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COLL 6.3 Valuation and pricing

Application

COLL 6.3.1R
8
  1. (1) 8

    This section applies to an authorised fund manager, a depositary, an ICVC and any other director of an ICVC.

  2. (2)

    COLL 6.3.3A R to COLL 6.3.3D R (Accounting procedures):

    1. (a)

      apply to:

      1. (i)

        a UK UCITS management company providing collective portfolio management services for an EEA UCITS scheme from a branch in another EEA State or under the freedom to provide cross border services; and

      2. (ii)

        an EEA UCITS management company providing collective portfolio management services for a UCITS scheme from a branch in the United Kingdom;

        in addition to applying in accordance with (1); but

    2. (b)

      do not apply to an EEA UCITS management company providing collective portfolio management services for a UCITS scheme under the freedom to provide cross border services.8

Purpose

COLL 6.3.2G
  1. (1)

    In accordance with Principle 6, this section is intended to ensure that the authorised fund manager pays due regard to its clients' interests and treats them fairly.

  2. (2)

    An authorised fund manager is responsible for valuing the scheme property of the authorised fund it manages and for calculating the price of units in the authorised fund. This section protects clients by:

    1. (a)

      setting out rules and guidance1 to ensure the prices1 of units in both a single-priced authorised fund and a dual-priced authorised fund are1 calculated fairly and regularly;

    2. (b)

      allowing 10the authorised fund manager to mitigate the effects of any dilution (reduction) in the value of the scheme property caused by10 buying and selling underlying investments as a result of the issue or cancellation of units; and10

      1
    3. (c)

      [deleted]10

      11
    4. (d)

      ensuring that prices are1 made public in an appropriate manner.

  3. (3)

    The requirements in this section are to be applied separately to each sub-fund of a scheme which is an umbrella, and, if appropriate, the currency of a sub-fund may be used instead of the base currency of the umbrella. Consequently different methods of pricing units may be applied by an authorised fund manager to different sub-funds of an umbrella.1

  4. (4)

    1The authorised fund manager must follow the same method of pricing for each class of units in an authorised fund, or in a sub-fund of an umbrella.

  5. (5)

    10A full-scope UK AIFM that is the authorised fund manager of a non-UCITS retail scheme should comply with the requirements of:

    1. (a)

      10FUND 3.9 (Valuation); and

    2. (b)

      10this chapter.

Valuation

COLL 6.3.3R
1
  1. (1)

    To determine the price of units the authorised fund manager must carry out a fair and accurate valuation of all the scheme property in accordance with the instrument constituting the fund9 and the prospectus.1

    9
  2. (2)

    1For a dual-priced authorised fund, each valuation of the scheme property must consist of two parts, carried out on an issue basis and a cancellation basis respectively.

Accounting procedures

COLL 6.3.3AR
  1. (1)

    8An authorised fund manager of a UCITS scheme or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must ensure the employment of the accounting policies and procedures referred to in SYSC 4.1.9 R (Accounting policies), so as to ensure the protection of Unitholders.

  2. (2)

    Accounting for the scheme shall be carried out in such a way that all assets and liabilities of the scheme can be directly identified at all times.

  3. (3)

    If the scheme is an umbrella, separate accounts must be maintained for each sub-fund.

[Note: article 8(1) of the UCITS implementing Directive]

COLL 6.3.3BR

8An authorised fund manager of a UCITS scheme or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must have accounting policies and procedures established, implemented and maintained, in accordance with the accounting rules of the UCITS Home State, so as to ensure that the calculation of the net asset value of each scheme it manages is accurately effected, on the basis of the accounting, and that subscription and redemption orders can be properly executed at that net asset value.

[Note: article 8(2) of the UCITS implementing Directive]

COLL 6.3.3CG
  1. (1)

    8The accounting policies and procedures referred to in COLL 6.3.3B R should enable the authorised fund manager of a UCITS scheme to value the scheme property accurately at each valuation point and to calculate dealing prices by reference to that valuation.

  2. (2)

    Where different share or unit classes exist, it should be possible to extract from the accounting records the net asset value of each different class.

[Note: recital (9) of the UCITS implementing Directive]

COLL 6.3.3DR

8An authorised fund manager of a UCITS scheme or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must establish appropriate procedures to ensure the proper and accurate valuation of the assets and liabilities of each scheme it manages.

[Note: article 8(3) of the UCITS implementing Directive]

Valuation points

COLL 6.3.4R

  1. (1)

    An authorised fund must not have fewer than two regular valuation points in any month and if there are only two valuation points in any month, the regular valuation points must be at least two weeks apart.

  2. (2)

    The prospectus of a scheme must contain information about its regular valuation points for the purposes of dealing in units in accordance with COLL 4.2.5R (16) (Table: contents of the prospectus).

  3. (3)

    Where a scheme operates limited redemption arrangements, (1) does not apply and the valuation points must be stated in the prospectus but must not be set more than six months apart.

  4. (4)

    Where a scheme operates limited redemption arrangements, it must be valued and prices published in the manner set out in COLL 6.3.11 R (Publication of prices) at least once in every month.

  5. (5)

    In (4), a valuation point for the purpose of publishing prices only, does not make it a valuation point for the purpose of (2) unless it is disclosed as such in the prospectus.

  6. (6)

    Higher volatility funds must have at least one valuation point every business day except where the scheme is a non-UCITS retail scheme operating as a FAIF.6

  7. (6A)

    3Qualifying money market funds must have at least one valuation point every business day at which the valuation is carried out on an amortised cost basis.

  8. (6B)

    UCITS schemes operating as short-term money market funds must have at least one valuation point every business day at which the valuation is carried out on an amortised cost or mark to market basis.7

  9. (6C)

    Non-UCITS retail schemes operating as short-term money market funds must have at least one valuation point every business day or, where the scheme is marketed solely through employee savings schemes or to a specific category of investors that is subject to redemption restrictions, at least one every week at which the valuation is carried out on an amortised cost or mark to market basis.7

  10. (6D)

    Money market funds must value with the appropriate frequency as required in (6B) or (6C) on a mark to market basis.7

  11. (7)

    No valuation points are required during the period of any initial offer.

  12. (8)

    The authorised fund manager may determine to have an additional valuation point for an authorised fund,10 in which case it1must inform the depositary.

Price of a unit

COLL 6.3.5R
  1. (1)

    An authorised fund manager must ensure that the1 price of a unit of any class is calculated:1

    1. (a)

      1by reference to the net value of the scheme property; and

    2. (b)

      1in accordance with the provisions of both the instrument constituting the fund9 and the prospectus.

      9
  2. (2)

    Any unit price calculated in accordance with (1) must be expressed in a form that is accurate to at least four significant figures.

  3. (3)

    1For each class of units in a single-priced authorised fund, a single price must be calculated at which units are to be issued and cancelled.

Sale and redemption prices for single-priced authorised funds1

COLL 6.3.5AR

1The authorised fund manager of a single-priced authorised fund must not:

  1. (1)

    sell a unit for more than the price of a unit of the relevant class at the relevant valuation point, to which may be added any preliminary charge permitted and any payment made under 10COLL 6.3.8 R; or

  2. (2)

    redeem a unit for less than the price of a unit of the relevant class at the relevant valuation point, less any redemption charge permitted and any deduction under 10COLL 6.3.8 R.

Sale and redemption price parameters for dual-priced authorised funds1

COLL 6.3.5BR
  1. (1)

    1The authorised fund manager of a dual-priced authorised fund must not:

    1. (a)

      sell a unit for more than the maximum sale price of a unit of the relevant class at the relevant valuation point10; or

    2. (b)

      redeem a unit for less than the cancellation price of a unit of the relevant class at the relevant valuation point, less any redemption charge permitted10.

  2. (2)

    The maximum sale price of units under (1)(a) is the total of:

    1. (a)

      the issue price; and

    2. (b)

      the current preliminary charge.

  3. (3)

    The sale price of units under (1)(a) must not be less than the relevant redemption price under (1)(b).

  4. (4)

    The redemption price under (1)(b) must not exceed the relevant issue price of the relevant units.

  5. (5)

    Subject to COLL 6.7.9 R (Charges for the exchange of units in an umbrella), in the case of an umbrella:

    1. (a)

      the maximum price at which units in one sub-fund that is a dual-priced authorised fund may be acquired in exchange for units in another sub-fund must not exceed the relevant maximum sale price (less any preliminary charge) of the new units; and

    2. (b)

      the minimum price at which the old units in a sub-fund that is a dual-priced authorised fund may be taken in exchange must not be less than the equivalent cancellation price.

COLL 6.3.5CG

1The prospectus may make provision for large deals to be carried out at a higher sale price or a lower redemption price than those published, provided they do not exceed the relevant maximum and minimum parameters.

Valuation and pricing guidance

COLL 6.3.6G

Table: This table belongs to COLL 6.3.2 G (2) (a) and COLL 6.3.3 R (Valuation)1.

Valuation and pricing

1

The valuation of scheme property

(1)

Where possible, investments should be valued using a reputable source. The reliability of the source of prices should be kept under regular review.

(2)

For some or all of the investments comprising the scheme property, different prices may quoted according to whether they are being bought (offer prices) or sold (bid prices). The valuation of a single-priced authorised fund should reflect the mid-market value of such investments. In the case of a dual-priced authorised fund, the issue basis of the valuation will be carried out by reference to the offer prices of investments and the cancellation basis by reference to the bid prices of those same investments. The prospectus should explain how investments will be valued for which a single price is quoted for both buying and selling.1

1

3(2A)

Schemes investing in approved money-market instruments5should value such instruments on an amortised cost basis on condition that:5

55

[Note: CESR's UCITS eligible assets guidelines with respect to article 4(2) of the UCITS eligible assets Directive]

(2B)

Short-term money market funds may value approved money-market instruments on an amortised cost basis.7

[Note: paragraph 21 of CESR's guidelines on a common definition of European money market funds]7

(3)

Any part of the scheme property of an authorised fund that is not an investment should be valued at a fair value, but for immovables this is subject to COLL 5.6.20 R (3) (f) (Standing independent valuer and valuation).

(4)

For the purposes of (2) and (3), any fiscal charges, commissions, professional fees or other charges that were paid, or would be payable on acquiring or disposing of the investment or other part of the scheme property should, in the case of a single-priced authorised fund,2 be excluded from the value of an investment or other part of the scheme property. In the case of a dual-priced authorised fund, any such payments should be added to the issue basis of the valuation, or subtracted from the cancellation basis of the valuation, as appropriate. Alternatively, the prospectus of a dual-priced authorised fund may prescribe any other method of calculating unit prices that ensures an equivalent treatment of the effect of these payments.2

(5)

Where the authorised fund manager has reasonable grounds to believe that:

it should value an investment at a price which, in its opinion, reflects a fair and reasonable price for that investment (the fair value price);

(6)

The circumstances which may give rise to a fair value price being used include:

  • no recent trade in the security concerned; or
  • the occurrence of a significant event since the most recent closure of the market where the price of the security is taken.
In (b), a significant event is one that means the most recent price of a security or a basket of securities is materially different to the price that it is reasonably believed would exist at the valuation point had the relevant market been open.

(7)

In determining whether to use such a fair value price , the authorised fund manager should include in his consideration:

4(7A)

Where the authorised fund manager, the depositary or the standing independent valuer have reasonable grounds to believe that the most recent valuation of an immovable does not reflect the current value of that immovable, the authorised fund manager should consult and agree with the standing independent valuer a fair and reasonable value for the immovable.

(8)

The authorised fund manager should document the basis of valuation (including any fair value pricing policy) and, where appropriate, the basis of any methodology and ensure that the procedures are applied consistently and fairly.

(9)

Where a unit price is determined using properly applied fair value prices in accordance with policies in (8), subsequent information that indicates the price should have been different from that calculated will not normally give rise to an instance of incorrect pricing.

2

The pricing controls of the authorised fund manager

(1)

An authorised fund manager needs to be able to demonstrate that it has effective controls over its calculations of unit prices.

(2)

The controls referred to in (1) should ensure that:

  • asset prices are accurate and up to date;
  • investment 1transactions are accurately and promptly reflected in valuations;
  • the components of the valuation (including stock, cash, and units in issue1), are regularly reconciled to their source or prime records and any reconciling items resolved promptly and debtors reviewed for recoverability;
  • the sources of prices not obtained from the main pricing source are recorded and regularly reviewed;
  • compliance with the investment and borrowing powers is regularly reviewed;
  • dividends are accounted for as soon as securities1 are quoted ex-dividend (unless it is prudent to account for them on receipt):
  • fixed interest dividends, interest and expenses are accrued at each valuation point1;
  • tax positions are regularly reviewed and adjusted, if necessary;
  • reasonable tolerances are set for movements in the key elements of a valuation and movements outside these tolerances are investigated;5
  • the fund manager regularly reviews the portfolio valuation for accuracy5; and5
  • the valuation of OTC derivatives is accurate and up to date and in compliance with the methods agreed with the depositary.5

(3)

In exercising its pricing controls, the authorised fund manager may exercise reasonable discretion in determining the appropriate frequency of the operation of the controls and may choose a longer interval, if appropriate, given the level of activity on the authorised fund1or the materiality of any effect on the price.

(4)

Evidence of the exercise of the pricing controls should be retained.

(5)

Evidence of persistent or repetitive errors in relation to these matters, and in particular any evidence of a pattern of errors working in an authorised fund manager's favour, will make demonstrating effective controls more difficult.

(6)

Where the pricing1function is delegated to a third party, COLL 6.6.15 R (1) (Committees and delegation) will apply.

3

The depositary's review of the authorised fund manager's systems and controls

(1)

This section provides details of the types of checks a depositary should carry out to be satisfied that the authorised fund manager adopts systems and controls which are appropriate to ensure that prices of units are calculated in accordance with this section and to ensure that the likelihood of incorrect prices will be minimised. These checks also apply where an authorised fund manager has delegated all or some of its pricing1 functions to one or more third parties5.

5

(2)

A depositary should thoroughly review an authorised fund manager's systems and controls to confirm that they are satisfactory. The depositary's review should include an analysis of the controls in place to determine the extent to which reliance can be placed on them.

(3)

A review should be performed when the depositary is appointed and thereafter as it feels appropriate given its knowledge of the robustness and the stability of the systems and controls and their operation.

(4)

A review should be carried out more frequently where a depositary knows or suspects that an authorised fund manager's systems and controls are weak or are otherwise unsatisfactory.

(5)

Additionally, a depositary should from time to time review other aspects of the valuation of the scheme property of each authorised fund for which it is responsible, verifying, on a sample basis, if necessary, the assets, liabilities, accruals, units in issue1, securities prices (and in particular the prices of OTC derivatives,5unapproved securities and the basis for the valuation of unquoted securities) and any other relevant matters, for example an accumulation factor or a currency conversion factor.

(6)

A depositary should ensure that any issues, which are identified in any such review, are properly followed up and resolved.

4

The recording and reporting of instances of incorrect pricing

(1)

An authorised fund manager should record each instance where the price of a unit is incorrect as soon as the error is discovered, and report the fact to the depositary together with details of the action taken, or to be taken, to avoid repetition as soon as practicable.

(2)

In accordance with COLL 6.6.11 G (Duty to inform the FCA), the depositary should report any breach of the rules in COLL 6.3 immediately to the FCA. However, notification should relate to instances which the depositary considers material only.

(3)

A depositary should also report to the FCA immediately any instance of incorrect pricing1where the error is 0.5% or more of the price of a unit, where a depositary believes that reimbursement or payment is inappropriate and should not be paid by an authorised fund manager.

(4)

In accordance with SUP 16.6.8 R, a depositary should also make a return to the FCA on a quarterly basis which summarises the number of instances of incorrect pricing1 during a particular period.

5

The rectification of pricing breaches

(1)

COLL 6.6.3R(3)(c) 10(Functions of the authorised fund manager) places a duty on the authorised fund manager to take action to reimburse affected Unitholders, former Unitholders, and the scheme itself, for instances of incorrect pricing1, except if it appears to the depositary that the breach is of minimal significance.

(2)

A depositary may consider that the instance of incorrect pricing1is of minimal significance if:

(3)

In determining (2), if the instance of incorrect pricing1 is due to one or more factors or exists over a period of time, each price should be considered separately.

(4)

If a depositary deems it appropriate, it may, in spite of the circumstances outlined in (2), require a payment from the authorised fund manager or from the authorised fund to the Unitholders, former Unitholders, the authorised fund or the authorised fund manager (where appropriate).

(5)

The depositary should satisfy itself that any payments required following an instance of incorrect pricing1 are accurately and promptly calculated and paid.

(6)

If a depositary considers that reimbursement or payment is inappropriate, it should report the matter to the FCA, together with its recommendation and justification. The depositary should take into account the need to avoid prejudice to the rights of Unitholders, or the rights of Unitholders in a class of units.

(7)

It may not be practicable, or in some cases legally permissible, for the authorised fund manager to obtain reimbursement from Unitholders, where the Unitholders have benefited from the incorrect price.

(8)

In all cases where reimbursement or payment is required, amounts due to be reimbursed to Unitholders for individual sums which are reasonably considered by the authorised fund manager and depositary to be immaterial, need not normally be paid.

COLL 6.3.7R

[deleted]10

Dilution

COLL 6.3.8R
  1. (1)

    When arranging to sell, redeem. issue or cancel units, or when units are issued or cancelled under COLL 6.2.7 R (1) (Issues and cancellations through an authorised fund manager), an authorised fund manager is permitted to:

    1. (a)

      require the payment of a dilution levy; or

    2. (b)

      make a dilution adjustment; or

    3. (c)

      neither require a dilution levy nor make a dilution adjustment;

    in accordance with its statements in the prospectus required by COLL 4.2.5R (18) (Table: contents of the prospectus).

  2. (2)

    An authorised fund manager operating either a dilution levy or a dilution adjustment, must operate that measure in a fair manner to reduce dilution and solely for that purpose.

  3. (3)

    A dilution levy becomes due at the same time as payment or transfer of property becomes due for the issue, sale, redemption or cancellation and any such payment in respect of a dilution levy must be paid to the depositary to become part of scheme property as soon as practicable after receipt.

  4. (4)

    A dilution adjustment may be made as part of the calculation of the unit price for the purpose of reducing dilution in the scheme or to recover any amount which it had already paid or reasonably expects to pay in the future in relation to the issue or cancellation of units.

  5. (5)

    Where the authorised fund manager decides to make or not to make a dilution adjustment, it must not do so for the purpose of creating a profit or avoiding a loss for the account of an affected person.

  6. (6)

    As soon as practicable after a valuation point, the authorised fund manager must provide the depositary with the amount or rate of any dilution adjustment made to the price or any dilution levy applied.

Forward pricing

COLL 6.3.9R
  1. (1)

    For the sale and redemption of units, all deals must be at a forward price10.

  2. (2)

    [deleted]10

    1
  3. (3)

    [deleted]10

  4. (4)

    [deleted]10

  5. (5)

    [deleted]10

  6. (6)

    [deleted]10

COLL 6.3.10G

[deleted]10

Publication of prices

COLL 6.3.11R

Where the authorised fund manager is prepared to deal1 in units, or is willing to issue or cancel1 units, under COLL 6.2.7, it must make the dealing1prices public in an appropriate manner.

Manner of price publication

COLL 6.3.12G
  1. (1)

    In determining the appropriate manner of making prices public, the authorised fund manager should ensure that:

    1. (a)

      a Unitholder or potential Unitholder can obtain the prices at a reasonable cost;

    2. (b)

      prices are available at reasonable times;

    3. (c)

      publication is consistent with the manner and frequency at which the units are dealt in1;

    4. (d)

      the manner of publication is disclosed in the prospectus; and

    5. (e)

      prices are published in a consistent manner.

  2. (2)

    Examples of what might be deemed appropriate include:

    1. (a)

      publication in a national newspaper;

    2. (b)

      supply through an advertised local rate or freephone telephone number;

    3. (c)

      publication on the internet;

    4. (d)

      inclusion in a database of prices which is publicly available; or

    5. (e)

      communication to all existing Unitholders.

  3. (3)

    The authorised fund manager should make previous prices available to any Unitholder or potential Unitholder.

Maintaining the value of a qualifying money market fund or a short-term money market fund7

COLL 6.3.13R

3The authorised fund manager of a qualifying money market fund or a short-term money market fund valuing scheme property on an amortised cost basis7 must:

  1. (1)

    carry out a valuation of the scheme property on a mark to market basis at least once every week and at the same valuation point used to value the scheme property on an amortised cost basis; and

  2. (2)

    ensure that the value of the scheme property when valued on a mark to market basis does not differ by more than 0.5% from the value of the scheme property when valued on an amortised cost basis.

COLL 6.3.14G

3The authorised fund manager should advise the depositary when the mark to market value of a qualifying money market fund or a short-term money market fund valuing scheme property on an amortised cost basis 7varies from its amortised cost value by 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% respectively. The authorised fund manager of a qualifying money market fund or short-term money market fund7 should agree procedures with the depositary designed to stabilise the value of the scheme in these events.