Content Options

COLL 6.12 Risk management policy and risk measurement

Application

COLL 6.12.1 R

1This section applies to:

  1. (1)

    an authorised fund manager and a depositary of a UCITS scheme; and

  2. (2)

    a UK UCITS management company providing collective portfolio management services for an EEA UCITS scheme from a branch in another EEA State or under the freedom to provide cross border services.

COLL 6.12.2 G

In the FCA's view the requirements relating to risk management policy and risk measurement set out in this section are the regulatory responsibility of the management company'sHome State regulator but to the extent that they constitute fund application rules, are also the responsibility of the UCITS'Home State regulator. As such, these responsibilities may overlap between the competent authorities of the Home and Host States. EEA UCITS management companies providing collective portfolio management services for a UCITS scheme, whether from a branch in the United Kingdom or under the freedom to provide cross border services, are therefore advised that they will be expected to comply with the requirements of this section, except for COLL 6.12.3 R (2) which, as a notification requirement, is a matter reserved for the rules of the management company'sHome State.

Risk management process

COLL 6.12.3 R
  1. (1) 3
    1. (a)

      An authorised fund manager of a UCITS scheme or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must use a risk management process enabling it to monitor and measure at any time the risk of the scheme's positions and their contribution to the overall risk profile of the scheme.3

    2. (b)

      In particular, an authorised fund manager of a UCITS scheme or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must not solely or mechanistically rely on credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies, as defined in article 3(1)(b) of Regulation (EC) No 1060/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009 on credit rating agencies, for assessing the creditworthiness of the scheme's assets.3

  2. (2)

    An authorised fund manager (excluding the EEA UCITS management company of a UCITS scheme) or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must regularly notify the following information5 to the FCA and at least on an annual basis:

    1. (a)

      a true and fair view of the types of derivatives and forward transactions to be used within the scheme together with their underlying risks and any relevant quantitative limits; and

    2. (b)

      the methods for estimating risks in derivative and forward transactions.

[Note: article 51(1), first and third paragraphs, of the UCITS Directive and article 45(1) of the UCITS implementing Directive]

COLL 6.12.3A R

5An authorised fund manager or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme subject to COLL 6.12.3R(2) must notify the FCA of the information specified in points (a) and (b) of that rule:

  1. (1)

    annually, within 30 business days of 31 October, with information that is accurate as of 31 October of that year;

  2. (2)

    using the form in COLL 6 Annex 2R; and

  3. (3)

    by submitting it:

    1. (a)

      online through the appropriate systems accessible from the FCA’s website; or

    2. (b)

      if the appropriate systems are unavailable, via email to fundsupervision@fca.org.uk.

COLL 6.12.3B G
  1. (1)

    5In addition, an authorised fund manager or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme subject to COLL 6.12.3R(2) should submit a notification to the FCA if there has been a significant change to the fund’s risk profile since its last report, by sending the form in COLL 6 Annex 2R, completed as applicable, to fundsupervision@fca.org.uk.

  2. (2)

    A significant change to the fund’s risk profile could include, but is not limited to:

    1. (a)

      the first use of derivatives for investment purposes, if derivatives have previously been used only for efficient portfolio management;

    2. (b)

      investment in non-standard derivatives, if only standard derivatives have been used previously;

    3. (c)

      a change in the type of risk measure used to calculate global exposure (commitment method, relative VaR or absolute VaR); and

    4. (d)

      where a VaR measure is used, a change in the parameters of the calculation.

  3. (3)

    Reports of significant changes only need to contain new information for the period since the previous report.

COLL 6.12.4 G
  1. (1)

    The risk management process in COLL 6.12.3 R should take account of the investment objectives and policy of the scheme as stated in the most recent prospectus.

  2. (2)

    The depositary of a UCITS scheme should take reasonable care to review the appropriateness of the risk management process in line with its duties under COLL 6.6.4 R (General duties of the depositary) and COLL 6.6.14 R (Duties of the depositary and authorised fund manager: investment and borrowing powers), as appropriate.

  3. (3)

    An authorised fund manager or a UK UCITS management company is expected to demonstrate more sophistication in its risk management process for a scheme with a complex risk profile than for one with a simple risk profile. In particular, the risk management process should take account of any characteristic of non-linear dependence in the value of a position to its underlying.

  4. (4)

    An authorised fund manager or a UK UCITS management company should take reasonable care to establish and maintain such systems and controls as are appropriate to its business as required by SYSC 4.1 (General requirements).

  5. (5)

    The risk management process should enable the analysis required by COLL 6.12.3 R to be undertaken at least daily or at each valuation point, whichever is more frequent.

  6. (6)

    An authorised fund manager or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme should undertake the risk assessment required by COLL 5.2.20R (7)(d) (Permitted transactions (derivatives and forwards)) with the highest care when the counterparty to the derivative transaction is an associate of the authorised fund manager, the UK UCITS management company or the credit issuer.

[Note:CESR's UCITS eligible assets guidelines with respect to article 8(2)(d) of the UCITS eligible assets Directive]

Risk management policy

COLL 6.12.5 R
  1. (1)

    An authorised fund manager of a UCITS scheme or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must establish, implement and maintain an adequate and documented risk management policy for identifying the risks to which that scheme is or might be exposed.

  2. (2)

    The risk management policy must comprise such procedures as are necessary to enable the authorised fund manager or UK UCITS management company to assess the exposure of each UCITS it manages to market risk, liquidity risk and counterparty risk, and to all other risks, including operational risk, that might be material for that scheme.

  3. (3)

    The risk management policy must address at least the following elements:

    1. (a)

      the techniques, tools and arrangements that enable the authorised fund manager or UK UCITS management company to comply with the obligations set out in this section and COLL 5.3 (Derivative exposure);

    2. (b)

      the allocation of responsibilities within the authorised fund manager or UK UCITS management company pertaining to risk management; and

    3. (c)

      the terms, contents and frequency of reporting of the risk management function referred to in COLL 6.11.2 R (Permanent risk management function) to the governing body, senior personnel and, where appropriate, to the supervisory function.

  4. (4)

    To meet its obligations in (1), (2) and (3) an authorised fund manager or a UK UCITS management company must take into account the nature, scale and complexity of its business and of the UCITS it manages.

[Note: article 38 of the UCITS implementing Directive]

COLL 6.12.6 G

UK UCITS management companies operating EEA UCITS schemes are advised that to the extent that the matters referred to in COLL 6.12.5 R (3)(a) are viewed by the UCITSHome State regulator as falling under its responsibility, they will be expected to comply with the UCITS Home State measures implementing articles 40 and 41 of the UCITS implementing Directive.

Monitoring of risk management policy

COLL 6.12.7 R
  1. (1)

    An authorised fund manager of a UCITS scheme or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must assess, monitor and periodically review:

    1. (a)

      the adequacy and effectiveness of the risk management policy and of the arrangements, processes and techniques referred to in COLL 6.12.5 R;

    2. (b)

      the level of compliance by the authorised fund manager or the UK UCITS management company with the risk management policy and with those arrangements, processes and techniques referred to in COLL 6.12.5 R; and

    3. (c)

      the adequacy and effectiveness of measures taken to address any deficiencies in the performance of the risk management process.

  2. (2)

    The authorised fund manager (excluding an EEA UCITS management company of a UCITS scheme) or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must notify the FCA of any material changes to the risk management process.

[Note: article 39(1) and 39(2) of the UCITS implementing Directive]

COLL 6.12.8 G

UK UCITS management companies are advised that when they applied for authorisation from the FCA under the Act, their ability to comply with the requirements in COLL 6.12.7 R would have been assessed by the FCA as an aspect of their fitness and properness in determining whether the threshold conditions set out in Schedule 6 (Threshold conditions) of the Act were met. Firms are further advised that their compliance with these requirements is subject to review by the FCA on an ongoing basis in determining whether they continue to meet the threshold conditions.

[Note: article 39(3) of the UCITS implementing Directive]

Measurement and management of risk

COLL 6.12.9 R
  1. (1)

    An authorised fund manager of a UCITS scheme or a UK UCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must adopt adequate and effective arrangements, processes and techniques in order to:

    1. (a)

      measure and manage at any time the risks to which that UCITS is or might be exposed; and

    2. (b)

      ensure compliance with limits concerning global exposure and counterparty risk, in accordance with COLL 5.2.11B R (Counterparty risk and issuer concentration) and COLL 5.3 (Derivative exposure).

  2. (2)

    For the purposes of (1), the authorised fund manager or a UK UCITS management company must take the following actions for each UCITS it manages:

    1. (a)

      put in place such risk measurement arrangements, processes and techniques as are necessary to ensure that the risks of positions taken and their contribution to the overall risk profile are accurately measured on the basis of sound and reliable data and that the risk measurement arrangements, processes and techniques are adequately documented;

    2. (b)

      conduct, where appropriate, periodic back-tests in order to review the validity of risk measurement arrangements which include model-based forecasts and estimates;

    3. (c)

      conduct, where appropriate, periodic stress tests and scenario analyses to address risks arising from potential changes in market conditions that might adversely impact the UCITS;

    4. (d)

      establish, implement and maintain a risk limit system for each UCITS;

    5. (e)

      ensure that the current level of risk complies with that risk limit system; and

    6. (f)

      establish, implement and maintain adequate procedures that, in the event of actual or anticipated breaches to that risk limit system, result in timely remedial actions in the best interests of Unitholders.

  3. (3)

    The arrangements, processes and techniques referred to in (1) should be proportionate in view of the nature, scale and complexity of the business of the authorised fund manager or the UK UCITS management company and the UCITS it manages and be consistent with the UCITS' risk profile.

[Note: articles 40(1) and 40(2) of the UCITS implementing Directive]

COLL 6.12.10 G

UK UCITS management companies operating EEA UCITS schemes are advised that to the extent that the matters referred to in COLL 6.12.9R (1)(b) are viewed by the UCITSHome State regulator as falling under its responsibility, they will be expected to comply with the UCITS Home State measures implementing articles 41 and 43 of the UCITS implementing Directive.

COLL 6.12.11 R
  1. (1)

    An authorised fund manager or a UKUCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must employ an appropriate liquidity risk management process in order to ensure that each UCITS it manages is able to comply at any time with COLL 6.2.16 R (Sale and redemption) or the equivalent UCITS Home State measures implementing article 84(1) of the UCITS Directive.

  2. (2)

    Where appropriate, the authorised fund manager or UKUCITS management company must conduct stress tests to enable it to assess the liquidity risk of the UCITS under exceptional circumstances.

[Note: article 40(3) of the UCITS implementing Directive]

COLL 6.12.12 R

An authorised fund manager or a UKUCITS management company of an EEA UCITS scheme must ensure that, for each UCITS it manages, the liquidity profile of the investments of the scheme is appropriate to the redemption policy laid down in the instrument constituting the fund2 or the prospectus.

2

[Note: article 40(4) of the UCITS implementing Directive]

CESR guidelines: Risk management principles for UCITS

COLL 6.12.13 G

Authorised fund managers are advised that CESR issued guidelines prior to the revision of the UCITS Directive in 2009 which, to the extent they remain compatible with the rules and other guidance in COLL, should be complied with in applying the rules in this section. These guidelines are available at:

Guidelines - Risk management principles for UCITS (CESR/09-178)

https://www.esma.europa.eu/sites/default/files/library/2015/11/09_178.pdf 4