at which future profits are discounted should include an appropriate margin over a risk free rate of return. Calculations should also be carried out to demonstrate that the prospective calculation of the future profits arising from the in-force business supporting the application for the implicit item would be sufficient to support the amount of the implicit item under each scenario described for use in determining the resilience capital requirement - where the waiver relates to an implicit item allocated to more than one fund, this should be demonstrated separately for that element of the implicit item allocated to each fund. For an implicit item allocated to a with-profits fund, proper allowance should be made for any shareholder transfers to ensure that the implicit item is not supported by future profits which will be required to support those transfers. To the extent, if any, that future profits are dependent on the levying of explicit expense related charges (for example as in the case of unit-linked business) the documentation submitted should include a demonstration of the prudence of the assumptions made as to the level at which future charges will be levied and expenses incurred.

Other limitations on the extent to which waivers for implicit items will be granted to a realistic basis life firm

24

Where a waiver in respect of an implicit item is granted to a realistic basis life firm additional limits may apply by reference to a comparison of realistic excess capital and regulatory excess capital including allowance for the effect of the waiver. Where the capital resources relates to an implicit item allocated partly or entirely to a with-profits fund, the waiver will contain a limitation to the effect that the regulatory excess capital for that with-profits fund, allowing for the effect of the waiver, may not exceed that fund's realistic excess capital. This limitation will apply on an ongoing basis so that, for example, in the case of an implicit item allocated to a with-profits fund, the amount of the implicit item would be limited to zero whenever the regulatory excess capital exceeded the realistic excess capital of that fund.

Other charges to future profits

25

To avoid double counting, no account should be taken of any future surplus arising from assets corresponding to explicit items which have been counted towards the capital resources requirement such as shareholders funds, surplus carried forward or investment reserves. Deductions should be made in the calculation of future surpluses for the impact of any other arrangements which give rise to a charge over future surplus emerging (e.g. financial reinsurance arrangements, subordinated loan capital or contingent loan agreements). Deductions should also be made to the extent that any credit has been taken for the purposes of INSPRU 1.4.45 R (2) for the present value of future profits relating to non-profit business written in a non-profit fund. The information supplied to the FSA should identify the amount and reason for any adjustments made to the calculation of the prospective amount of future profits.

26

The firm should confirm to the FSA that the calculations have been properly carried out and that there are no other factors that should be taken into account.

Future profits - retrospective calculation

Overriding limit

27

The maximum amount of the implicit item relating to future profits permitted under the Consolidated Life Directive is 50% of the product of the estimated annual profit and the average period to run (not exceeding six years (ten years during the transitional period referred to in paragraph 5)) on the policies in the portfolio. Article 27(4) of the Consolidated Life Directive also imposes a further limit on the amount of the implicit item equal to 25% of the lower of:

(1)

the firm's capital resources; and

(2)

the higher of its base capital resources requirement for long-term insurance business and its long-term insurance capital requirement.

Once the transitional period set out in article 71(1) of the Consolidated Life Directive has expired in 2007 (see paragraph 5), the FSA will not allow a capital resources for more than the amount permitted by article 27(4) of the Directive.

Definition of profits

28

The estimated annual profit should be taken as the average annual surplus arising in the long-term insurance fund over the last five financial years up to the date of the most recent available valuation which has been submitted to the FSA prior to, or together with, the application. For this purpose, deficiencies arising should be treated as negative surpluses. Where a firm's financial year has altered, the surplus arising in a period falling partly outside the relevant five year period should be assumed to accrue uniformly over the period in question for the purpose of estimating the profits arising within the five year period. When there has been a transfer of a block of business into the firm (or out of the firm) during the period, surplus arising from the transferred block should be included (or excluded) for the full five year period. Where a portion of a block of business is transferred, the surplus included (or excluded) should be a reasonable estimate of the surplus arising from the portion transferred.

29

Where a firm has been carrying on long-term insurance business for less than 5 years, the total profits made during the past five years should be taken to be the aggregate of any surpluses that have arisen during the period in which long-term insurance business has been carried on less any deficiencies that may have arisen during that period. The resulting total should still be divided by five to obtain the estimated annual profit.

Exceptional items

30

Substantial items of an exceptional nature should be excluded from the calculation of the estimated annual profit. Such items include profits arising from an exceptional change in the value at which assets are brought into account, where this is not reflected in a similar change in the amount of the liabilities, and profits arising from a change in the overall valuation approach between one year and another. An exceptional loss (i.e. a reduction of an exceptional nature in the surplus arising) may be excluded from the calculation only to the extent that it can be set against a profit or profits up to the amount of the loss and arising from a similar cause. It is not intended, however, that any adjustment should be made for the effect on surplus of a net strengthening of reserves for costs associated with an expansion of the business or for special capital expenditure, such as the purchase of computer systems.

Double counting

31

The inclusion of investment income arising from the assets representing the explicit components of capital resources (as part of the estimated annual profit for the purpose of determining the future profits implicit item) would result in double-counting. If those assets were required to meet the effects of adverse developments, this would automatically result in the cessation of the contribution to profits from the associated investment income. It would clearly not be appropriate for the FSA to grant a capital resources which would enable a firm to meet the capital resources requirement on the basis of counting both the capital values of the assets and the value of the income flow which they can be expected to generate.

32

The definition of the estimated annual profit as the surplus arising in the long-term insurance fund ensures that any contribution to surplus arising from transfers from the profit and loss account, including investment income on shareholders' assets, is not included in the estimated annual profit. Thus double-counting should not arise in respect of shareholders' assets. Double-counting may arise, however, in respect of the investment income from the assets representing the explicit components of capital resources carried within the long-term insurance fund (e.g. surplus carried forward or investment reserves), but the amount of such investment income is not separately identified in the return.

33

Where there is reason to suspect that the elimination of any such double-counting would reduce a firm's capital resources to close to or below the required level, or would otherwise be significant, the FSA will request this information with a view to taking account of this factor in determining the amount of the implicit item. Additional information concerning investment income should be furnished with an application for a waiver, if a firm believes that any double-counting would fall into one of the categories mentioned above.

Average period to run

34

The average number of years remaining to run on policies should be calculated on the basis of the weighted average of the periods for individual contracts of insurance, using as weights the actuarial present value of the benefits payable under the contracts. A separate weighted average should be calculated for each of the various categories of contract and the results combined to obtain the weighted average for the portfolio as a whole. Approximate methods of calculation, which the firm considers will give results similar to the full calculation, will be accepted. In particular, the FSA will normally accept the calculation of an average period to run for a specific category of contract on the basis of the average valuation factor for future benefits derived from data contained in the abstract of the valuation report in the regulatory returns. A firm will be asked to demonstrate the validity of the method adopted only where an abnormal distribution of the business in force gives grounds for doubt about its accuracy.

35

Calculations will normally be requested only for the main categories of insurance business, accounting for not less than 90% of the mathematical reserves, except where there are grounds for expecting that the exclusion of certain categories of policies under this provision might have a significant effect on the resulting average period to run. Detailed calculations will not be required where a waiver is sought in respect of a low multiple of the annual profits, well within the average period to run for the firm.

36

Where, for a particular category of business, a method of valuation is used which does not involve the calculation of the value of future benefits and which is significant for the firm in question, the calculation of the average period to run should be based on estimates of the value of future benefits.

Premature termination of contracts

37

Allowance should be made for the premature termination of contracts of insurance, based on the actual experience of the firm over the last five years, or other appropriate period, and taking into account specific features of contracts such as options which can be expected to lead to premature termination (e.g. guaranteed surrender values on income bonds written as long-term insurance contracts and option dates on flexible whole-life contracts). The adjustment should be made separately for each of the main categories of business. The use of industry-wide rates of termination will be acceptable where a firm is satisfied that this will result in sufficient allowance being made having regard to the firm's own experience. Methods of calculation that involve a degree of approximation will be permitted.

38

For certain types of contract, where the period left to run is most naturally defined as the term to a fixed maturity or expiry date, the allowance for premature termination should also take into account terminations resulting from death.

Overall limit

39

The overall average period left to run calculated as described above should be limited to a maximum of six years under article 27(4) of the Consolidated Life Directive (or a maximum of ten years during the transitional period referred to in paragraph 5) before applying it to the estimated annual profit in order to determine the maximum value of the future profits implicit item.

Definition of period to run

40

The definition of the period to run and the basis of the allowance for early termination should clearly be considered together. For certain types of contracts (e.g. pension contracts with a range of retirement ages or other options), there is inherent uncertainty about the likely term to run. In such circumstances any estimate for determining the amount of the future profits implicit item for which a waiver is sought should be based on prudent assumptions tending, if anything, to underestimate the average period to run.

Zillmerising

41

The FSA does not normally expect to grant waivers permitting implicit items due to zillmerisation except in very exceptional circumstances. Zillmerisation is an allowance for acquisition costs that are expected, under prudent assumptions, to be recoverable from future premiums. Firms can make a direct adjustment to their reserves for zillmerisation, subject to the requirements on mathematical reserves set out in INSPRU 1.3.43 R, and this is the usual approach. However, where no such adjustment has been made, or where the maximum adjustment has not been made in the mathematical reserves, the FSA will consider an application for an implicit item, if the amount is consistent with the amount that would have been allowed as an adjustment to mathematical reserves under INSPRU 1.3.43 R.

Hidden reserves

42

The FSA will grant waivers permitting implicit items due to hidden reserves only in very exceptional circumstances. These items relate to hidden reserves resulting from the underestimation of assets. The rules for the valuation of assets and liabilities (see GENPRU 1.3) which apply to assets and liabilities other than mathematical reserves are based on the valuation used by the firm for the purposes of its external accounts, with adjustments for regulatory prudence such as concentration limits for large holdings, and would not normally be expected to contain hidden reserves.

Case studies on "unduly burdensome"

43

Some examples of situations where the existing rules might be considered to be unduly burdensome are given below:

A firm writes with-profits business. The firm's investment policy is affected by its published financial position. Application of the rules without an implicit item would result in the firm adopting a lower equity backing ratio. It may be possible to demonstrate that, in the circumstances, it would be unduly burdensome to require the firm to incur costs (which might prejudice policyholders) resulting from the lower equity backing ratio, rather than take allowance for an implicit item.

A firm has purchased a block of in-force business, on which the future profits may be reasonably estimated. However, this asset is given no value under the rules. It may be possible to demonstrate that it is unduly burdensome for the firm to recognise the cost of acquiring the assets whilst giving no value to the asset acquired.

A firm has a block of in-force business, on which the future profits may be reasonably estimated. Application of the rules without an implicit item would result in a need to obtain additional capital. It may be possible to demonstrate that it is unduly burdensome, having regard to the particular circumstances of the firm, to require it to incur the costs involved in the injection of further capital rather than take allowance for an implicit item.

A firm has purchased matching assets for guaranteed annuity liabilities. The operation of the asset and liability valuation rules leads to statutory losses in certain circumstances in spite of good matching of assets and liabilities on a realistic basis of assessment. It may be possible to demonstrate that it is unduly burdensome to require the firm to incur the costs involved in the injection of further capital rather than take allowance for an implicit item.

Conditions which will typically be applied to implicit items waivers

Limits

44

Where implicit items waivers are granted, the value cannot exceed (and will normally be less than) the monetary limits described in paragraph 27, except that during the transitional period the pre-Solvency I limits will apply. In addition, time limits will apply and waivers will normally only last for 12 months.

Publicity

45

The FSA will publish the waiver (see SUP 8.6 and SUP 8.7). Public disclosure is standard practice unless the FSA is satisfied that publication is inappropriate or unnecessary (see section 148 of the Act). Any request that a direction not be published should be made to the FSA in writing with grounds in support, as set out in SUP 8.6. Disclosure of a waiver will normally be required in the firm's annual returns.