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CASS 5.1 1Application

  1. (1)

    CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 apply, subject to (2), (3) and CASS 5.1.3 R to CASS 5.1.6 R, to a firm that receives or holds money in the course of or in connection with its insurance mediation activity.

  2. (2)

    CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 do not, subject to (3), apply:

    1. (a)

      to a firm to the extent that it acts in accordance with the client money chapter; or6

    2. (b)

      to a firm in carrying on an insurance mediation activity which is in respect of a reinsurance contract; or

    3. (c)

      to an insurance undertaking in respect of its permitted activities; or

    4. (d)

      to a managing agent when acting as such; or

    5. (e)

      with respect to money held by a firm which:

      1. (i)

        is an approved bank; and

      2. (ii)

        has requisite capital under article 4(4)(b) of the Insurance Mediation Directive5;


      but only when held by the firm in an account with itself, in which case the firm must notify the client (whether through a client agreement, terms of business, or otherwise in writing) that:

      1. (iii)

        money held for that client in an account with the approved bank will be held by the firm as banker and not as trustee (or in Scotland as agent); and

      2. (iv)

        as a result, the money will not be held in accordance with CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6.

  3. (3)

    A firm may elect to comply with:

    1. (a)

      CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 in respect of client money which it receives in the course of carrying on insurance mediation activity in respect of reinsurance contracts; and

    2. (b)

      CASS 5.1, CASS 5.2 and CASS 5.4 to CASS 5.6 in respect of money which it receives in the course of carrying on an activity which would be insurance mediation activity, and which money would be client money, but for article 72D of the Regulated Activities Order (Large risks contracts where risk situated outside the EEA);

    but the election must be in respect of all the firm's business which consists of that activity.

  4. (4)

    A firm must keep a record of any election in (3).


A firm that is an approved bank, and relies on the exemption under CASS 5.1.1 R (2)(e), should be able to account to all of its clients for amounts held on their behalf at all times. A bank account opened with the firm that is in the name of the client would generally be sufficient. When money from clients deposited with the firm is held in a pooled account, this account should be clearly identified as an account for clients. The firm should also be able to demonstrate that an amount owed to a specific client that is held within the pool can be reconciled with a record showing that individual's client balance and is, therefore, identifiable at any time.


An authorised professional firm regulated by The Law Society (of England and Wales), The Law Society of Scotland or The Law Society of Northern Ireland that, with respect to its regulated activities, is subject to 7the rules of its designated professional body as specified in CASS 5.1.4 R, in force on 14 January 2005, must comply with those rules7 and if it does so, it will be deemed to comply with CASS 5.2 to CASS 5.6.


For the purposes of CASS 5.1.3 R the relevant rules are:

  1. (1)

    If regulated by the Law Society (of England and Wales);

    1. (a)

      the Solicitors' Accounts Rules 1998; or

    2. (b)

      where applicable, the Solicitors Overseas Practice Rules 1990;

  2. (2)

    if regulated by the Law Society of Scotland, the Solicitors' (Scotland) Accounts, Accounts Certificate, Professional Practice and Guarantee Fund Rules 2001;

  3. (3)

    if regulated by the Law Society of Northern Ireland, the Solicitors' Accounts Regulations 1998.

  1. (1)

    3A firm will, subject to (3), be deemed to comply with CASS 5.3 to CASS 5.6 if it receives or holds client money and it either:2

    1. (a)

      in relation to a service charge, complies with the requirement to segregate such money in accordance with section 42 of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1987 ("the 1987 Act"); or

    2. (b)

      in relation to money which is clients' money for the purpose of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors' Rules of Conduct ("RICS rules") in force as at 14 January 2005, it complies with the requirement to segregate and account for such money in accordance with the RICS Members' Accounts rules.2

  2. (2)

    Paragraph (1)(a)2 also applies to a firm in Scotland or in Northern Ireland if in acting as a property manager the firm receives or holds a service charge and complies (so far as practicable) with section 42 of the 1987 Act as if the requirements of that provision applied to it.

  3. (3)

    In addition to complying with (1), a firm must ensure that an account in which money held pursuant to the trust fund mentioned in section 42(3) of the 1987 Act or an account maintained in accordance with the RICS rules 2satisfies the requirements in CASS 5.5.49 R to the extent that the firm will hold money as trustee or otherwise on behalf of its clients.


Subject to CASS 5.1.5A R money is not client money when:3

  1. (1)

    it becomes properly due and payable to the firm:

    1. (a)

      for its own account; or

    2. (b)

      in its capacity as agent of an insurance undertaking where the firm acts in accordance with CASS 5.2; or

  2. (2)

    it is otherwise received by the firm pursuant to an arrangement made between an insurance undertaking and another person (other than a firm) by which that other person has authority to underwrite risks, settle claims or handle refunds of premiums on behalf of that insurance undertaking outside the United Kingdom and where the money relates to that business.


3CASS 5.1.5 R (1)(b) and CASS 5.1.5 R (2) do not apply, and hence money is client money, in any case where:

  1. (1)

    in relation to an activity specified in CASS 5.2.3 R (1) (a) to CASS 5.2.3 R (1) (c), the insurance undertaking has agreed that the firm may treat money which it receives and holds as agent of the undertaking, as client money and in accordance with the provisions of CASS 5.3 to CASS 5.6; and

  2. (2)

    the agreement in (1) is in writing and adequate to show that the insurance undertaking consents to its interests under the trusts (or in Scotland agency) in CASS 5.3.2 R or CASS 5.4.7 R being subordinated to the interests of the firm's other clients.


Except where a firm and an insurance undertaking have (in accordance with CASS 5.1.5A R) agreed otherwise, for the purposes of 3CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 an insurance undertaking (when acting as such) with whom a firm conducts insurance mediation activity is not to be treated as a client of the firm.


  1. (1)

    Principle 10 (Clients' assets) requires a firm to arrange adequate protection for clients' assets when the firm is responsible for them. An essential part of that protection is the proper accounting and handling of client money. The rules in CASS 5.1 to CASS 5.6 also give effect to the requirement in article 4.4 of the Insurance Mediation Directive5 that all necessary measures should be taken to protect clients against the inability of an insurance intermediary to transfer premiums to an insurance undertaking or to transfer the proceeds of a claim or premium refund to the insured.

  2. (2)

    There are two particular approaches which firms can adopt which reflect options given in article 4.4. The first is to provide by law or contract for a transfer of risk from the insurance intermediary to the insurance undertaking (CASS 5.2). The second is that client money is strictly segregated by being transferred to client accounts that cannot be used to reimburse other creditors in the event of the firm's insolvency (CASS 5.3 and CASS 5.4 provide different means of achieving such segregation). CASS 5.1.5A R permits a firm subject to certain conditions to treat money which it collects as agent of an insurance undertaking as client money; the principle of strict segregation is, however, satisfied because such undertakings must agree to their interests being subordinated to the interests of the firm's other clients.3


Firms which carry on designated investment business which may, for example, involve them handling client money in respect of life assurance business should refer to the non-directive client money chapter4 which includes provisions enabling firms to elect to comply solely with that chapter4 or with the insurance client money chapter 4 in respect of that business. Firms that also carry on5 MiFID or equivalent third country business5 may elect to comply solely with the MiFID client money chapter with respect of client money in respect of which the non-directive client money chapter or the insurance client money chapter apply.4


Firms are reminded that SUP 3 contains provisions which are relevant to the preparation and delivery of reports by auditors.